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Encyclopedia > Military camouflage
An example of common camouflage
An example of common camouflage
The Bronze Horseman camouflaged from the German aircraft during the Siege of Leningrad (August 8, 1941)
The Bronze Horseman camouflaged from the German aircraft during the Siege of Leningrad (August 8, 1941)

Camouflage became an essential part of modern military tactics after the increase in accuracy and rate of fire of weapons at the end of the 19th century. Despite camouflage's demonstrated value, until the 20th century, armies tended to use bright colours and bold, impressive designs. These were intended to daunt the enemy, foster unit cohesion, allow easier identification of units in the fog of war, and attract recruits. Not until these uniforms covered the bodies of men in long windrows across the battlefield was there a clear pressure for change. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Bronzewar. ... Image File history File links Bronzewar. ... The Bronze Horseman is a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin which is widely considered to be one of the most significant works of Russian literature. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... The fog of war is a term used to describe the level of ambiguity in situational awareness experienced by participants in military operations. ... A windrow is a row of cut hay or small grain crop. ...


Different countries have undergone different evolution stages towards the development of military camouflage.

Contents

History

United Kingdom

Main article: British Army uniform

In England smaller irregular units of gamekeepers in the 17th century were the first to adopt drab colours (common in the 16th century Irish units) while using rifled firearms, following examples from the continent. A later example of a camouflaged unit would be the 95th Rifle Regiment, which was created during the Napoleonic Wars to strengthen the British skirmish line. As they carried more accurate Baker Rifles and engaged at a longer range, they were dressed in a rifle green jacket, in stark contrast to the Line regiments' scarlet tunics and following the jaeger tradition of rifle troops in Europe. The British in India were forced by casualties to dye their white summer tunics to neutral tones, initially a muddy tan called khaki (from the Hindi-Urdu word for "dusty"). This was only a temporary measure. It became standard in Indian service in the 1880s, but it was not until the Second Boer War that, in 1902, the uniforms of the entire British Army were standardised on this dun tone for Service Dress.
This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... The Rifle Brigade (Prince Consorts Own) was a regiment of the British Army. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... The Baker rifle was the rifle used by the Rifle regiments of the British Army during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Rifle green is a particular shade of dark green. ... Jäger (plural also Jäger, both pronounced as the surname Yeager) is a German word for hunter. In English it is often written with the plural Jägers, or as jaeger (pl. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The color khaki comes from the Persian word khak meaning dust, and khaki meaning dusty, dust covered or earth colored. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


France

Other armies retained brighter colours. At the beginning of World War I, the French retained red (garance) trousers as part of their uniform. This was changed in early 1915. The French Army also adopted a new "horizon blue" jacket. The Belgian Army started using khaki uniforms in 1915. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... Flag of Belgium The Land Component, formerly the Belgian Army, is the land-based armed force of the Belgian Armed Forces. ...


The French also established a Section de Camouflage (Camouflage Department) in 1915, briefly headed by Eugene Corbin and then by Lucien-Victor Guirand de Scévola. The camouflage experts were, for the most part, painters, sculptors, theatre-set artists and such. Technological constraints meant that patterned camouflage uniforms were not mass-produced during World War I. Each patterned uniform was hand-painted, and so they were restricted to snipers, forward artillery observers, and other exposed individuals. More effort was put into concealing larger pieces of equipment and important structures. By mid-1915 the French section had four workshops (one in Paris and three nearer the front) mainly producing camouflage netting and painted canvas. Netting quickly moved from wire and fabric to use raffia, burlap, and cocoa—the integration of natural materials was always recommended.
For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... Look up Canvas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species About 25-30 species, including: Raphia australis Raphia farinifera Raphia hookeri Raphia regalis Raphia taedigera Raphia vinifera The Raffia palm (Raphia) is a genus of tropical palms, native to tropical regions of Africa, Madagascar, Central America and South America. ... Burlap is a dense woven fabric, usually made of jute and allied vegetable fibers. ... Cocoa beans in a cacao pod Cocoa is the dried and partially fermented fatty seed of the cacao tree from which chocolate is made. ...


