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Encyclopedia > Military
Praetorian Guards, Roman Soldiers
Praetorian Guards, Roman Soldiers

Military as a noun, in the broad meaning of the word, refers to any number of individuals who are members of an organisation authorised by its society to use force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its independence by repulsing actual or perceived threats. As an adjective the term military is used to specifically associate any concept or aspect that is used in reference to the military as an organisation. In this sense militaries often function as societies within societies, by having their own military communities, military economies, military education, military medicine and other aspects of a functioning civilian society. Image File history File links Praetorian_GuardSoldiers_basrelief_med. ... Image File history File links Praetorian_GuardSoldiers_basrelief_med. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ... Military education and training is a process which intends to establish and improve the capabilities of military personnel in their respective roles. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ...


The profession of soldiering as part of a military group is older than recorded history itself. Some of the most enduring images of the classical antiquity portray the power and feats of its military leaders. The Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC was one of the defining points of Pharaoh Ramesses II's reign and is celebrated in bas-relief on his monuments.[1] A thousand years later the first emperor of unified China, Qin Shi Huang, was so determined to impress the gods with his military might that he was buried with an army of terracotta soldiers.[2] The Romans were dedicated to military matters, leaving to posterity many treatises and writings as well as a large number of lavishly carved triumphal arches and columns celebrating their victories. This article is about a military rank. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Leader redirects here. ... Belligerents New Kingdom of Egypt Hittite Empire Commanders Ramesses II Muwatalli II Strength 2,000+ chariots[3] and ca. ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC - 1270s BC - 1260s BC 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC Events and trends Significant people Categories: 1270s BC ... Nomen: Ramesses meryamun Ramesses (Re has fashioned him), beloved of Amun. ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... The Terracotta Army (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) are the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Shi Huang Di the First Emperor of China. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Look up Treatise in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape of a monumental archway, usually built to celebrate a victory in war. ... A Victory column is a monument in the form of a column, erected in memory of a victorious war or battle. ...


In the modern era, world wars and countless other major conflicts have changed the employment of the militaries beyond recognition to their ancient participants. Empires have come and gone; states have grown and declined. Enormous social changes have been wrought, and military power continues to dominate international relations. The role of the military today is as central to global societies as it ever was. The Modern-Era of NASCAR is a dividing line in NASCARs history. ... This article is about the book. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ...

Contents

Etymology and some definitions

The first recorded use of military in English, spelled militarie, was in 1585.[3] It comes from the Latin militaris (from Latin miles meaning "soldier"&mdash) but is of uncertain etymology, one suggestion being derived from *mil-it- - going in a body or mass[4] The word is now identified as denoting someone that is skilled in use of weapons, or engaged in military service or in warfare.[5][6]


As a noun the military usually refers generally to a country's armed forces or sometimes, more specifically, to the senior officers who command them.[5][6]


As an adjective military originally applied only to soldiers and soldiering, but it soon broadened to apply to land forces in general and anything to do with their profession.[3] The names of both the Royal Military Academy (1741) and United States Military Academy (1802) reflect this. However, at about the time of Napoleonic wars "military" begun to be applied to armed forces as a whole[3] and in the 21st century expressions like "military service", "military intelligence" and "military history" reflect this broader meaning. The Royal Military Academy was founded in 1741 in Woolwich, south-east London. ... USMA redirects here. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... For military service in the meaning of an army as a military defense organization, see armed forces. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ...


Military science

Main article: Military science

Military science is the study of warfare in all its aspects. By focusing on aspects of warfare—for instance its technical, psychological and practical components—it aims to improve the prospect of success in combat. Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ...


Organization

Main article: Military organization
See also: Military reserve
Guerilla structure
Guerilla structure

Armed forces may be organized as standing forces—the regular army)—which describes a professional army that is engaged in no other profession than preparing for and engaging in warfare. In contrast there is the citizen army. A citizen army (also known as a militia or reserve army) is only mobilized as needed. Its advantage lies in the fact that it is dramatically less expensive (in terms of wealth, manpower and opportunity cost) for the organizing society to support. The disadvantage is that such a "citizen army" is less well trained and organized. The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... The Military Reserves are an organization that is associated with the military but is not in active duty. ... The Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army or any Countrys army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...


A compromise between the two has a small cadre of professional NCOs and officers who act as a skeleton for a much larger force. When war comes this skeleton is filled out with conscripts or reservists (former full-time soldiers who volunteer for a small stipend to occasionally train with the cadre to keep their military skills intact) who form the wartime unit. This balances the pros and cons of each basic organization and allows the formation of huge armies (in terms of millions of combatants) necessary in modern large scale warfare. A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer), also known as an NCO or noncom, is a non-commissioned member of an armed force who has been given authority by a commissioned officer. ...


