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Encyclopedia > Military history of Armenia

This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


History of Armenia The history of Armenia is ancient and stretches back to prehistoric times. ...

Early History
Origins
Name
Hayk
Hayasa-Azzi
Nairi
Kingdom of Urartu
Kingdom of Armenia
Orontid Armenia
Artaxiad Dynasty
Arsacid Dynasty
Medieval History
Marzpanate Period
Byzantine Armenia
Arab conquest of Armenia
Bagratuni Armenia
Kingdom of Vaspurakan
Zakarid Armenia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Foreign Rule
Persian Domination
Ottoman Domination
Russian Domination
Hamidian Massacres
Armenian Genocide
Contemporary Armenia
Democratic Republic of Armenia
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Republic of Armenia
Topical
Military history of Armenia
Timeline of Armenian history
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The military history of Armenia encompasses a period of several thousand years, as the Armenian people have existed as a nation since the Early Bronze Age. Its location in the crossroads of Europe and Asia made it possible for them to have military contact both with European and Oriental forces. The Armenians, especially their heavily armed cavalry, were considered fearsome warriors even though they were subjected to foreign rule for a significant part of their history. Haik, the legendary ancestor of the Armenians. ... The name Armenia is an exonym, the Armenian language name for the country being Hayk‘ (see Haik for a discussion of that name). ... Haik is the legendary establisher of the first Armenian nation. ... Hayasa-Azzi or Azzi-Hayasa was a confederation formed between the Kingdoms of Hayasa located South of Trabzon and Azzi, located North of the Euphrates and to the South of Hayasa. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ... The Artaxiad Dynasty ruled Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12. ... The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from AD 54 to 428. ... The medieval history of Armenia covers the history of Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Marzpanate period is the time in Armenian history after the fall of the Arshakuni Dynasty of Armenia in 428, when most of Armenia was governed by Marzbans (Governors-general of the boundaries), nominated by the Sassanid Persian King. ... Byzantine Armenia is the name given to the Armenian part of the Byzantine Empire. ... The Arab conquest of Armenia was a part of the Muslim conquests which began after the death of the prophet Muhammad. ... The Bagratuni or Bagratid royal dynasty of Armenia (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Արքայական Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm) is a royal family whose branches formerly ruled many regional polities, including Armenian lands of Syunik, Lori, Vaspurakan, Kars, Taron, and Tayk. ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Zakarid Armenia Ca. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Persian Armenia, AD 387-591 Persian Armenia corresponds to the Armenian territory controlled by Persia throughout history. ... It has been suggested that Ottoman Armenian be merged into this article or section. ... Eastern Armenia or Russian Armenia is the portion of Ottoman Armenia that was ceded to the Russian Empire following the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829. ... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... State motto: Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... // 883 BC: Foundation of the Kingdom of Urartu with Aramé. 834-828 BC: Reign of Sarduri I who constructs Tushpa (Van). ... The Armenians are a nation and an ethnic group, originating in the Caucasus and eastern Asia Minor. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...

Contents

Early history

Urartu

The fragment of the bronze helmet of epoch To argishti I, on which is depicted the motive of the "tree of life popular among the ancient societies". (helmet it was discovered with the excavations of the fortress Of teyshebaini on the hill Of karmir-Blu

The Achaemenid Persians -- the successors of the Medians, modeled their culture and civilization after that of the Kingdom of Ararat. They were in a close relationship of trade and commerce with a number of important cities of Ararat. Van was also an important center of weaponry making -- supplying much of the weaponry to the arsenal of the Kingdom's armed forces. New fortifications and towers were being continuously built in order to defend the prosperity of the city. In 735, the Assyrian King Tiglathpalaser, launched an incursion into north -- into the domain of Ararat. The rapid expansion of Ararat and particularly its dominance of Northern Mesopotamia, Syria and Eastern Anatolia, were successfully blocking the Assyrian advances further north and northwest. The Assyrians with heavy losses managed to make a breakthrough into the heart of Ararat and reached the Mother City. The Assyrians laid a lengthy siege of Capital Van -- charging the walls numerous times only to be repelled by the heroic defenders. The defensive positions were manned by the military garrison of the city, armed militia and the royal guards led by Sardur II. In the VIth century BC, the ancient Aramian Royal House of Ararat was succeeded by the Orontids [Oriontids]. The Orontids or the Er-uandunis had blood ties to the previous dynasty and followed in a natural succession to the Kingdom. close blood ties -- after the expiration of the last male heir to the throne, Ruša IV, Eruand I became the new reigning monarch. [1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (717x649, 344 KB) ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (717x649, 344 KB) ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... The Orontid Dynasty was the first Armenian dynasty. ...


