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Encyclopedia > Militarization

Militarism (military+-ism) is an ideology which claims that the military is the foundation of a society's security, and thereby claims to be its most important aspect. The militarization of society is defined in relative relation to others, and hence views the society as a material entity which exerts its influence and power over others. The English suffix -ism was first used to form a noun of action from a verb, as in baptism, from baptein, a Greek word meaning to dip. Its usage was later extended to signify systems of belief. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... ... This page covers security in the sense of protection from hostile action. ... Relativism is the view that the meaning and value of human beliefs and behaviors have no absolute reference. ... Materialism is the philosophical view that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are comprised of material. The view is perhaps best understood in its opposition to the doctrines of immaterial substance applied to the mind historically, and most famously by...

While pragmatism and "preparedness" may refer to agreeable and practical matters related to self-defense, "militarism" connotes broader doctrinal views which claim the notion of "peace through strength" as supreme among the interests of society — overriding all others, including diplomacy and issues related to social welfare. Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ... The words defense or defence can refer to any of the following: For defense of a doctoral dissertation see thesis committee For the military term see defense (military) Civil defense measures and emergency preparedness In politics, defense may be a euphemism for war For legal defense see defense (legal) For... Peace through strength is the doctrine that military strength is a primary or necessary component of peace. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Social welfare can be taken to mean the welfare or well-being of a society. ...

Militarism often has connotations with the concepts of expansionism and fascist nationalism. It asserts that civilian populations are dependent upon — and thereby subservient to —the needs and goals of its military. The cause by which a military asserts is power is based in force, but other secondary rationales, such as expansionism, emergency-protectionism, loyalism, and ethnic nationalism are typical secondary appeals. In a democratic republic, a central component of any state constitution are rules by how military rule (martial law, executive powers) may be implemented, and how such powers are to be returned to the elected government. Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territory or economic influence of a country. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Nationalism is an ethno-political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation-identity for an exclusive group of people. ... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... Servant has a number of meaning: A servant is another word for domestic worker, a person who is hired to provide regular household or other duties, and receives compensation. ... In physics, as defined by Asimov, a force is that which can impose a change of velocity on a material body. ... An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate threat to human life or serious damage to property. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... Nationalism is an ethno-political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation-identity for an exclusive group of people. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice (and usually of the whole state). ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ...


1 Militarism and the measure of national power

2 References
3 Militarism in Fiction

Manifestations of militarism

Militarism tends to be defined in direct opposition to peace movements in modern times. Historically the term occurred with reference to specific states engaged in imperialism, e.g. Sparta, Empire of Japan, British Empire, German Empire and Nazi Germany, First French Empire, New Roman Empire of Mussolini, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Iraq under Saddam Hussein. Today it is often applied to the loosely allied Anglo-Saxon powers led by the United States (along with the United Kingdom and Australia), and others such as China, France, Israel, North Korea, Iran and Syria. This article is in need of attention. ... A cartoon portraying the British Empire as an octopus, reaching into foreign lands Imperialism is a policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics... Sparta (Grk. ... The Empire of Japan (大日本帝国; Dai-Nippon/-Nihon Teikoku) commonly refers to Japan from the Meiji Restoration until the end of World War II. Politically, it covers the period from the enforcement of establishing prefectures in place of feudal domains (廃藩置県; Hai-han Chi-ken) in July 14, 1871, through... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The term German Empire (Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The First French Empire, commonly known as the French Empire, the Napoleonic Empire or simply as The Empire, covers the period of the domination of France and much of continental Europe by Napoleon I of France. ... The New Roman Empire (Italian: Nuovo Impero Romano, Latin: Novum Imperium Romanum) was the new state created by Benito Mussolini to describe the Italian colonial empire, especially following Italys 1935-36 conquest of Abyssinia. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majīd al-Tikrīt, spelled Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 1) was President of Iraq from 1979 until 2003. ... The Anglo-Saxons refers collectively to the groups of Germanic tribes who achieved dominance in southern Britain from the mid-5th century, forming the basis for the modern English nation. ...

Militarism and the measure of national power

Miltarism is sometimes contrasted with the concepts of comprehensive national power and soft power and hard power. For example, the current Chinese leadership believes that a strong China is necessary to national security, but that the military is only one component of national power, and that an excessive focus on the military may lead to less national power in areas such as the civilian economy. Nonetheless, militaristic themes often predominate in Chinese attitudes such as the dispute with Taiwan. Comprehensive National Power (CNP) is a concept which is important in the contemporary political thought of the Peoples Republic of China and refers to the general power of a nation-state. ... Soft Power and American Foreign Policy Soft power is the ability of a political body to get what it wants through the use of cultural or ideological attraction, in order to influence other political bodies that they want the same thing. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and diplomatic means. ...