Other nations

The United States, who had green-jacketed rifle units in the Civil War, was quick to follow the British, going khaki in the same year. Russia followed, partially, in 1908. The Italian Army used grigio-verde ("grey-green") in the Alps from 1906 and across the army from 1909. The Germans adopted feldgrau ("field grey") in 1910.
Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Coat of Arms of the Italian Army Dardo IFV on exercise in Capo Teulada Soldiers of the 33rd Field Artillery Regiment Acqui on parade The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. ...


20th century wars

World War I Stahlhelm with camouflage pattern applied in the field
World War I Stahlhelm with camouflage pattern applied in the field
German Military tent camouflage from 1931
German Military tent camouflage from 1931
The SS-plane-tree pattern (autumn variation)
The SS-plane-tree pattern (autumn variation)

Units of Camoufleurs who were artists, designers, or architects in civilian life were also largely used by the forces of the United Kingdom (Camouflage Section established in late 1916 based at Wimereux) and the U.S. (New York Camouflage Society, established in April 1917; official Company A, 40th Engineers, set up in January 1918; and the Women's Reserve Camouflage Corps) and to a lesser extent by Germany (from 1917, see, for example, Lozenge, possibly the earliest printed camouflage), Italy (Laboratorio di mascheramento, established in 1917), Belgium and Russia. The word camouflage first entered the English language in 1917. Image File history File linksMetadata Brow-armor. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Brow-armor. ... German Stahlhelme from the Second World War Stahlhelm (plural, Stahlhelme) is German for steel helmet. The Imperial German Army began to replace the traditional leather Pickelhaube (spiked helmet) with the Stahlhelm during the First World War in 1916. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 362 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (787 × 1302 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 362 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (787 × 1302 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 357 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (787 × 1319 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 357 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (787 × 1319 pixel, file size: 1. ... A lozenge (◊) is a form of rhombus. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Camouflage added to helmets was unofficially popular, but these were not mass-produced until the Germans began in 1916 to issue Stahlhelm (steel helmets) in green, brown, or ochre. Mass-produced patterned, reversible, cloth covers were also issued shortly before the end of the war. Net covering was also examined, either fitted with natural vegetation or with coloured fabric strips called scrim. German Stahlhelme from the Second World War Stahlhelm (plural, Stahlhelme) is German for steel helmet. The Imperial German Army began to replace the traditional leather Pickelhaube (spiked helmet) with the Stahlhelm during the First World War in 1916. ... This article is about the color. ... A scrim or gauze is a very light textile made from cotton, or sometimes flax. ...


Specialist troops, notably snipers, could be supplied with various items of camouflage, including patterned veils for the head and gun, hand-painted overalls and scrim-covered netting or sacking—an adaptation of the rag camouflage used in Scotland by anti-poaching wardens, gillies, the first ghillie suits. For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... A US Marine sniper wearing a ghillie suit. ...


The first mass-produced military camouflage material was the Italian telo mimetico ("mimetic cloth") pattern of 1929, used to cover a shelter-half (telo tenda), an idea copied by the Germans in 1931 but with her own camouflage history, beginning in 1918 with the German Buntfarbenanstrich. With mass-production of patterned fabrics possible, they became far more common on individual soldiers in World War II. Initially, patterning was uncommon, a sign of elite units, to the extent that captured camouflage uniforms would be often "recycled" by an enemy. The Red Army issued "amoeba" disruptive-pattern suits to snipers from 1937 and all-white ZMK top-garments the following year, but it was not until hostilities began that more patterns were used. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


The Germans had experimented before the war, and some army units used "splinter" pattern camouflage. Waffen-SS combat units experimented since 1935 with various patterns. The first and a lot of other SS-camouflages was designed by Prof. Johann Georg Otto Schick. Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ...

  • Platanenmuster – "plane-tree pattern" (1937 - 1942) – spring/summer- and autumn/winter variations
  • Rauchtarnmuster – "blurred edge" (1939 - 1944) – spring/summer- and autumn/winter variations
  • Palmenmuster – "palm pattern" (ca. 1941 – ?) – sommer/autumn variations
  • Beringtes Eichenlaubmuster – "oak leaf B" (1942 bis 1945)
  • Eichenlaubmuster – "oak leaf A" (1943 - 1945) – spring/summer- and autumn/winter variations
  • Erbsenmuster – "pea pattern" (1944 - 1945)– spring/summer- and autumn/winter variations
  • Leibermuster (1945)
  • and also telo mimetico ("mimetic cloth") using fabric seized from the Italians in 1943 (the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler often wore this pattern).