Military doctrine

Armenian foot soldiers wearing the traditional Mithraic caps.
Armenian foot soldiers wearing the traditional Mithraic caps.

A military doctrine is how military forces were, and are used in conflicts - the method of combining command assets, forces skills and technology towards achievement of tangible goals and objectives of the war, campaign, battle, engagement, action or a duel.[7] The line between strategy and tactics is not easily blurred, although deciding which is being discussed had sometimes been a matter of personal judgement by some commentators, and military historians. The management of forces at the level of organisation between strategic and tactical is called operational warfare. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... For the surname Battle, see Battle (surname). ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Military strategy is the management of forces in wars and military campaigns by a commander-in-chief employing large military forces either national and allied as a whole, or the component elements of armies, navies and air forces such as army groups, fleets and large numbers of aircraft. Military strategy is a long-term projection of belligerents' policy with a broad view of outcome implications, including outside the concerns of military command. Military strategy is more concerned with the supply of war and planning, then management of field forces and combat between them. The scope of Strategic military planning can span weeks, but commonly months and years.[8]
Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. A common synonym is operational art.
The operational level is at a scale bigger than one where line of sight and the time of day are important, and smaller than the strategic level, where production and politics are considerations. Formations are of the operational level if they are able to conduct operations on their own, and are of sufficient size to be directly handled or have a significant impact at the strategic level. This concept was pioneered by the German army prior to and during the Second World War. At this level planning and duration of activities takes from one week to a month, and are executed by Field Armies and Army Corps and their naval and air equivalents.[9]
Military tactics concerns itself with the methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in direct combat. Military tactics are usually used by units over hours or days, and are focused on the specific, close proximity tasks and objectives of squads, companys, battalions, regiments, brigades and divisions and their naval and air equivalents.[10]

One of the oldest military publications is The Art of War by the Chinese philosopher Sun Tzu.[11] Written in the 6th century BC, the 13-chapter book has had a huge influence on Eastern and Western military planning, business tactics and beyond. This article is about real and historical warfare. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... Naval redirects here. ... For a particular Air Force, see List of air forces. ... An army group is a military organization (formation) consisting of several armies, and is supposed to be self-sufficient for indefinite periods. ... A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A nations army is its military, or more specifically, all of its land forces. ... A corps (a word that immigrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: , but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body; plural same as singular) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or signals... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... In the fire service a Squad is a Engine Company with a compliment of rescue tools. ... Standard NATO code for a friendly infantry company. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ... This article is a list of Chinese philosophers. ... Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time...


Both the Classical Greeks and the Romans wrote prolifically on military campaigning. Among the best-known works are Julius Caesar's commentaries on the Gallic Wars and the Roman Civil war—written about 50 BC. Two major works on tactics come from the late Roman period: Taktike Theoria by Aelianus Tacticus and De Re Militari ("On military matters") by Vegetius. Taktike Theoria examined Greek battle methods and was most influential in the Byzantine world and during the Golden Age of Islam. De Re Militari formed the basis of European military tactics until the late 17th century. Perhaps its most enduring maxim is "let he who desires peace prepare for war." For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar, Titus Labienus, Mark Antony, Quintus Cicero, Publius Crassus Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius Strength estimated around 120,000 (legionaries and auxilia) estimated several hundreds of thousands, possibly millions Casualties and losses estimated tens of thousands according to Caesar, one million This article is... Belligerents Julius Caesar and supporters, the Populares faction Roman senate, the Optimates faction Commanders Julius Caesar, Curio, Marc Antony, Decimus Brutus Pompey†, Titus Labienus†, Metellus Scipio†, Cato the younger†, Gnaeus Pompeius† Sextus Pompeius The Roman civil war of 49 BC, sometimes called Caesars Civil War, is one of the... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47... Aelian (Aelianus Tacticus) was a Greek military writer of the 2nd century A.D., resident at Rome. ... De Re Militari (Latin On military matters) was a treatise of late Roman warfare that became a military guide in the middle ages. ... Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus was a writer of the Later Roman Empire. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many...


In his seminal book On War the Prussian general and leading expert on modern military strategy Carl von Clausewitz defined military strategy as "the employment of battles to gain the end of war."[12] According to Clausewitz "strategy forms the plan of the War, and to this end it links together the series of acts which are to lead to the final decision, that is to say, it makes the plans for the separate campaigns and regulates the combats to be fought in each."[13] Hence, he placed political aims above military goals, ensuring civilian control of the military. Military strategy was one of a triumvirate of "arts" or "sciences" that governed the conduct of warfare: the others being military tactics, the execution of plans and manœuvering of forces in battle; and military logistics, the maintenance of an army. Neo Gomanism Manifesto Special - On War Vom Kriege (complete text available here) is a book on war and military strategy by Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz, written mostly after the Napoleonic wars, between 1816 and 1830, and published posthumously by his wife in 1832. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz (IPA: ) (June 1, 1780[1] – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier, military historian and influential military theorist. ... Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a countrys strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ...