Antiquity

Artaxiad Dynasty

Depiction of Vartan and his men during the Battle of Vartanantz

An Armenian Hellenistic state was founded in 190 BC and ruled by the Artaxiad Dynasty. At the height of its power, Greater Armenia spread over parts of what is today the Caucasus, Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon. After its expansion under the leadership of Tigranes II, it confronted the Republic of Rome. Although it briefly lost its independence, it reaffirmed itself in the region with the Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia. From then on, Romans and Persians both tried to create close relations with the Armenians. Although the Arsacid dynasty was of Iranian origin, it severed its relations with Persia when the rival Sassanid dynasty took over, and further when Armenia accepted Christianity in 301. While under Persian control, in 451, the battle of Vartanantz was fought by Armenians against the Persians in order to resist forced conversion to Zoroastrianism. Although a military defeat, the Persians afterwards allowed the Armenians to freely practice Christianity. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1394x1721, 811 KB) Depiction of the Armenian side of the Battle of Avarayr; by the artist Grigor Khanjian. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1394x1721, 811 KB) Depiction of the Armenian side of the Battle of Avarayr; by the artist Grigor Khanjian. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... The Artaxiad Dynasty ruled Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12. ... // Prehistory Archaeologists refer to the Shulaveri-Shomu culture of the central Transcaucasus region, including modern Armenia, as the earliest known prehistoric culture in the area, carbon-dated to roughly 6000 - 4000 BC. However, a recently discovered tomb has been dated to 9000 BC. Another early culture in the Armenian Highland... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Arsacid Dynasty (Arshakuni Dynasty) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from AD 54 to 428. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Events September 3 - The republic of San Marino is established (traditional date). ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Combatants Sassanid Empire Armenian rebels Commanders Yazdegerd II Vartan Mamikonian Strength 180,000 to 220,000(According to Armenian sources) 60,000 Casualties Unknown Heavy Battle of Vartanantz (May 26, 451) is remembered by Armenians as probably the greatest battle in their history. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


The army of Tigranes II

Tigranes II had massed a large army in his quest to extend the borders of Armenia. Tigranes II (140 BC - 55 BC; also spelt Tigran and Dikran) was a king of Armenia. ...


According to the author of Judith, his army included chariots and 12,000 cavalrymen, probably indicating heavy cavalry or cataphracts, commonly used by Seleucids and Parthians. He also had 120,000 infantrymen and 12,000 mounted archers, which were also an important feature of the Parthian army. Like the Seleucids, the bulk of Tigranes' army were the foot soldiers. The Jewish historian Josephus talks of 500,000 men in total, including the camp followers. These latter were the camels, donkeys, and mules for the baggage; innumerable sheep, cattle, and goats for the food supply which was abundant for each man, and much gold and silver. As a result, the marching Armenian army was "a huge, irregular force, too many to count, like locusts or the dust of the earth". It was thus, not unlike the Eastern hordes. Regardless, the smaller Cappadocian, Graeco-Phoenician, and Nabatean armies were no match for the sheer number of soldiers. However, the organized Roman army with its legions posed a much greater challenge to the Armenians.[2] Judith with the Head of Holophernes, by Christophano Allori, 1613 (Pitti Palace, Florence The Book of Judith is a parable, or perhaps the first historical novel according to Jewish authorities, who do not place it among the writings of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible. ... The cataphract was a type of heavy cavalryman used primarily in eastern and southeastern Europe, in Anatolia and Iran from late antiquity up through the High Middle Ages. ... A horse archer (or horsed archer, mounted archer) is a cavalryman armed with a bow. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 AD),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... The Roman army is the set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of...


Note that the numbers given by Israelite historians of the time were probably exaggerated, considering the fact that the Hasmonean Jews lost the war against Tigranes. The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ...

Plutarch wrote that the Armenian archers could kill from 200 meters with their deadly accurate arrows. The Romans admired and respected the bravery and the warrior spirit of the Armenian Cavalry -- the hardcore of Tigran's Army. The Roman historian Sallustius Crispus wrote that the Armenian [Ayrudzi - lit. horsemen] Cavalry was "remarkable by the beauty of their horses and armor" Horses in Armenia, since ancient times were considered as the most important part and pride of the warrior.[3]

Armenian Cavalry

Vardan Mamikonian leading Armenians in the Battle of Vartanantz (451)

Armenian horsemen were used by both Armenia, and also by nearby kingdoms or empires like Pontus, Parthia, Persia, and the Roman Empire. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2476x1880, 1492 KB) Summary The Battle of Avarayr, Sharaknots, 1482, Akants Desert, MS 1620, 295b-296a, size 12,8 X 8. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2476x1880, 1492 KB) Summary The Battle of Avarayr, Sharaknots, 1482, Akants Desert, MS 1620, 295b-296a, size 12,8 X 8. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Combatants Sassanid Empire Armenian rebels Commanders Yazdegerd II Vartan Mamikonian Strength 180,000 to 220,000(According to Armenian sources) 60,000 Casualties Unknown Heavy Battle of Vartanantz (May 26, 451) is remembered by Armenians as probably the greatest battle in their history. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ...


Chapot wrote:“What they say about Armenia bewilders us. How could this mountain people develop such a cavalry that was able to measure itself against the horsemen of the Medes? One thing which is certain is the fact that Armenia, as well as the Azerbaijan of the Medes, was a source of excellent well bred horses. The people in this country had discovered that horses were not just an economic asset, but could also be used for military purposes.[4]


In Sassanid Persia, the Armenians were accorded a status similar to the elite "Savaran" of the Persian army. The equipment of the Armenian cavalry were in fact similar to that of the Savaran. Pro-Sassanian Armenian cavalry units fought under Sassanid banners and were allowed to enter the royal capital, Ctesiphon. The Armenians were in fact honoured for their services. For example, general Smbat Bagratuni was accorded particular honor and attention by Khosrow II. In 619, due to his victory over the Turks who then resided in Central Asia, he was given gifts, such as lavishly decorated robes, and the command of a number of the king's royal guards. Khosrow II also raised him to third in rank among the nobles of the court. Moreover, pro-Sassanian Armenians supplied excellent light cavalry and infantry, who were notable for using slings to repel enemy cavalry, and spears for close combat.[5] The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Khosrau II, Parvez (the Victorious), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... The Avars attack Constantinople. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


Early Middle Ages

Following Byzantine occupation of Western Armenia, Sassanid occupation of Eastern Armenia, and subsequent Arab conquest of the region, the Armenians reestablished their sovereignty over their ancestral lands in the form of the Origin of the Bagratid dynasties Kingdom of Armenia. now. ... Eastern Armenia or Russian Armenia is the portion of Ottoman Armenia that was ceded to the Russian Empire following the Russo-Turkish War, 1828-1829. ... The Bagratid Dynasties – Bagratuni in Armenia and Bagrationi in Georgia – were the longest-reigning royal families in the Caucasus (and in Europe), starting as princely houses and attaining to the royal status in both countries in the 9th century. ...