The Sumpfmuster ("swamp pattern") is a Wehrmacht camouflage and was first introduced in 1943. Another variation was introduced in 1944. The Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (Lifeguard Standarte of the SS Adolf Hitler) was a Waffen SS guard and combat formation which saw action on both the Eastern and Western fronts during the Second World War. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...


All names of the German camouflages are not authentic; an exception is the word "Leibermuster".


With the return of war, camouflage sections were revived. The British set up the Camouflage Development and Training Centre in 1940 at Farnham Castle, Surrey. Early staff included artists from the Industrial Camouflage Research Unit such as Roland Penrose and Frederick Gore, and the stage magician Jasper Maskelyne (later famous for his camouflage work in the North African campaign). The British did not use disruptive-pattern uniforms until 1942, with the hand-painted Denison smock for paratroopers, followed in 1943 with a similar style M42 garment. Farnham Castle is a castle in Farnham, Surrey, England. ... This article is about the English county. ... Sir Roland Penrose (14 October 1900 – 23 April 1984)1 was an English artist, historian and poet. ... Jasper Maskelyne (1902 - 1973) was a British stage magician in the 1930s and 1940s. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... The Dennison smock was a coverall jacket issued to British paratroopers to wear over their battledress uniform. ... An American USMC Paratrooper using a MC1-B series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. ...

July 1944, US soldier wearing a two-piece herringbone twill (HBT) camouflage which was used by marines in the Pacific, but was quickly abandoned in the European theater because of the similarity to the uniform of the Waffen SS
July 1944, US soldier wearing a two-piece herringbone twill (HBT) camouflage which was used by marines in the Pacific, but was quickly abandoned in the European theater because of the similarity to the uniform of the Waffen SS

The U.S. Corps of Engineers began wide-ranging experiments in 1940, but little official notice was taken until 1942 when General Douglas MacArthur demanded 150,000 jungle camouflage uniforms. A 1940 design, dubbed "frog-skin" or "leopard spot", was chosen and issued as a reversible beach/jungle coverall — soon changed to a two-part jacket and trousers. It was first issued to the U.S. Marines fighting on the Solomon Islands and worn by Marine Raiders and Paramarine units as well as by many regular Marine units in the Battle of Tarawa. Battlefield experience showed that pattern was unsuitable for moving troops, and production was halted in 1944 with a return to standard single-tone uniforms. Many surplus US "leopard spot" uniforms were worn by French Parachutists in the First Indochina War. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 492 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1950 pixel, file size: 560 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) w File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 492 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1950 pixel, file size: 560 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) w File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The USACE gold castle insignia, worn by officers of the Corps The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... Marine Raider insignia The Marine Raiders were elite units established by the United States Marine Corps during World War II to conduct amphibious light infantry warfare, particularly in landing in rubber boats and operating behind the lines. ... Paramarine in training at NAS Lakehurst in 1942 The Paramarines (also known as Marine paratroopers) was a short-lived specialized unit of the United States Marine Corps, trained to be dropped by parachute. ... Combatants  United States Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Keiji Shibazaki  â€  Strength 35,000 troops 3,000 troops, 1,000 Japanese and 1,200 Korean laborers Casualties 1,001 killed 4,713 killed 17 Japanese and 129 Koreans captured Map of Tarawa Atoll Map of Betio, Tarawa Atoll The Battle... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4...