Battle formation and tactics of Macedon—Courtesy of The Department of History, United States Military Academy [1]
Battle formation and tactics of MacedonCourtesy of The Department of History, United States Military Academy [1]

Military tactics can take the form of ambushes, encirclements, bomb and bombardment attacks, frontal assaults, air assaults, hit-and-run (used mainly by guerilla forces) and, in some cases, suicide attacks. Often, deception, in the form of military camouflage or misdirection using decoys, is used to confuse the enemy. A major military tactic that came to prominence in the 19th and early 20th century is trench warfare. This was mainly employed in World War I in the Gallipoli campaign and the Western Front. Trench warfare often turned to a stalemate, because in order to attack an enemy entrenchment soldiers had to run through an exposed "no man's land" under heavy fire from an entrenched enemy. Image File history File links Macedonian_battle_formation. ... Image File history File links Macedonian_battle_formation. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. ... Encirclement is a military term for the situation when one sides force or target is isolated and surrounded by other sides forces. ... The military tactic of frontal assault is a direct, hostile movement of forces towards enemy forces in a large number, in an attempt to overwhelm the enemy. ... A US Army UH-1 Huey seen offloading troops during the Vietnam War Air Assault (or air mobile, in the U.S.) is the movement of forces by helicopter or aircraft to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain. ... Hit-and-run tactics is a tactical doctrine where the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory, but to inflict damage on a target and immediately exit the area to avoid the enemys defense and/or retaliation. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... An example of common camouflage The Bronze Horseman camouflaged from the German aircraft during the Siege of Leningrad (August 8, 1941) Camouflage became an essential part of modern military tactics after the increase in accuracy and rate of fire of weapons at the end of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Decoy (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... {{subst:empty template|}} {{Copyviocore |url= |month = {{subst:CURRENTMONTHNAME}} |day = {{subst:CURRENTDAY}} |year = {{subst:CURRENTYEAR}} |time = {{subst:CURRENTTIME}} |timestamp = {{subst:CURRENTTIMESTAMP}}}} Trench warfare is a form of warfare where both combatants have fortified positions and fighting lines are static. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195... Combatants Belgium British Empire Australia[1] Canada[2] India[3] Newfoundland[4] New Zealand[5] South Africa[6] United Kingdom France and French Overseas Empire Portugal[7] United States Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then Ferdinand Foch Moltke → Falkenhayn → Hindenburg and Ludendorff → Hindenburg and Groener Casualties ~4,800... 29th Infantry Battalion, 2nd Division, Canadian Corps. ...


Logistics

Main article: Military logistics

Military logistics is the management and planning of the supply chain. Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ...


Military transport is part of logistics. It could pertain to equipment trans-shipped via a sister service, an individual detached for a technical school operated by a sister service, or the travel orders and authorization of such an individual to proceed via a sister services vehicles, as well as the loan of vehicles (staff cars, AFVs, military trucks) operating from the primary base command. The Buick Century Series 60 A staff car is a vehicle used by a senior military officer, and is part of their countrys white fleet. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, protected by armour and armed with weapons. ...


Engineering services are also part of logistics. The maintenance of weapons in the field, the recovery of defective and derelict machinery, the repair and modification of such equipment and the life-extension programs undertaken to allow continued use of equipment subject to deterioration are all part of the provision of supplies and materials for warfare.


Munition services are part of logistics. These deal with the safe storage and transport of weapons and explosives to the theatre, the provision of fuses, detonators and warheads at the point where operational troops will assemble the charge, projectile, bomb or shell. They may also be required to disarm and demolish weapons that are unreliable or that have been returned from the field unexpended and return them to storage temporarily. Munition is often defined as a synonyn for ammunition. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ...


Technology and equipment

Arrow-head. Bronze, 4th century BCE. From Olynthus, Chalcidice.
Arrow-head. Bronze, 4th century BCE. From Olynthus, Chalcidice.