Armenia in the Byzantine Empire

During the Byzantine occupation of Western Armenia, the Armenians were considered an important element of the Byzantine army. As a result, they were encouraged to settle in distant regions of the Byzantine Empire in order to serve there. For example, in the 6th century, Emperor Maurice encouraged Armenians to settle around Pergamum in Western Anatolia. The Armenian troops became more and more important towards the 7th century; 2000 formed an armoured cavalry elite on the Danube frontier against the Avars, a nomadic people who were invading Europe. Others even defended the imperial capital of Constantinople.[6] A solidus of Maurikios reign. ... Pergamon or Pergamum (modern day Bergama in Turkey) was a Greek city, in northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakir), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


In Armenia itself, local nakharars were able to raise 25,000 to 40,000 men, but such a levy was rare. The country was strongly fortified. It is said that seventy castles defended the province of Vaspurakan, near Lake Van. There existed a special regiment of mountaineers who were trained to roll rocks onto their foes. In siege warfare, Armenians used iron hooks to help them climb fortification walls, and large leather shields to protect them from anything that would be dropped from above. Each nakharar led a force of free men under his own blazon. At that time, Armenians were well equipped, as the country has been rich in iron.[6] Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... Lake Van Landsat photo A number of sources report that Lake Van shelters a monster (Monster of Lake Van-Van Gölü Canavarı), and a 4-meter high statue has been erected to its honor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ...


Traditional Armenian arms and armour

"David of Sassoun" is an Armenian national epic that developed towards the Middle Ages during Arab occupation of Armenia. Traditional Armenian arms and armour seem to be reflected in it. In this oral tale, the warrior wears a padded helmet, a mail shirt, and a lamellar cuirass plus metal leg defenses and a large shield. His weapons include sword, spear, bow and arrows, but primary importance goes to the mace. Constant reference to such weapons being thrown by horsemen , and even of a mace pinning a rider's leg to his saddle, seem to suggest that later transmitters of this oral tale might have been confusing the mace "gurz" with a heavy javelin known in Iran as "guzar". Javelin-combat between horsemen with blunted weapons is still a popular game in Eastern Anatolia, where it is known as "cerit".[7] This article is entitled For other uses of David, see David (disambiguation). ... Japanese Samurai Odoshi Armor. ... This article is devoted to the type of armour known as a cuirass. ... An advance on the club, a mace is a strong, heavy wooden, metal-reinforced, or metal shaft, with a head made of stone, copper, bronze, iron or steel. ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia or Anatolian Peninsula is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion, (Eastern) Thrace; tr:Trakya. ...


Fortifications of Ani

During the reign of King Ashot III, Ani was to become the capital of Armenia. It was a naturally protected city, built on a triangular plateau, its only vulnerable part being the north. In order to protect the future capital of Armenia and its inhabitants, the king built defenses across the narrowest point of the site. However, upon being declared capital of the kingdom, the city expanded quickly. Consequently, a line of massive double walls were built further to the north during the reign of King Smbat II. These northern walls are in fact the most impressive part of Ani. The rest of the city was also well protected by fortifications and towers.[8] Ashot III also known as Ashot the Gracious (953-977) was the king of Ani. ... The walls of Ani showing a defensive tower Ani (Armenian: , Latin: Abnicum[1] ) is a ruined and uninhabited medieval city-site situated in the Turkish province of Kars, beside the border with Armenia. ... Smbat II King of Armenia (977-990), son of Ashot III and ruled in Ani. ...


High Middle Ages

The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375.

When the Byzantine Empire took over Bagratid Armenia in 1045, and with the subsequent Seljuk conquest of the area, a large number of Armenians moved elsewhere. Most of these fleeing families settled in and around Cilicia where they established a kingdom,[9] while some moved further south, to Egypt, and others went to the Balkans, Crimea, and Poland. Image File history File links Armenianmediterian. ... Image File history File links Armenianmediterian. ... Events Emperor Go-Reizei ascends the throne of Japan. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian: Ṣaljūqīyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ...


Involvement in the Egyptian army

Although most Armenians were Christians, they played a significant role in nearby Muslim nations, such as Egypt. Some Muslim Armenian mercenaries were employed by the Egyptian Tulunids towards the end of the 9th century. Armenian troops were also featured in Hamdanid, Mirdasid, and Fatimid forces. When Byzantium subjugated the Bagratid Armenian kingdom, many Armenians migrated to Egypt and formed a large corps of infantry archers under Muslim Armenian leadership. Eventually, Armenian troops seized control of Cairo in 1073-1074. Their leader thus took important positions in the Fatimid administration, in the context of which more Armenians were recruited in the Egyptian army. This recruitment was reduced after the Seljuk Turks and Crusaders made their arrival.[10] The Tulunids were the first independent dynasty in Islamic Egypt (868-905). ... Hamdanid Dynasty: Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazirah) and Syria (905-1004). ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Events Cardinal Hildebrand elevated to papacy as Pope Gregory VII, succeeding Pope Alexander II Emperor Shirakawa ascends the throne of Japan Rabbi Yitchaki Alfassi finishes writing the Rif, an important work of Jewish law. ... Events Births February 12 - Conrad, King of Germany and Italy (d. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ...


Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was founded during the Middle Ages by Armenians fleeing from the Seljuk Turks. The Cilician Armenians, being Christian, were at times allied with Frankish crusaders during the First Crusade.[9] In the context of the friendly Crusader-Armenian relations, they adopted European traditions, even in their military garments and strategies. The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim...


The Armenians also provided great help in the Crusaders' military campaigns in the Levant. In fact, the Crusaders employed Armenian siege engineers throughout their campaigns. For example, a certain specialist named "Havedic" (latinized form of "Avedis") designed the machines used to attack Tyre in 1124.[7] The Levant The Levant (IPA: /ləvænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Events March 26 - Henry I of Englands forces defeat Norman rebels at Bourgtheroulde. ...


Leo II introduced important changes in Cilician Armenian military organization, which until then was similar to that the Armenian kingdoms of Greater Armenia. The "nakharars", Armenian feudal nobles, lost much of their old autonomy. The names and functions of regional leaders were Latinized, and many facets of the army structure were inspired or copied from the Crusader states, particularly from the nearby principality of Antioch.[7] The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ...


Fortifications in Cilician Armenia

Fortress of Cilician Armenia. 13th century

Armenian architects favored half-round towers that protruded from a curtain-wall far enough to permit archers to enfilade the enemy. Such design ideas influenced castle building in nearby Crusader states, such as the Principality of Antioch, where fortifications ranged from tiny hilltop outposts to major garrison fortresses. Antioch attracted few European settlers, and thus they relied heavily on military elites of Greek, Syrian, and Armenian origin, who probably influenced the design of local fortifications.[11] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1772x943, 333 KB) This is a logo of an organization, item, or event, and is protected by copyright and/or trademark. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1772x943, 333 KB) This is a logo of an organization, item, or event, and is protected by copyright and/or trademark. ... for building and structual design see; Architect Architects are a metal band from Brighton in southern England. ... The Crusader states, c. ...


Ottoman Rule

In 1375, the Egyptian Mamelukes took over Cilician Armenia, effectively ending Armenian sovereignty. The Ottoman Empire eventually established its rule over Cilicia and much of Armenia. The Ottoman Army at its earlier stage enjoyed the service of Armenian tribal infantry archers who relied on an old-fashioned composite bow. They wore muted colors or black as a result of the Ottoman laws which reserved brighter costume for the Turkish elite.[12] Later on, some Armenian children were raised as Janissaries. The eastern part of the traditional Armenian lands was given to Russia after the Russo-Turkish War. An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... The military of Ottoman Empire was structured in three organizational structures Army, Navy, and Air Force. ... Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri, meaning New Troops) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of ten wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ...

Sepasdatsi Murat's group of fedayees, with him in the centre

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1141x568, 265 KB) Sepasdatsi Murats group. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1141x568, 265 KB) Sepasdatsi Murats group. ... Defenders of Van in front of ARF flag Armenian militia (Armenian irregular units, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Cethes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, is a term referring to Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily leave their families in order to fight for Armenians. ...

Armenian militia

The Armenian militia were irregular units who voluntarily left their families in order to fight and defend Armenian villages and city quarters from Ottoman aggression and massacres. There were often only a handful of "fedayees" during their battles against the Ottoman troops and Kurdish irregulars. Their distant goal was to gain Armenian autonomy (Armenakan) or independence (Dashnaks, Hunchaks) depending on their ideology and degree of oppression received by Armenians. Some of them also helped the Iranian revolutionaries during their revolution. Defenders of Van in front of ARF flag Armenian militia (Armenian irregular units, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Cethes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, is a term referring to Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily leave their families in order to fight for Armenians. ... Kurdish may refer to: The Kurdish people The Kurdish language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Armenakan is an Armenian organization, also referred as Armenakan party. ... The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (Armenian: Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnak, or Tashnak) is an Armenian political party founded in Georgia in 1890 by Christofor Mikaelian, Rostom Zarian, and Simon Zavarian. ... The Social Democrat Hunchakian Party is the oldest political party in Armenia. ... The Iranian Constitutional Revolution (also Persian Constitutional Revolution and Constitutional Revolution of Iran) took place between 1905 and 1911. ...


World War I

See also: French Armenian Legion and Armenian volunteer units
Armenian defense units of Van Resistance