During 1944 specialised units of the 2nd Armored Division| serving in Normandy were issued with "frog skin"/"leopard spot" camouflage pattern uniforms, but an apparent similarity to the battledress worn by Waffen SS troops in the theatre led to some friendly fire incidents, and it was withdrawn [1]. Though full "leopard spot" uniforms were worn by United States Marine Corps Force Reconnaissance and US Navy SEAL teams, "leopard spot" camouflage continued in the USMC during and after World War II in the form of shelter (tent) halves and helmet covers worn by the Marines up until the 1960s, leading to the chant 'green side in, brown side out, run in circles, scream and shout' when unit commanders would make troops change their shelter halves and helmet covers from green to brown on various exercises. The "leopard spot" was later called "duck hunter" due to its use for civilian hunters. The CIA supplied "leopard spot" camouflague uniforms for Brigade 2506 Cuban exiles in the Bay of Pigs invasion and South Vietnamese and Montagnard Civilian Irregular Defense Group (CIDG) counter guerillas until the pattern was replaced by the tigerstripe pattern in the mid-1960s. [Blechman H, 2004]. The 2nd Armored Division of the United States Army —nicknamed Hell On Wheels— played an important role in the breakout of the Battle of Normandy in World War II. The division was deactivated in 1991; confusingly, the 5th Infantry Division was redesignated as 2nd Armored Division in 1992, then became... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (U.S. 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Not to be confused with Marine Recon Battalions . ... “Navy SEALs” redirects here. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Brigade 2506 was the name given to a CIA-sponsored group made up of 1,511 Cuban exiles who fought in the Bay of Pigs Invasion at Playa Girón in Cuba. ... Map showing the location of the Bay of Pigs. ... The term Montagnard can refer to a mountain-dwelling people of central Vietnam: Degar a factional partisan of the party of The Mountain during the French Revolution This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Civilian Irregular Defense Group (CIDG, pronounced sid-gee) was a program devised by the CIA in early 1961 to counter expanding Viet Cong influence in South Vietnams Central Highlands. ... Tigerstripe is the name of a group of camouflage patterns developed for close-range use in dense jungle during jungle warfare. ...


During the Vietnam War, U.S. troops were issued a "boonie suit" in a single dull shade of green for blending into the jungle. A variation on the World War II USMC helmet cover was issued with a tan and brown side (printed with large identification numbers) and a green jungle side with jagged leaf pattern. Rangers and Special Forces units (aka Green Berets) adopted the Vietnamese "Tigerstripe" pattern with its distinctive horizontal slashes of black, green, and tan. Although this style became popular among the troops, it was not an official government issue uniform. It was procured by private purchase from civilian tailors. This is also called the "John Wayne pattern" as the design was featured in Wayne's 1968 film The Green Berets. Also in 1968, the brightly colored division shoulder patches worn since World War II were gradually replaced with a "subdued" green and black version. Name tags and other insignia patches soon followed. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The 75th Ranger Regiment—also known as the United States Army Rangers—is an elite light infantry special operations force of the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) headquartered in Fort Benning, Georgia. ... The United States Army Special Forces —Special Forces or SF — is an elite Special Operations Force of the United States Army trained for unconventional warfare and special operations. ... For other persons named John Wayne, see John Wayne (disambiguation). ... The Green Berets is the title of a 1968 film starring John Wayne and featuring George Takei, David Janssen, Jim Hutton, and Aldo Ray. ...


Woodland Camouflage: It was not until 1982 that the U.S. Quartermaster Dept. developed another camouflage battle dress uniform (BDU) with the introduction of the M1981 ERDL Woodland pattern. With its organic shapes of green, brown, tan, and black, this was designed primarily for use in Europe. For the next two decades, this was the standard BDU for the Army, Marines, and Air Force. Solid olive drab uniforms were gradually phased out. Battle Dress Uniform (BDU) in the United States was the standard military uniform worn into combat, battledress as opposed to display dress uniforms worn at parades and functions. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... Olive Drab is the color olive shaded green. ...


The Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991 spurred the development of the first desert camouflage uniform, a six-color blend of browns, tans, greens and dashes of black. The clusters of black spots resulted in it being nicknamed the "chocolate chip" pattern. This uniform was discontinued in less than three years as it contrasted too much with the terrain. Black was banished from all future camouflage designs. Samples of sand from Saudi Arabia were examined to find a matching color. The resulting "Desert Camouflage Pattern: Combat", standardized in 1993, consisted of a subtle blend of pastel green, tan, and brown. This remained in service for over a decade, most notably during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Currently this pattern is being replaced by various digital pixel patterns. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This article is about arid terrain. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


Digital camouflage

A US Navy Corpsman wearing MARPAT camouflage
A US Navy Corpsman wearing MARPAT camouflage

Digital camouflage is a pattern devised by utilizing small micropatterns, as opposed to larger macropatterns for effective disruption. From 1978 to the early 1980s, the American 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment stationed in Europe used a digital camouflage pattern (dual-tex) on its vehicles. During 1979 and 1980, the Australian Army experimented with digital camouflage (dual-tex) on helicopters. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... USN redirects here. ... The HM rating symbol (a caduceus). ... General Hagee (CMC) in MARPAT combat utilities Marines wearing woodland MARPAT during Exercise Talisman Saber 2007 at Shoalwater Bay, Australia. ... Coat of Arms of the United States Army 2d Cavalry Regiment Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the United States Army 2d Cavalry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia of the United States Army 2d Cavalry Regiment The 2d Armored Cavalry Regiment (2d ACR) —established by President Andrew Jackson on May 23, 1836 as... The Australian Army is Australias military land force. ...