When Stone Age man first took a sliver of flint to tip his spear, he was applying technology to improve his weaponry. Since then, the advance of mankind and the advance in weaponry has been irretrievably linked. Stone weapons gave way to bronze, and then bronze to iron. With each technological change has come an advantage: sharper weapons, harder weapons, more durable weapons. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 234 pixelsFull resolution (2650 × 775 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 234 pixelsFull resolution (2650 × 775 pixel, file size: 1. ... Traditional target arrow and replica medieval arrow. ... Olynthus, an ancient city of Chalcidice, situated in a fertile plain at the head of the Gulf of Torone, near the neck of the peninsula of Pallene, at some little distance from the sea, and about 60 stadia (7 or 8 miles) from Potidaea. ... Chalkidikí or Chalcidice (in Greek: Χαλκιδική, alternative romanizations Khalkidhikí) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...


The Greeks and Romans brought technology to the front with the invention and development of siege engines. Then came the age of chivalry, with knights—mounted on destriers and encased in ever-more sophisticated armour—dominating the field. In the meantime, in China, gunpowder had been invented and was increasingly being used in military applications. It was the arrival of cannon in Europe and advanced versions of the long bow and cross bow—which all had armour-piercing capability—that put an end to the dominance of the armoured knight. After the long bow (which required great skill and strength to use), came the musket, which could be used effectively by anyone after short training. In time the successors to muskets and cannon, in the form of rifles and artillery, would become core battlefield technology. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... A destrier is an historical term for a knights war horse. ... For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... The longbow (or English longbow, or Welsh longbow, see below) was a type of bow about 6 feet long used in the Middle Ages both for hunting and as a weapon of war. ... A crossbow is a type of weapon that fires projectiles called quarrels. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


As the speed of technological advance accelerated in the civilian world so warfare became more industralised. The newly-invented machine gun and repeating rifle brought new fire-power to the battlefield and, in part, explains the high casualty rates of the American Civil War. The next breakthrough was the highly-mobile, recoilless, field-gun—the French Soixante-Quinze—in the late 1800s. During World War I the need to break the deadlock of the trenches saw the rapid development of many new technologies, particularly in military aviation and tanks. Industrial warfare is a period in the history of warfare ranging roughly from the start of the Industrial Revolution to the beginning of the Information Age, which saw the rise of nation-states, capable of creating and equipping large armies and navies through the process of industrialization. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... A repeating rifle is a single barreled rifle containing multiple rounds of ammunition. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Canon de 75 modèle 1897 Rifling of a 75 modèle 1897 The French 75mm field gun is a quick-firing field artillery piece developed before World War I and serving into World War II. It was commonly known as the French 75... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Aerial warfare be merged into this article or section. ...

AIM-7 Sparrow medium range air-to-air missile from an F-15 Eagle
AIM-7 Sparrow medium range air-to-air missile from an F-15 Eagle

World War II, perhaps, marked the most frantic period of weapons development in the history of humanity. Massive numbers of new designs and concepts were fielded and all existing technologies were improved between 1939 and 1945. It was during this time that the atomic bomb was created. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1334, 825 KB) Description: A USAF McDonnell Douglas F-15C Eagle firing a AIM-7 Sparrow medium-range air to air missile. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1334, 825 KB) Description: A USAF McDonnell Douglas F-15C Eagle firing a AIM-7 Sparrow medium-range air to air missile. ... A RIM-7 Sea Sparrow being launched from the USS Essex (LHD-2) The AIM-7 Sparrow is a medium-range semi_active radar homing air-to-air missile operated by the USAF, US Navy, and USMC as well as various allied air forces. ... A US Navy VF-103 Jolly Rogers F-14 Tomcat fighter launches an AIM-54 Phoenix long-range air-to-air missile. ... F-15 redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


After World War II, with the onset of the Cold War, the constant technological development of new weapons was institutionalized as participants engaged in a constant race to develop weapons and counter-weapons. This constant state of weapons development continues into the modern era and remains a constant draw on the resources of many nations. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Ultimately, the MIRV ICBM and the Tsar Bomb are considered the most destructive weapons invented. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ... Tsar Bomba (, literally Emperor Bomb) is the Western name for the RDS-220 hydrogen bomb (codenamed Иван (Ivan) by its developers) — the largest, most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated. ...


Military history

Main article: Military history

Military history is often considered to be the history of all conflicts, not just the history of proper militaries. It differs somewhat from the history of war with military history focusing on the people and institutions of war-making while the history of war focuses on the evolution of war itself in the face of changing technology, governments, and geography. Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... For other uses, see Conflict (disambiguation). ... The history of warfare is the history of war and its evolution and development over time. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... A government is an organization that has the power to make and enforce laws for a certain territory. ...


Military history has a number of purposes. One main purpose is to learn from past accomplishments and mistakes so as to more effectively wage war in the future. Another is to create a sense of tradition which is used to create cohesive military forces. Still another may be to learn to prevent wars more effectively.