The Armenian people were subjected to a genocide by the Young Turk government during World War I. Between 1.5 million and 2 million men, women and children were killed. Armenians often resisted, Armenian resistance, the actions of the Turkish government, such as during the Van Resistance. With the establishment of Democratic Republic of Armenia, in the Caucasus Campaign, couple battles fought against the Ottoman Empire which a victory at Battle of Sardarapat proved that the Armenians were a capable power, but ultimately the Armenians were forced to surrender most of their land and weapons. During the same time Democratic Republic of Armenia also faced with Georgian-Armenian War 1918 and Armenian-Azeri war 1918. The Armenian Legion was a foreign legion unit within French Army which was founded during World War I. It was one of the Armenian volunteer units beside the Armenian militia fought against the Ottoman Empire. ... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... Image File history File links Armenians_fighting_against_the_ottomans_during_wwi_van. ... Image File history File links Armenians_fighting_against_the_ottomans_during_wwi_van. ... It has been suggested that Battle of Van be merged into this article or section. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... The Young Turks were a Turkish nationalist reform party, officially known as the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) — in Turkish the Ittihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti — whose leaders led a rebellion against Sultan Abdul Hamid II (who was officially deposed and exiled in 1909). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Armenian Militia of Armenakans (Ramkavars), Hnchakians (Social Democrat Hunchakian Party), and Dashnaktsutiun (Armenian Revolutionary Federation) Armenian resistance is the military and political activities of the Armenian militia or (Social Democrat Hunchakian Party, Armenakan, Armenian Revolutionary Federation) against the Ottoman Empire during the World War One. ... It has been suggested that Battle of Van be merged into this article or section. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Central Caspian Dictatorship Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville Strength •3rd... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Combatants Ottoman Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Vahib Pasha Movses Silikian Strength Third Army 100,000 [2] 40,000 Casualties 30,000 30,000 30,000 Armenian civilian casualties The Battle of Sardarabad was a battle of the Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Combatants Democratic Republic of Armenia Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Commanders Andranik Samedbey Mehmandarov With the declarion of Armenia and Azerbaijan after the Russian Revolution of 1917 ended with a series of brutal and hard to classify wars between 1918, than 1920 to 1922. ...


Aftermath

Fedayee carrying DRA flag

In 1920, a series of battles were fought between Turkey and a short lived Democratic Republic of Armenia during the Turkish-Armenian War. After an invasion by the Red Army, Armenia was absorbed by the Soviet Union. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Armenian irregular units (Armenian militia, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Chetes), better known by Armenians as Fedayee (Õ–Õ§Õ¿Õ¡ÕµÕ«), are Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily (thus, the naming kamavor (Õ¯Õ¡Õ´Õ¡Õ¾Õ¸Ö€), meaning volunteer) leave their families to fight for Armenians. ... DRA is a three-letter acronym that may refer to: Division of Ratepayer Advocates at the California Public Utilities Commission, a state agency mandated to advocate on behalf of the customers of regulated public utilities. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Combatants   Democratic Republic of Armenia   Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Kazim Karabekir, Albay Halit Bey Beginning on 24 July 1920, the Turkish-Armenian War was a series of four battles and many small skirmishes between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and groups of the Turkish National Movement. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


Word War II

Armenia participated in the Second World War on the side of the Allies under the Soviet Union. The 89th Tamanyan Division, composed of ethnic Armenians, distinguished itself during the war, and fought in the Battle of Berlin. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The 89th Tamanyan Division (Armenian: ) was a distinguished infantry fighting unit in the Soviet Red Army during the Second World War. ... Combatants Soviet Union Communist Poland Nazi Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovskiy 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[2] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defense Area – Helmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[3] Strength 2...


Nagorno-Karabakh

An Armenian fighter firing an NSV heavy machine gun
Armenian soldiers charging during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.

In Nagorno-Karabakh, the Armenians had for a long time constituted a majority, and the land was a centre of Armenian cultural and intellectual life. During the 20th century, Nagorno-Karabakh had been denied an Armenian identity by the succeeding Russian, British, and Azeri rulers.[13] Image File history File linksMetadata FightinginHadrut. ... Image File history File linksMetadata FightinginHadrut. ... The NSV is a 12. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17...


The Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh had accused the Soviet Azerbaijani government in conducting forced cleansing of the region. The majority Armenian population, with ideological and material support from Armenia, started a movement to transfer it to Armenia. The issue was at first a "war of words" in 1987. In a December 1991 referendum, the people of Nagorno-Karabakh approved the creation of an independent state. A Soviet proposal for enhanced autonomy for Nagorno-Karabakh within Azerbaijan satisfied neither side, and after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, a land war erupted between the Armenians and Azerbaijan over the disputed area. Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17...


In the post-Soviet power vacuum, military action between Azerbaijan and Armenia was heavily influenced by the Russian military. Furthermore, Azeri military employed a very large number of mercenaries from Ukraine and from Russia. As many as one thousand Afghan mujaheddin participated in the fighting.[14] There were also fighters from Chechnya fighting on the side of Azerbaijan.[15] [16] The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ...


By the end of 1993, the conflict had caused thousands of casualties and created hundreds of thousands of refugees on both sides. By May 1994 the Armenians were in control of 14% of the territory of Azerbaijan, and a as result, the Azerbaijanis started direct negotiations with the Karabakhi authorities. An unofficial cease-fire was thus reached on May 12, 1994 through Russian negotiation. However, a true resolution to the conflict has yet to be realized. May 12 is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...