More recently, battledress in digital camouflage patterns has been adopted by the Canadian Forces (CADPAT), the United States Marine Corps (MARPAT), United States Army (Universal Camouflage Pattern - UCP), and much of the military of Jordan. The South Korean Army recently, possibly around August 2006, adopted a digital camouflage pattern that is somewhat similar to the USMC's MARPAT — it is currently being supplied to the Army Special Warfare Command units. The Finnish Defence Forces introduced the digital M05 camouflage in 2007. The Chinese People's Liberation Army introduced the digital Type 07 camouflage in mid-2007. The German and Danish armies today use camouflage that involves dots instead of patterns (flecktarn). This type of camouflage is especially effective in woodlands or jungle areas.
The Canadian Forces (French: Forces canadiennes), abbreviated as CF (French: FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada. ... A sample of the temperate woodland CADPAT design. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... General Hagee (CMC) in MARPAT combat utilities Marines wearing woodland MARPAT during Exercise Talisman Saber 2007 at Shoalwater Bay, Australia. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Military branches: Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF; includes Royal Jordanian Land Force, Royal Naval Force, and Royal Jordanian Air Force); Badiya (irregular) Border Guards; Ministry of the Interiors Public Security Force (falls under JAF only in wartime or crisis situations) See also the Royal Special Forces, and His Majestys... The Republic of Korea Army (ROK Army, ROKA, Korean: 대한민국 육군) is by far the largest of the military branches, with over 560,000 effectives as of 2004. ... The Finnish Defence Forces (Finnish Puolustusvoimat; Swedish Försvarsmakten) is a cadre army of 16500, of which 8700 professional soldiers (officers), with a standard readiness strength of 34,700 people in uniform (27,300 army, 3,000 navy, and 4,400 air force). ... For other uses, see Peoples Liberation Army (disambiguation) The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the military of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Type 07 is a new family of military uniforms to be used by all branches of the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Royal Danish Army is the army of Denmark. ... In 1976, the Bundeswehr in Germany developed a number of prototype camouflage patterns, to be trialled as replacements for the solid Feldgrau Field Grey olive-grey moleskin combat uniform. ...


Ship camouflage

A World War I Q-ship disguised by dazzle camouflage

Until the 20th century, naval weapons had a very short range, so camouflage was unimportant. Paint schemes were selected on the basis of ease of maintenance or esthetics, typically buff upperworks (with polished brass fittings) and white or black hulls. At the turn of the century the increasing range of naval engagements, as demonstrated by the Battle of Tsushima, prompted the introduction of the first camouflage, in the form of some solid shade of gray overall, in the hope that ships would fade into the mist. A Q-ship disguised by dazzle camouflage This image was scanned from a public domain text by the Great War Primary Documents Archive and is made available by them for any purpose provided that they are credited and a link is given to the Photos of the Great War page... A Q-ship disguised by dazzle camouflage This image was scanned from a public domain text by the Great War Primary Documents Archive and is made available by them for any purpose provided that they are credited and a link is given to the Photos of the Great War page... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A hidden gun on a Q-ship in World War I. The Q-ship or Q-boat was a weapon used against German U-boats during World War I primarily by Britain and during World War II primarily by the United States. ... Look up buff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski # Nikolai Nebogatov Strength 4 battleships 27 cruisers destroyers and auxiliary vessels 8 battleships 3 coastal battleships 8 cruisers Casualties 117 dead 583 injured 3 torpedo boats sunk 4,380 dead 5,917 captured 21 ships sunk 7 captured 6...