Military and society

The relationship between the military and the society it serves is a complicated and ever-evolving one. Much depends on the nature of the society itself and whether it sees the military as important (as for example in time of threat or war) or a burdensome expense (as typified by defence cuts in time of peace).


Ideology and ethics

An example of military zones - Map of Argentina's military zones (1975-1983)
An example of military zones - Map of Argentina's military zones (1975-1983)
Main article: Militarism

Militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (520x1004, 25 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dirty War ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (520x1004, 25 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dirty War ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...


Under the justification of potential application of force, militarism asserts that a civilian population is dependent upon — and thereby subservient to —the needs and goals of its military. Militarism is sometimes contrasted with the concepts of comprehensive national power and soft power and hard power. For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Comprehensive National Power (CNP) is a concept which is important in the contemporary political thought of the Peoples Republic of China and refers to the general power of a nation-state. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ...


Most nations have a separate code of law which regulates certain activities allowed only in war, and provides a code of law applicable only to a soldier in war (or 'in uniform' during peacetime). An early exponent was Hugo Grotius, whose Rights of War and Peace (1625) had a major impact of the humanitarian development of warfare. His theme was echoed by Gustavus Adolphus, the Swedish king-general (1594–1632). A civil code is a systematic compilation of laws designed to comprehensively deal with the core areas of private law. ... This article is about a military rank. ... For other uses, see Uniform (disambiguation). ... Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10 April 1583 – Rostock, 28 August 1645) worked as a jurist in the Dutch Republic and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ...


Modern-day ethical constraints are much more developed. For instance, the Geneva Conventions concern themselves with the treatment of civilians and prisoners of war. International protocols restrict or ban the use of certain weapons, notably nuclear and biological warfare. International conventions define what constitutes a war crime and provides for prosecution of war crimes. Individual countries also have elaborate codes of military practice, an example being the United States' Uniform Code of Military Justice. Original document. ... The Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) is the foundation of military law in the United States. ...


Military actions are sometimes justified by furthering a humanitarian cause. The term military humanism is used to refer to such actions. Military humanism is the term used to describe a situation whereby force and violence are used to further a humanitarian cause. ...


Antimilitarism

Main article: Antimilitarism

Antimilitarism is a doctrine opposed to war between states in particular and, of course, militarism. Following Hegel's exploration of the relationship between history and violence, antimilistarists argue that there are different types of violence, some of which can be said to be legitimate others non-legitimate. Anarcho-syndicalist Georges Sorel advocated the use of violence as a form of direct action, calling it "revolutionary violence", which he opposed in Reflections on Violence (1908) to the violence inherent in class struggle. Sorel thus followed the International Workers' Association (IWA, aka the First International) theorization of propaganda of the deed. Theory and practice Issues History Culture By region Lists Related Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the anarchist and, more globally, in the socialist movement, which may be both characterized as internationalist movements. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Hegel redirects here. ... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ... Georges Eugène Sorel (2 November 1847-29 August 1922) was a French philosopher and theorist of revolutionary syndicalism. ... For the Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, see Squamish Five. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ...


War, as violence, can be distinguished into inter-states' war and civil war, in which case class struggle is, according to antimilitarists theorists, a primordial component. Hence, Marx's influence on antimilitarist doctrine will come upon as no surprise, even though it would be doubtful to make Marx accountable for the whole antimilitarist tradition. However, it would also be unwise to believe in the myth of an eternal antimilitarist spirit, present in all places and time, since modern military institution is a historic achievement, related to the formation, in the 18th and 19th centuries, of nation-states. Napoleon's invention of conscription is a fundamental progress in the organization of state armies. Later, Prussian militarism would be exposed by 19th century social theorists. This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... Marx is a common German surname. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ...


Depictions of the military

Soldiers and armies have been at the heart of popular culture since the beginnings of recorded history. In addition to the countless images of military leaders in heroic poses from antiquity, they have been an enduring source of inspiration in literature. Not all of this has been entirely complementary and the military have been lampooned or ridiculed as often as they have been idolised. The classical Greek writer, Aristophanes, devoted an entire comedy, the Lysistrata, to a strike organised by military wives where they withhold sex from their husbands to keep them from going to war. Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... For other uses, see Aristophanes (disambiguation). ... Lysistrata (Attic Greek: Λυσιστράτη Lysistratê, Doric Greek: Λυσιστράτα Lysistrata), loosely translated to she who disbands armies, is an anti-war Greek comedy, written in 411 BC by Aristophanes. ...