One aspect of militarism is the ascendancy of a small clique of military officers to unchallenged power, as in Iraq, Nazi Germany, and most of Latin America up until the 1980s. Nevertheless, although many militaristic states are military dictatorships, militarism is not synonymous with dictatorship or authoritarianism; liberal democracy and militarism are not mutually exclusive. In military organizations, a commissioned officer is a member of the service who derives authority directly from a sovereign power, and as such holds a commission from that power. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... Augusto Pinochet (sitting) was an army general who led a military coup in Chile in 1973. ... Liberal democracy is a form of representative democracy where elected representatives that hold the decision power are moderated by a constitution that emphasizes protecting individual liberties and the rights of minorities in society, such as freedom of speech and assembly, freedom of religion, the right to private property and privacy...

One way to measure militarism is the percentage of a country's GDP that is spent on the military. In 2001, North Korea had the highest expenditure of 31.3% of national GDP, followed by Angola (22% in 1999), Eritrea (19.8% in 2001), Saudi Arabia (13% in 2000), Ethiopia (12.6% in 2000), Oman (12.2% in 2001), Qatar (10% in 2000/2001), Israel (8.75% in 2002), Jordan (8.6% in 2001), and Maldives (8.6% in 2001). [1] (http://www.nationmaster.com/graph-T/mil_exp_per_of_gdp)

Another measure that has been commonly used is the number of military personnel per capita.

German militarism

Main article: German nationalism Nationalism is an ethno- political ideology that sustains the concept of a nation- identity for an exclusive group of people. ...

German nationalism, which included Austria and Prussia, as well as other Nordic factions, became the basis for Germany's militarism during World War I and World War II. This early 20th century militarism was based in Germany's feudalist history, back to the Holy Roman Empire, and the modern wars were executed based on a popular belief that they would serve the cause of German nationalism and pride. Both wars would end in defeat —the first one would alter the tenor of previous wars to include mass internal purges of German society itself, beginning in 1933 with dissidents toward Nazism and culminating with the Jewish Holocaust. The domestic and foreign destruction of Germany before and during WW II, would ultimately put an end to German nationalist militarism. The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... The Nordic countries (Greenland not shown) The Nordic countries is a term used collectively for five countries in Northern Europe. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II, starting in 1941 and continuing through 1945. ...

Japanese militarism

Main article: Japanese militarism Militarism refers to the philosophical belief in which military (army or navy) should get full power of the country. ...

In parallel with 20th century Germany's militarism, Japanese militarism began with a series of events by which the military gained prominence in dictating Japan's affairs. It's invasion to China in 1931, and finally overtook power when General Tojo took the position of Prime Minister in 1940.


  • Ensign, Tod. America's Military Today. The New Press. 2005. ISBN 1565848837.
  • Fink, Christina. Living Silence: Burma Under Military Rule. White Lotus Press. 2001. ISBN 1856499251.
  • Huntington, Samuel P.. Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1981.
  • Shaw, Martin. Post-Military Society: Militarism, Demilitarization and War at the End of the Twentieth Century. Temple University Press, 1992
  • Vagts, Alfred. A History of Militarism. Meridian Books, 1959.
  • Western, Jon. Selling Intervention and War. Johns Hopkins University Press. 2005. ISBN 080188108.

Militarism in Fiction

Starship Troopers cover Starship Troopers is a science fiction novel by Robert Heinlein first published in 1959. ... Heinlein autographing at the 1976 Worldcon Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most influential and controversial authors in the science fiction genre. ...

  Results from FactBites:
Women and Militarism (6910 words)
Militarization is the "gradual encroachment of the military institution into the civilian arena," including, for example, industrial plants becoming dependent on military contracts or the state relying on the military to solve its unemployment problems.
Therefore it is essential that feminists examine militarism and challenge it as one of the root causes of women's oppression and equally necessary that peace activists examine and challenge patriarchy as one of the root causes of militarism.
In addition to militarism's reinforcement of the gender categories which restrict women's lives and perpetuate their marginalization, there are material ways in which militarism has a gendered affect and has a different impact on women than it does on men, both in "peacetime" and in war.
Militarism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1430 words)
Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military.
Militarism is ideologically rooted in or related to concepts of alarmism, expansionism, extremism, imperialism, loyalism, nationalism, patriotism, protectionism, supremacy, triumphalism and warmongering.
Militarism is manifest in practice by the preferentiality toward goals, concepts, doctrines, and policies derived, originated, or directed from personnel in the military.
  More results at FactBites »



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