Early in the First World War, the unexpected effectiveness of submarines led combatant navies to try to confuse the submarines with dazzle camouflage on many ships. This was meant to break up the ship's appearance so that its identity, range and heading could not be easily determined, therefore the submarine would not be able to get into a good firing position. A related scheme was the painting of false waves on a ship's bow so that its speed would be overestimated. For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... USS (DD-697) shown here in dazzle camouflage, June 1944. ...

A Royal Norwegian Navy craft, in a splinter camouflage pattern
A Royal Norwegian Navy craft, in a splinter camouflage pattern

In 1940 the United States Navy introduced several camouflage measures designed for a wide variety of ships and situations. Image from http://www. ... Image from http://www. ...

  • Measure 1 was dark gray overall except for white structures above bridge level.
  • Measure 2 was dark gray on the hull and light gray on the superstucture and turrets.
  • Measure 4 was black overall. This was intended for night operations but it was found that even on very dark nights, black ships were more noticeable than gray ones.
  • Measure 5 was a false bow wave.
  • Measures 7 and 8 were used to make cruisers resemble destroyers.
  • Measure 11 was sea blue overall, including the decks. It was used in the Pacific and Mediterranean to hide from aircraft.
  • Measure 12 was navy blue or dark gray low on the hull, ocean gray at about the main deck level, and haze gray or pale gray above that. The boundaries between the different colors were irregular.
  • Measure 13 was haze gray overall. This was found to provide reasonable protection in the widest range of conditions, and became the standard paint scheme after the war.
  • Measure 14 was ocean gray overall. This was widely used on supply ships.
  • Measure 16 was white with large polygonal patches of light sea blue. This was very suitable for the North Atlantic.
  • Measure 21 was navy blue overall, including the decks. This largely replaced measure 11.
  • Measure 22 was navy blue low on the hull, with haze gray above that. This was the single most popular measure since it made range estimation very difficult.
  • Measure 31 was an army-style pattern of greens, browns and grays used by smaller ships like landing craft and PT boats that operated close to shore.
  • Measure 32 was a mixture of polygons in navy blue, various grays and greens.
  • Measure 33 was a mixture of polygons in various grays and lighter greens. This was very suitable for northern waters.

Except in measures 11 and 21, decks were a blue gray shade.


Between the wars, British naval ships were generally dark gray in northern waters, and light gray in the Mediterranean or tropical waters. In the first year of the war British captains largely painted their ships was they saw fit. As the war continued, the Admiralty introduced various standardized camouflage schemes. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ...

  • Western Approaches Scheme was white with large polygonal patches of light sea blue or light sea green. This was very suitable for the North Atlantic.
  • Mountbatten pink was invented by Captain Louis Mountbatten. Its effectiveness was much disputed.
  • Admiralty Disruptive Patterns were a wide range of patterns in blues, grays and greens with mottled boundaries between the various color patches.
  • Admiralty Standard Schemes were light gray overall, except for a sea blue patch low on the hull, either between the main gun turrets or the entire length of the hull. They were much like the American measure 22.
  • Admiralty Alternative Scheme was a dark gray hull with light gray turrets and superstructure. It was popular in the Mediterranean.
  • Home Fleet Destroyer Scheme was like the Western Approaches Scheme but used darker shades of blue and gray in the rear half of the ship.

British decks were usually dark gray. Mountbatten Pink, also called Plymouth Pink, is a naval camouflage pigment invented by Louis Mountbatten of the British Royal Navy in autumn 1940 during World War II. Mountbatten was escorting a convoy and noted that one ship in the group vanished from view much earlier than the remainder, a Union... Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (June 25, 1900 – August 27, 1979) was a British admiral and statesman and an uncle of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. ...


Kriegsmarine ships before the war were either light gray overall or had dark gray hulls. Many retained this scheme during the war. Others had dazzle camouflage, usually in combinations of pale gray, dark gray and sea blue. Smaller ships were painted a very pale gray to blend in with the mists of northern European waters. Larger ships often had their bows and sterns painted a different shade from the rest of the hull. German decks were a very dark gray. The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ...


Mussolini's navy retained its pre-war scheme of light gray overall for its smaller ships, but the larger units mostly had dazzle camouflage of dark gray, light sea blue, light sea green and light gray. Italian foredecks had a high-visibility pattern of red and white diagonal stripes so that their own aircraft would not attack them. The Italian Regia Marina (literally: Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. ...