In Medieval Europe, tales of knighthood and chivalry - the officer class of the period - captured the popular imagination. Writers and poets like Taliesin, Chrétien de Troyes and Thomas Mallory wrote tales of derring-do featuring Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot and Galahad. (Even today, books and films about the Arthurian legend and the Holy Grail continuing to appear.} A century or so later, in the hands of writers such as Jean Froissart, Miguel Cervantes and William Shakespeare, the fictional knight Tirant lo Blanch and the real-life condottieri John Hawkwood would be juxtaposed against the fantastist Don Quixote and the carousing Sir John Falstaff. In just one play, Henry V, Shakespeare provides a whole range of military characters, from cool-headed and clear-sighted generals, to captains, and common soldiery. For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ... Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. ... Sir Thomas Malory (c. ... Look up Arthur in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Guinevere (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lancelot (disambiguation) and Sir Lancelot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galahad (disambiguation). ... The Matter of Britain is a name given collectively to the legends that concern the Celtic and legendary history of the British Isles, centering around King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... Jean Froissart (~1337 - ~1405) was one of the most important of the chroniclers of medieval France. ... Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (September 29, 1547 - April 23, 1616), was a Spanish author, best known for his novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Tirant lo Blanc, written by the Valencian knight Joanot Martorell, finished by Martí Joan De Galba and published in Valencia in 1490, is an epic romance and one of the key works in the evolution of the Western novel. ... Condottieri (singular condottiere (in English) or condottiero (in Italian)) were mercenary leaders employed by Italian city-states from the late Middle Ages until the mid-sixteenth century. ... Sir John Hawkwood (1320-1394) was an English mercenary or condottiere in the 14th century Italy. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... Sir John Falstaff is a fictional character who appears in three plays by William Shakespeare primarily as a companion to Prince Hal, the future King Henry V. Round and glorious, tradition holds that Shakespeare wrote the part for his second comedian, a fat man, John Heminges, who played a bold... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Henry V, also known as The Cronicle History of Henry the fift, is a play by William Shakespeare based on the life of King Henry V of England. ...

The rapid growth of movable type in the late 16th and early 17th centuries saw an upsurge in private publication. Political pamphlets became popular, often lampooning military leaders for political purposes. A pamphlet directed against Prince Rupert of the Rhine is a typical example. During the 19th century, irreverence was at its height and for every elegant military gentleman painted by the master-portraitists of the European courts (for example, Gainsborough, Goya and Reynolds), there are the sometimes affectionate and sometimes savage caricatures of Rowland and Hogarth. For the weblog software, see Movable Type. ... A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ... For other uses, see Prince Rupert (disambiguation). ... Thomas Gainsborough (christened 14 May 1727 – 2 August 1788) was one of the most famous portrait and landscape painters of 18th century Britain. ... Goya redirects here. ... Sir Joshua Reynolds in a self-portrait Colonel Acland and Lord Sydney, The Archers, 1769. ... Thomas Rowlandson (July 1756 - April 22, 1827) was an English caricaturist. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ...


This continues in the following century, with publications like Punch in the British Empire and Le Père Duchesne in France, poking fun at the military establishment. This extended to media other print too. An enduring example is the Major-General's Song from the Gilbert and Sullivan light opera, Pirates of Penzance, where a senior army officer is satirised for his enormous fund of irrelevant knowledge. Look up punch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1871 issue of Père Duchêne: No. ... Henry Lytton as the Major-General. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ... The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty, is a Gilbert and Sullivan comic operetta in two acts. ...

The increasing importance of cinema in the early 20th century provided a new platform for depictions of military subjects. During the First World War, although heavily censored, newsreels enabled those at home to see for themselves a heavily-sanitized version of life in the front line. About the same time, both pro-war and anti-war films came to the silver screen. One of the first films on military aviation, Hell's Angels broke all box office records on its release in 1929. Soon, war films of all types were showing throughout the world. A newsreel is a documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. ... A front line is a line of confrontation in an armed conflict, most often a war. ... The war film is a film genre concerned with warfare, usually about naval, air or land battles, sometimes focusing instead on prisoners of war, covert operations, military training or other related subjects. ... An anti-war film is a movie that is perceived as having an anti-war theme. ... The term silver screen derives from the type of projection screen used at the start of the motion picture industry and specifically refers to the actual silver (Ag) content embedded in the material (a tightly woven fabric, either natural, such as silk, or a synthetic fiber) that made up the... It has been suggested that Aerial warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Hells Angels Theatrical Release poster Hells Angels was a 1930 film directed by Howard Hughes. ... This is a list of war film or films depicting aspects of historical wars. ...