Stats

Victories:

Name Side Campaign Date Armed Force
Armenian-Parthian War Parthia 87-85 BC Armenia
Battle of Rhandeia Roman Republic 62 Armenia
Battle of Varnakert Arabs 697-705 Armenia
The Battle of 40 Muslim Emirs 863 Armenia
Armenian-Byzantine Battle Byzantine Empire 1042 Armenia
Zeitun Resistance (1895) Ottoman Empire 1895 Armenian Militia
Khanasor Expedition Kurds of Khanasor July 25-27, 1897 Armenian Revolutionary Federation
Zeitun Resistance (1914) Ottoman Empire August 30-December 1, 1914 Armenian Militia
Musa Dagh Ottoman Empire 1915 Armenian Militia
Van Resistance Ottoman Empire 1915 Armenian militia, Armenian volunteer units
Battle of Bash Abaran Ottoman Empire Caucasus Campaign May 21-24, 1918 Armenian volunteer units[17]
Battle of Sardarapat Ottoman Empire Caucasus Campaign May 22-26, 1918 Armenian volunteer units[18]
Battle of Kara Killisse (1918) Ottoman Empire Caucasus Campaign May 25-28, 1918 Armenian volunteer units[19]
Battle of Arara Ottoman Empire Sinai and Palestine Campaign September 19, 1918 French Armenian Legion
Georgian-Armenian War 1918 Georgia Georgian-Armenian War 1918 December 7-December 31, 1918 Armenian Army
Battle of Sarıkamış (1920) Turkey Turkish-Armenian War September 29, 1920 Armenian Army
Capture of Shusha Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh War May 8-May 9, 1992 Armenian Army
Battle of Kelbajar Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh War March 27-April 3, 1993 Armenian Army
1993 Summer Offensives Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh War June-August, 1993 Armenian Army
Nagorno-Karabakh War Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh War February, 1988-May 1994 Armenian Army
1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Serbia Kosovo War 1999 Armenian Army in Kosovo Force

Losses: Combatants Parthia Armenia Commanders Unknown Tigranes the Great The Battle of Mesopotamia (87 to 85 BCE) the armies of Tigranes the Great victoriously entered Northern Mesopotamia and the kingdoms of Osroene and Atropatene pledged their loyalty and support to Tigranes the Great. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Lucius Cornelius Cinna is elected consul of Rome, thus returning the rule of Rome back to the democrats. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 90 BC 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC - 85 BC - 84 BC 83 BC 82... Battle of Rhandeia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 57 58 59 60 61 - 62 - 63 64 65 66 67 Events A great earthquake damages cities in Calabria including Pompeii. ... Combatants Arabs Armenia Commanders  ? Smbat Bagratouni Strength 8,000 Casualties  ?  ? Battle of Varnakert (697-705) Smbat Bagratouni defeated the 8,000 strong Arab army from the garrison in Nakhichevan. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Events End of the reign of Empress Jito of Japan Emperor Mommu ascends to the throne of Japan Approximate date of the Council of Birr, when the northern part of Ireland accepted the Roman calculations for celebrating Easter. ... Alternate meaning: Area code 705 Events End of the short-lived Zhou Dynasty in China Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik succeeded by al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik. ... Combatants Armenia Commanders  ? Prince Ashot Strength 80,000 40,000 Casualties 20,000  ? The Battle of 40 (862-863) In 863 Muslim emirs attacked Armenia without hesitation but found a worthy opponent in the Armenian prince and his army. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Events Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Armenia Commanders  ? Vahram Pahlavouni Strength  ? Casualties 20,000  ? Armenian-Byzantine Battle Vahram Pahlavouni heavily defeated the Byzantine army, forcing them to leave 20,000 dead behind. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire members of the Social Democrat Hunchakian Party Strength 60,000 soldiers in the army, plus 600 soldiers in a nearby fort 6,000 armed militia Casualties 20,000 soldiers, plus 600 prisoners dead 150 militiamen dead The First Zeitun Resistance (Armenian: ) took place in 1895, during the... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Defenders of Van in front of ARF flag Armenian militia (Armenian irregular units, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Cethes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, is a term referring to Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily leave their families in order to fight for Armenians. ... Combatants Kurds of Khanasor. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Foundation: 1890 Founders: Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, Simon Zavarian Head: Hrant Markarian Ideology: Socialism,[1] Nationalism,[2] United Armenia International alignment: Socialist International[1] Colours: Red Seats: Armenia – 16 seats out of 131 Nagorno-Karabakh – 3 seats out of 33 Lebanon – 2 seats out of 128 Website: Partys Official... Combatants Ottoman Empire members of Hunchaks (Social Democrat Hunchakian Party) Strength 2nd conflict: 69 grandes, 612 gun, 21 hand-gun, 70 horses Casualties Over 100 soldiers. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Defenders of Van in front of ARF flag Armenian militia (Armenian irregular units, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Cethes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, is a term referring to Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily leave their families in order to fight for Armenians. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Defenders of Van in front of ARF flag Armenian militia (Armenian irregular units, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Cethes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, is a term referring to Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily leave their families in order to fight for Armenians. ... It has been suggested that Battle of Van be merged into this article or section. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Defenders of Van in front of ARF flag Armenian militia (Armenian irregular units, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Cethes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, is a term referring to Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily leave their families in order to fight for Armenians. ... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... Combatants Ottoman Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders  ? Drastamat Kanayan Strength Third Army  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Battle of Bash Abaran was a battle of Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the vicinity of Bash Abaran, in 1918. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Central Caspian Dictatorship Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville Strength •3rd... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... Combatants Ottoman Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Vahib Pasha Movses Silikian Strength Third Army 100,000 [2] 40,000 Casualties 30,000 30,000 30,000 Armenian civilian casualties The Battle of Sardarabad was a battle of the Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Central Caspian Dictatorship Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville Strength •3rd... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Central Caspian Dictatorship Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville Strength •3rd... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Armenian volunteer units were Armenian soldiers in Russian, French and British armies during the WWI. Majority of these units support the military activities at Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. Most famous commanders of these units were on alongside the Russian army units, such as Andranik Toros Ozanian whom... Combatants Ottoman Empire France French Armenian Legion Commanders Lieutenant Colonel Romieu Strength French Armenian Legion The Battle of Arara (September 19, 1918) was part of the Battle of Megiddo which was fought between Ottoman Empire and allies detachment units of French Armenian Legion. ... Arará are dahomean ritual or ceremonial drums brought to the Oriente province of Cuba by the Haitian emigres following the Haitian slave rebellion of 1791. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Armenian Legion was a foreign legion unit within French Army which was founded during World War I. It was one of the Armenian volunteer units beside the Armenian militia fought against the Ottoman Empire. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Light armor in the Armenian army is complemented with several variants which serve in both ground attack and air defense roles. ... Combatants Democratic Republic of Armenia Turkish revolutionaries Commanders Unknown Kazım Karabekir The Battle of Sarıkamış was a conflict between the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) and Turkish Revolutionaries of the Turkish National Movement which was on September 29, 1920 at Sarıkamış. // Main article: Turkish-Armenian War By... Combatants   Democratic Republic of Armenia   Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Kazim Karabekir, Albay Halit Bey Beginning on 24 July 1920, the Turkish-Armenian War was a series of four battles and many small skirmishes between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and groups of the Turkish National Movement. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Light armor in the Armenian army is complemented with several variants which serve in both ground attack and air defense roles. ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh Republic of Armenia Republic of Azerbaijan Chechen Volunteers Commanders Gurgen Daribaltayan Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Elbrus Orjuev Elkhan Orjuev Shamil Basayev Strength 1,000 troops, including the crew members of tanks, armored fighting vehicles, and helicopters Unknown amount of infantry, tanks, complemented by a battery of... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Light armor in the Armenian army is complemented with several variants which serve in both ground attack and air defense roles. ... Combatants Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army Azerbaijani military Commanders Gurgen Daribaltayan Monte Melkonian Shamil Askerov Strength Several hundred troops, including the crew members of tanks and armored fighting vehicles Unknown amount of infantry and tanks Casualties Unknown, at least 100 reported by Armenian commanders Contested by Armenians and Azerbaijani government; civilians... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Light armor in the Armenian army is complemented with several variants which serve in both ground attack and air defense roles. ... The 1993 Summer Offensives of the Nagorno-Karabakh War saw the captured of several Azerbaijani regions by Armenian military units in a series of battles from June to August 1993. ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Light armor in the Armenian army is complemented with several variants which serve in both ground attack and air defense roles. ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... Light armor in the Armenian army is complemented with several variants which serve in both ground attack and air defense roles. ... Combatants NATO Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, various militias and paramilitaries, as well as international volunteers [1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Supreme Commander of the Army of Yugoslavia), Vojislav Å eÅ¡elj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of Staff), Svetozar Marjanović (Deputy Chief of Staff... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Light armor in the Armenian army is complemented with several variants which serve in both ground attack and air defense roles. ... Pocket badge of the KFOR The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international force responsible for establishing and maintaining security in Kosovo. ...