Japanese ships largely retained their pre-war dark gray paint scheme, although some major units like aircraft carriers changed to a dark sea green. Some aircraft carriers had their flight decks painted in a dazzle camouflage, but this seems to have been ineffective. For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea...


Soviet ships were dark gray overall, sometimes with medium gray upperworks. The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ...


The French Navy used light gray before the war and under the Vichy regime. Free French ships that operated with the British adopted one of the British schemes. Those that were refitted in American shipyards were usually repainted in the American measure 22. The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to...


After the Second World War, the universal adoption of radar made camouflage much less effective.
For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


Military camouflage in fashion and art

The transfer of camouflage patterns from battle to exclusively civilian uses is not a recent phenomenon. The first military camouflage was used by the French on their trucks and automobiles (the only military vehicles of the day) and within three weeks of the German invasion of France in 1914, the couturiers of Paris, having observed them, had turned those abstract patterns into women's clothing. It symbolized modernity to them, the first industrial war. Ironically, this means that it was used for civilian clothing long before it was used for uniforms. The earliest camouflage artists were members of the abstract expressionist school of Paris. The camouflage experts were, for the most part, painters like Forain, Camoin, Villon and Marcoussis, sculptors like Boucher and Despiau, and theatre set artists [2]. Jackson Pollock, No. ... Jean-Louis Forain (October 23, 1852 - July 11, 1931 was a French Impressionist painter, lithographer, watercolorist and etcher. ... Charles Camoin was born in Marseilles, France in 1879. ... Jacques Villon (July 31, 1875 - June 9, 1963) was a French Cubist painter and printmaker. ... Louis marcoussis was a polish painter whom the Spanish surrealist Joan Mirò (1893-1983), in 1930, started Graphic Technique with, but had to stop in 1939 due to the emergence of WWII (1939-1945) ... Alfred Boucher (1850-1934), French sculptor. ... Charles Despiau (1874 – 1946) was a French sculptor. ...


While many hundreds of artists were involved in the development of camouflage during and since World War I, the disparate sympathies of the two cultures restrained the use of "militaristic" forms in works other than those of war artists. Since the 1960s, however, artists have seized upon camouflage as a means to twist and subvert it away from its military origins and symbolism. The concept of camouflage - to conceal and distort shapes - is also a popular artistic tool. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Vasily Vereshchagin. ...


Artists using camouflage include:

Camouflage garments had a similarly hesitant adoption, although military styling has a long history of civilian use. Military patterns initially found civilian markets amongst hunters and, through military surplus, in those seeking clothing that was tough, well-made, and cheap in the United States and other countries. The steady output from countries using a national service model was influential, and several countries (initially the 'winning' sides of World War II, where there was less negative connection with military-wear) became significant markets. In the United States in the 1960s, military clothing became increasingly common (mostly olive drab rather than patterned camouflage); interestingly, it was often found worn by anti-war protestors, initially within groups such as Vietnam Veterans Against the War but then increasingly widely as a symbol of political protest. In the years after the Vietnam War, camouflage military clothing became very popular among many people, replacing olive-drab military clothing. Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who became a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ... Alain Jacquet is a French artist born February 22, 1938 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. ... Ian Hamilton Finlay, Star. ... Vera von Lehndorff (born May 14, 1939 in Königsberg, East Prussia now known as Kaliningrad, Russia) is a German supermodel, actress, and artist popular during the 1960s. ... Thomas Hirschhorn (born in Bern, 1957) is a Swiss instalations artist. ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Military surplus are goods, usually matériel, that are sold at public auction when no longer needed by the military. ... National service is a common name for compulsory or voluntary military service programs. ... Olive Drab is the color olive shaded green. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States. ... Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is a tax-exempt Non-profit organization and corporation, originally created to oppose the Vietnam War. ...