The First World War was also responsible for a new kind of military depiction, through poetry. Hitherto, poetry had been used mostly to glorify or sanctify war. The Charge of the Light Brigade by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, with its galloping hoofbeat rhythm, is a prime late Victorian example of this, though Rudyard Kipling had written a scathing reply, The Last of the Light Brigade, criticising the poverty in which many Light Brigade veterans found themselves in old age. Instead, the new wave of poetry, from the war poets, was written from the point of view of the disenchanted trench soldier. Leading war poets include: Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen, John McCrae, Rupert Brooke, Isaac Rosenberg and David Jones. A similar movement occurred in literature, producing a slew of novels on both sides of the Atlantic including notably All Quiet on the Western Front and Johnny Got His Gun. A much-later satirical take on World War I is provided by the film, Oh! What a Lovely War. Valley of the Shadow of Death, as photographed by Roger Fenton in 1855. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... This article is about the British author. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Last of the Light Brigade The Last of the Light Brigade is a poem written in 1881 by Rudyard Kipling in response to Alfred Tennysons famous poem The Charge of the Light Brigade. ... The term war poet came into currency during and after World War I. A number of poets writing in English had been soldiers, and had written about that experience. ... Siegfried Loraine Sassoon, CBE MC (8 September 1886 – 1 September 1967) was an English poet and author. ... Wilfred Edward Salter Owen MC (March 18, 1893 – November 4, 1918) was a British poet and soldier, regarded by many as the leading poet of the First World War. ... Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae Lieutenant Colonel John Alexander McCrae, MD (November 30, 1872 – January 28, 1918) was a Canadian poet, physician, author, artist and soldier during World War I and a surgeon during the battle of Ypres. ... A statue of Rupert Brooke in Rugby Rupert Chawner Brooke (August 3, 1887 – April 23, 1915) was an English poet known for his idealistic War Sonnets written during the First World War (especially The Soldier), as well as for his poetry written outside of war, especially The Old Vicarage, Grantchester... Isaac Rosenberg (November 25, 1890 - April 1, 1918) was a Jewish-English poet of the First World War who was one of the greatest of all British war poets. ... David Jones is a common name, particularly in Wales, and there have been several well-known individuals with this name. ... For the films, see All Quiet on the Western Front (1930 film) and All Quiet on the Western Front (1979 film). ... Johnny Got His Gun is a novel written in 1938 (published 1939) by American novelist and screenwriter Dalton Trumbo. ... Oh! What a Lovely War is a stage musical and 1969 musical film. ...


The propaganda war that accompanied World War II invariably depicted the enemy in unflattering terms. Both the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany excelled in producing heroic images, placing their soldiers in a semi-mythical context. Examples of this exist not only in posters but also in the films of Leni Riefenstahl and Sergei Eisenstein. Alongside this, World War II also inspired films as varied as Bridge on the River Kwai, The Longest Day, Catch-22, Saving Private Ryan, and The Sea Shall Not Have Them. The next major event, the Korean War inspired a long-running television series M*A*S*H. With the Vietnam War, the tide of balance turned and its films - notably Apocalypse Now, Good Morning Vietnam, Go Tell the Spartans and Born on the Fourth of July - have tended contain critical messages. 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Helene Bertha Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German film director, dancer and actress, and widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ... Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet Russian film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober. ... The Bridge over the River Kwai taken in June 2004. ... The Longest Day is a 3-hour-long 1962 war film with a very large cast, based on the 1959 book The Longest Day by Cornelius Ryan, about D-Day, the invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944, during World War II. // The movie was adapted by Romain Gary, James... Catch 22 can refer to: A book by Joseph Heller, or the movie based on the book; see Catch-22. ... Saving Private Ryan is an eleven-time Academy Award nominated 1998 war film. ... The Sea Shall Not Have Them is a 1954 World War II film starring Michael Redgrave, Dirk Bogarde and Anthony Steel. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... M*A*S*H title screen from the television series M*A*S*H was a media franchise active, in various forms, from 1968 to 1986. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Apocalypse Now is a 1979 Academy Award and Golden Globe winning American film set during the Vietnam War. ... Good Morning, Vietnam is a 1987 comedy/drama film set in Saigon during the Vietnam War, based on the career of Adrian Cronauer, a disc jockey on Armed Forces Radio Saigon (AFRS), who proves hugely popular with the troops serving in South Vietnam, but infuriates his superiors with what they... Go Tell the Spartans is a low-budget and critically acclaimed 1978 American film about U.S. advisors in the early days of the Vietnam War. ... Born on the Fourth of July is a 1989 a film adaptation of the autobiographical novel of the same name by Ron Kovic. ...