Name Side Campaign Date Armed Force
Battle of Tigranocerta Roman Republic Third Mithridatic War 69 BC Kingdom of Armenia
Battle of Artaxata Roman Republic Third Mithridatic War 68 BC Kingdom of Armenia
Battle of Avarayr Sassanid Empire Vartanantz War May 26, 451 Armenian rebels
Battle of Baku Azerbaijan Armenian-Azerbaijani war 26 August-14 September 1918 Fadayee of Central Caspian Dictatorship
Battle of Oltu Turkey Turkish-Armenian War 18 June-5 September 1920 Armenian Army
Battle of Kars (1920) Turkey Turkish-Armenian War October 30, 1920 Armenian Army
Battle of Alexandropol Turkey Turkish-Armenian War November 7, 1920 Armenian Army

Tigranocerta (also spelled Dikranagerd) was the capital of the Armenian Empire that Tigranes the Great founded (95‑56BC) south of the present city of Diyarbakır, Turkey. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Third Mithridatic War (75 - 65 BC) Mithridates VI had long been a thorn in Romes side, having launched two wars against the Roman Republic, in the early 1st century B.C. In response to the chaos in Rome, following the terror of Marius and Sullas dictatorship, the Empire... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... The Battle of Artaxata was fought in 68 BC between Rome and Armenia. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Third Mithridatic War (75 - 65 BC) Mithridates VI had long been a thorn in Romes side, having launched two wars against the Roman Republic, in the early 1st century B.C. In response to the chaos in Rome, following the terror of Marius and Sullas dictatorship, the Empire... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65... The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (sometimes referred to as Armenia Minor) was a state formed in the Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. ... Combatants Sassanid Empire Armenian rebels Commanders Yazdegerd II Vartan Mamikonian Strength 180,000 to 220,000 [3] 60,000 Casualties Light Heavy Battle of Avarayr (Armenian: , May 26, 451, also known as Battle of Vartanantz, ) is remembered by Armenians as one of the greatest battle in their history. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 7 - The Huns sack Metz June 20 - Attila, king of the Huns is defeated at Troyes by Aëtius in the Battle of Chalons. ... Languages Armenian Religions Predominantly Armenian Apostolic with Catholic, Evangelical and various Protestant denominations, especially in the diaspora The Armenians (Armenian: , Hayer) are a nation and an ethnic group originating in the Caucasus and eastern Anatolia. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Azerbaijan Democratic Republic British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya White Russians Commanders Nuri Pasha Lionel Dunsterville Strength 12,000 Ottoman and Azerbaijani troops of the Army of Islam. ... Combatants   Democratic Republic of Armenia   Nagorno-Karabakh rebels   Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Ottoman Empire   Azerbaijan SSR   Russian SFSR Commanders Andranik Ozanian Samedbey Mehmandarov With the declaration of Armenia and Azerbaijan after the Russian Revolution of 1917 ended with a series of brutal and hard to classify wars between 1918, then 1920... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Defenders of Van in front of ARF flag Armenian militia (Armenian irregular units, Armenian partisans, or Armenian Cethes, Armenian: ), better known by Armenians as Fedayee, is a term referring to Armenian guerrillas who voluntarily leave their families in order to fight for Armenians. ... Flag Capital Baku Government Dictatorship Historical era World War I  - Established August 1, 1918  - Battle of Baku August 26-September 14  - Fall of Baku September 15, 1918  - Armistice of Mudros November 30, 1918 The Centrocaspian Dictatorship (Russian: , Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya) was a British-backed anti-Soviet government founded in Baku on... Combatants Turkish revolutionaries Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders  ?  ? Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Categories: | | | | ... Combatants   Democratic Republic of Armenia   Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Kazim Karabekir, Albay Halit Bey Beginning on 24 July 1920, the Turkish-Armenian War was a series of four battles and many small skirmishes between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and groups of the Turkish National Movement. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Light armor in the Armenian army is complemented with several variants which serve in both ground attack and air defense roles. ... Combatants Turkish revolutionaries Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Kazim Karabekir  ? Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Categories: | | | | ... Combatants   Democratic Republic of Armenia   Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Kazim Karabekir, Albay Halit Bey Beginning on 24 July 1920, the Turkish-Armenian War was a series of four battles and many small skirmishes between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and groups of the Turkish National Movement. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Light armor in the Armenian army is complemented with several variants which serve in both ground attack and air defense roles. ... Combatants Turkish revolutionaries Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Kazim Karabekir  ? Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Categories: | | | | | ... Combatants   Democratic Republic of Armenia   Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Kazim Karabekir, Albay Halit Bey Beginning on 24 July 1920, the Turkish-Armenian War was a series of four battles and many small skirmishes between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and groups of the Turkish National Movement. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Light armor in the Armenian army is complemented with several variants which serve in both ground attack and air defense roles. ...

See also

The history of Armenia is ancient and stretches back to prehistoric times. ... The Armed Forces of the Republic of Armenia represents the Army, Air Force, Air Defense, and Border Guard. ... Light armor in the Armenian army is complemented with several variants which serve in both ground attack and air defense roles. ... The Armenian Air Force is the air force component of the Armed Forces of Armenia. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hovick Nersessian "Armenian Highland," Los Angeles, 2000, Mr. Nersessian is in the New York Academy of Sciences; Gevork Nazaryan - Van: Capital of Ararat; Encyclopedia Americana, v. 2, USA 1980, pgs. 539, 541
  2. ^ W, Aa. (2005). Materia Giudaica X/1. Editrice La Giuntina, p. 93. ISBN 8880572261. 
  3. ^ Gevork Nazaryan, Armenian Empire.
  4. ^ V. Chapot, La frontière de l'Euphrate de Pompée à la Conquète arabe, 1907, Paris, p. 17
  5. ^ Farrokh, Kaveh (2005). Sassanian Elite Cavalry AD 224-642. Osprey Publishing, p. 26. ISBN 1841767131. 
  6. ^ a b Nicolle, David (1992). Romano-Byzantine Armies 4th - 9th Century. Osprey Publishing, p. 33-34. ISBN 1855322242. 
  7. ^ a b c Nicolle, David (1986). Saladin and the Saracens: Armies of the Middle East 1100-1300. Osprey Publishing, p. 24. ISBN 0850456827. 
  8. ^ http://www.virtualani.org/walls/index.htm
  9. ^ a b (Armenian) Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Badmoutioun Hayots, Volume II. Athens, Greece: Hradaragoutioun Azkayin Oussoumnagan Khorhourti, p. 29-44. 
  10. ^ Nicolle, David (2000). The armies of Islam, 7th-11th centuries. Osprey Publishing, p. 23. ISBN 0850454484. 
  11. ^ Nicolle, David. Crusader castles in the Holy Land, 1097-1192. Osprey Publishing, p. 9. ISBN 1841767158. 
  12. ^ Nicolle, David (1998). Armies of the Ottoman Empire 1775-1820s. Osprey Publishing, p. 47. ISBN 1855326973. 
  13. ^ Simmons, Mary Kate (published 1996). Unrepresented Nations And Peoples Organization: Yearbook 1995. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, p. 137. ISBN 904110223X. 
  14. ^ The ‘Afghan Alumni’ Terrorism
  15. ^ http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eav051402.shtml
  16. ^ Chechen Fighters
  17. ^ Establishment, or naming these forces as DRA military will follow the deceleration of independence
  18. ^ Establishment, or naming these forces as DRA military will follow the deceleration of independence
  19. ^ Establishment, or naming these forces as DRA military will follow the deceleration of independence

References

  • Elishe: History of Vardan and the Armenian War, transl. R.W. Thomson, Cambridge, Mass. 1982
  • Dr. Abd al-Husayn Zarrin’kub "Ruzgaran:tarikh-i Iran az aghz ta saqut saltnat Pahlvi" Sukhan, 1999. ISBN 964-6961-11-8
  • Vahan Kurkjian - Period of the Marzbans — Battle of Avarair
  • Gevork Nazaryan - The struggle for Religious Freedom
  • de Waal, Thomas. Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press, 2003

 
 

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