The "rebellious" links of civilian camouflage diminished through the 1970s and beyond as more mainstream groups adopted a style seen as youthful and anti-establishment. Fashion has since become increasingly eager to adopt camouflage - attracted by the striking designs, the "patterned disorder" of camouflage, its symbolism (to be celebrated or subverted [vide its use by Hello Kitty]), and its versatility. Early designers include Jean-Charles de Castelbajac (1975-), Roland Chakal (1970), Stephen Sprouse (using Warhol prints, 1987-1988), and Franco Moschino (1986), but it was not until the 1990s that camouflage became a significant and widespread facet of dress from streetwear to high-fashion labels - especially the use of "faux-camouflage". Producers using camouflage in the 1990s and beyond include: John Galliano for Christian Dior, Marc Jacobs for Louis Vuitton, Comme des Garçons, Chanel, Tommy Hilfiger, Dolce & Gabbana, Issey Miyake, Armani, Yves Saint-Laurent, and others. Fashion design is the applied art dedicated to the design of clothing and lifestyle accessories created within the cultural and social influences of a specific time. ... Hello Kitty by Sanrio. ... Jean-Charles de Castelbajac (born 28 November 1949 in Casablanca, Morocco) is a French fashion designer and also has the title of marquis. ... Stephen Sprouse (September 12, 1953 - March 4, 2004) was a fashion designer and artist credited with pioneering the 1980s mix of uptown sophistication in clothing with a downtown punk and pop sensibility [1]. Stephen Sprouses initial Day-Glo bright, sixties-inspired, graffiti-printed fashion collections for men and women... Francisco Moschino (born February 27, 1950 - September 18, 1994) was a famous Italian fashion designer born in Abbiategrasso, Lombardy, Italy. ... John Galliano CBE (born January 28, 1960, in Gibraltar) is a British - Gibraltarian fashion designer. ... Christian Dior (January 21, 1905 – October 23, 1957), was an influential French fashion designer. ... Marc Jacobs (born April 9, 1963 in New York City) is an American fashion designer. ... Louis vuitton was a great man he was born on fh 12 3845. ... Comme des Garçons, French for like boys, is a Japanese fashion label headed by Rei Kawakubo, who is also its sole owner. ... Not to be confused with Channel. ... Thomas Jacob Hilfiger (born March 24, 1951 in Elmira, New York) is a world-famous American fashion designer and creator of the eponymous Tommy Hilfiger and Tommy brands. ... Dolce & Gabbana (pronounced Dol-che Gabb-an-a) is a high-end fashion house started by the Italian designers Domenico Dolce, born near Palermo, Sicily, and Stefano Gabbana, born in Milan, Italy. ... Issey Miyake was born in Japan in April of 1938. ... Giorgio Armani is an Italian fashion designer (born 11 July 1934 in Piacenza, Italy), particularly noted for his menswear. ... The Yves Saint Laurent boutique on Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills, California Yves Saint Laurent is a fashion house founded by Yves Saint Laurent and his partner, his Pierre Bergé. Today, its chief designer is Stefano Pilati. ...


Certain companies have become very closely associated with camouflage patterns (such as Maharishi and mhi, Zoo York, Addict, 6876, A Bathing Ape, Stone Island, and Girbaud), using and overprinting genuine military surplus fabric, and have also extended the patterns by creating their own designs or integrating camouflage patterns with other symbols. The use of original patterns in new (often bright) colors is also common. ZOO YORK is a tao of artistic style and social philosophy inspired by the New York City graffiti art subculture of the 1970s. ... A Bathing Ape or BAPE ) is a Japanese clothing company founded by a Nigo (real name Tomoaki Nagao) in 1993. ... Stone Island is a make of fashion clothing. ... Marithé François Girbaud is a French based clothing company founded in 1938 by husband and wife, François and Marithé Girbaud. ...


Some countries such as Barbados, Aruba, and other Caribbean nations have strict laws that prohibit camouflage clothing from being worn by non-military personnel, including tourists and children. These laws may be motivated by the fear that a tourist might be mistaken by government troops for insurgents, or vice versa, and fired upon.[citation needed]
“West Indian” redirects here. ...


See also

Illustrating the concept, i. ... A US Marine sniper wearing a ghillie suit. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Example of camouflage. ... A U.S. Army Humvee laying a smoke screen A smoke-screen is a release of smoke in order to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks or ships. ...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Alnet Military Camouflage Netting (387 words)
The high cost of modern defence material and highly trained soldiers makes protection of military equipment and lives one of the most important factors of success in modern warfare.
Camouflage and deception activities have become critically important aspects in a modern war to ensure maximum survivability of troops and protection of valuable equipment.
Alnet camouflage nets are made to rigorous requirements for specific terrains, ground cover weaponry and size requisites.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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