There's even a nursery rhyme about war, the Grand Old Duke of York, ridiculing a general for his inability to command any further than marching his men up and down a hill. The huge number of songs focusing on war include And The Band Played Waltzing Matilda and Universal Soldier. ... George Lamberts Anzac, the landing 1915, depicting the landing at Anzac Cove. ... Universal Soldier may refer to: Universal Soldier (1992 film) Universal Soldier (song), a song by Buffy Sainte-Marie Universal Soldier (Pastor Troy album) Universal Soldier (1967 Donovan album) Universal Soldier (1995 Donovan album) Universal Soldier (1971 film) Universal Soldier (cyborg), the cyborg type in the 1992 Universal Soldier and its...

Militaria

Main article: Militaria

Militaria are another way of depicting the military. Militaria are antique artifacts or replicas of military history people, firearms, swords, badges, etc collected for their historical significance. Today, the collecting of militaria items such as toy soldiers, tin soldiers, military models is an established hobby among many groups of people. This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... For other uses, see Antique (disambiguation). ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... Look up replica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 54mm Toy Soldiers by Imperial Productions of New Zealand A toy soldier is a miniature figurine that represents a soldier. ... A rare, complete set of Nazi S.A. tin soldiers, from the 1940s. ... Military model is a generic term that covers scale models of many different kinds -- aircraft figures, tin soldiers ships vehicles -- but all with a military theme. ...


Other uses of "Military"

Kawasaki C-1 military transport of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force.
Kawasaki C-1 military transport of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force.
  • Military procurement refers to common regulations and requirements for a ship or a detached unit to requisition and draw on a base's facilities (housing, pay, and rations for detached personnel), supplies (most commonly food stocks or materials, and vehicles) by the service running a primary base; e.g. Army units detached to or staging through an air base, a vessel calling at a port near an army or air base, an army unit drawing supplies from a naval base.
  • Military strength is a term that describes a quantification or reference to a nation's standing military forces or the capacity for fulfillment of that military's role. For example, the military strength of a given country could be interpreted as the number of individuals in its armed forces, the destructive potential of its arsenal, or both.
    • For example, while China and India maintain the largest armed forces in the world, the U.S. Military is considered to be the world's strongest,[citation needed] although the certainty of such a claim cannot be ascertained without a detailed analysis of opposing military forces in relation to one another as well as taking into account the field(s) of battle and tactics used in such a conflict.
  • Military force is a term that might refer to a particular unit, a regiment or gunboat deployed in a particular locale, or as an aggregate of such forces (Example: "In the Gulf War the United States Central Command controlled military forces (units) of each of the five military services of the United States.")
  • A military brat is a colloquial term for a child with at least one parent who served full-time in the armed forces. Children of armed forces members may move around to different military bases or international postings, which gives them an unusual childhood. Unlike common usage of the term brat, when it is used in this context, it is not necessarily a derogatory term.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kawasaki C-1 Kawasaki C-1 is military transporter, used by Japan Air Self Defense Force. ... The Japan Air Self-Defense Force ), or JASDF, is the aviation branch of the Japan Self-Defense Forces responsible for the defense of Japanese airspace and other aerospace operations. ... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. ... Alternate cover US 1979 and 2002 reissue cover, also known as paint spatter cover For the military meaning, see Armed forces. ... This article is about armaments factories. ... The military of India, officially known as the Indian armed forces, is the primary military organisation responsible for the territorial security and defense of India. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... A gunboat is literally a boat carrying one or more guns. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The United States Central Command (CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command unit of the U.S. armed forces, established in 1983 under the operational control of the U.S. Secretary of Defense. ... Military brat (or simply brat) is a term for someone who grew up while their parent or parents serve or served in the armed forces. ...

See also

War Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Military tradition was a principle of the military that evolved out of the Middle Ages concept of chivalry. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ Bas-relief of Ramesses II at Kadesh
  2. ^ Terra cotta of massed ranks of Qin Shi Huang's terra cotta soldiers
  3. ^ a b c Oxford English Dictionary (2nd edition) Oxford: 1994
  4. ^ p.156, Tucker
  5. ^ a b Compact Oxford Dictionary online
  6. ^ a b Merriam Webster Dictionary online
  7. ^ p.67, Dupuy
  8. ^ p.67, Dupuy
  9. ^ p.67, Dupuy
  10. ^ p.67, Dupuy
  11. ^ The Art of War
  12. ^ MacHenry, Robert (1993). The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Incorporated, p.305. 
  13. ^ On War by General Carl von Clausewitz (htm). gutenberg.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-31.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (410x614, 92 KB) Ramesseum. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,944 × 2,592 pixels, file size: 2. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Dupuy, T.N. (Col. ret.), Understanding war: History and Theory of combat, Leo Cooper, London, 1992
  • Tucker, T.G., Etymological dictionary of Latin, Ares publishers Inc., Chicago, 1985
Look up Military in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

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