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Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
Military history
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Tactics

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Joint · Maneuver · Siege · Total
Trench · Unconventional Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... Arctic warfare is a term used to describe conflict that takes place in an exceptionally cold climate. ... Cyber-warfare is the use of computers and the internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace. ... Desert warfare is combat in deserts. ... Jungle warfare is a term used to cover the special techniques needed for military units to survive and fight in jungle terrain. ... Mountain warfare refers to warfare in the mountains. ... Urban warfare is modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Electronic warfare (EW) has three main components: Electronic Attack (EA) This is the active use of the electromagnetic spectrum to deny its use by an adversary. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the 1989 computer game, see Nuclear War (computer game). ... It has been suggested that infowars be merged into this article or section. ... Radiological warfare is any form of warfare involving deliberate radiation poisoning, without relying on nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Naval warfare is divided into three operational areas: surface warfare, air warfare and submarine warfare. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... Asymmetric warfare is a term that describes a military situation in which two belligerents of unequal power or capacity of action, interact and take advantage of the strengths and weaknesses of themselves and their enemies. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with war horse. ... Conventional warfare means a form of warfare conducted by using conventional military weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more nation-states in open confrontation. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatives FM 21-150 Figure 4-1, Vital Targets. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Joint warfare is a military doctrine which places priority on the integration of the various service branches of a states armed forces into one unified command. ... Maneuver warfare (American English) or manoeuvre warfare is a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ... Unconventional warfare (UW) is the opposite of conventional warfare. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational Military stratagem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Chain of command · Formations
Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... This article deals with the military concept. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ... Supply lines are roads, rail, and other transportation infrastructure needed to replenish the consumables that a military unit requires to function in the field. ...

Law

Court-martial · Laws of war · Occupation
Tribunal · War crime Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when one nations military occupies all or part of the territory of another nation or recognized belligerent. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...

Government and politics

Conscription · Coup d'état
Military dictatorship · Martial law
Militarism · Military rule A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... General Augusto Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta in Chile, September 1973. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor, Hirohito Military rule may mean: Militarism as an ideology of government Military occupation (or Belligerent occupation), when a country or area is conquered after invasion List of military occupations Martial law, where military...

Military studies

Military academy · Military science
Polemology · Philosophy of war
Peace and conflict studies A military academy is a military educational institution. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ... The United States detonated an atomic bomb over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, effectively ending World War II. The bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima (on August 6) immediately killed between 100,000 and 200,000 people and are the only known instances nuclear weapons have ever been used in war. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Peace and conflict studies can be defined as the inter-disciplinary inquiry into war as human condition and peace as human potential, as an alternative to the traditional Polemology (War Studies) and the strategies taught at Military academies. ...

Lists
Authors · Battles · Civil wars
Commanders · Invasions · Operations
Sieges · Raids · Tactics · Theorists
Wars · War crimes · War criminals
Weapons · Writers

Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. Militarists hold the view that discipline is the highest social priority, and claim that the development and maintenance of the military ensures that discipline. Militarism connotes the drive to expand military culture and ideals to areas outside of the military structure —most notably in areas of private business, government policy, education, and entertainment. Many of the authors that served in various real-life wars (and survived) wrote stories that are at least somewhat based on their own experiences. ... This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of civil wars. ... . ... This is a list of both successful and repelled international invasions ordered by date. ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... This page contains a list of military raids, not including air raids, sorted by the date at which they started: 1259 Mongol raid into Lithuania 1565, August 26th Chaseabout Raid 1575, July 7th Raid of the Redeswire 1582, August 27th Raid of Ruthven 1667, June 6th Raid on the Medway... This page contains a list of military tactics: // Identification of objectives Concentration of effort Exploiting prevailing weather Exploiting night Maintenance of reserve forces Economy of force Force protection Force dispersal Military Camouflage Deception Perfidy False flag Electronic countermeasures Electronic counter-counter-measures Radio silence Fortification Fieldworks (entrenchments) Over Head Protection... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... . ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... Discipline is any training intended to produce a specific character or pattern of behaviour, especially training that produces moral, physical, or mental development in a particular direction. ... Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ...


Militarism is ideologically rooted in or related to concepts of alarmism, expansionism, extremism, fascism, imperialism, loyalism, nationalism, patriotism, protectionism, supremacy, totalitarianism, triumphalism and warmongering. An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Alarmism is the production of needless warnings. ... Expansionism is the doctrine of expanding the territorial base (or economic influence) of a country, usually by means of military aggression. ... Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common standards of ethics and reciprocity. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ... // Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... In general, a loyalist is an individual who is loyal to the powers that be. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations, through methods such as high tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, a variety of restrictive government regulations designed to discourage imports, and anti-dumping laws in an attempt to protect domestic industries in a particular nation from foreign take-over... Supremacism is the belief that a particular race, religion, gender, belief system or culture is superior to others and entitles those who identify with it to dominate, control or rule those who do not. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supremacism. ... Militarism (military+-ism) is an ideology which claims that the military is the foundation of a societys security, and thereby claims to be its most important aspect. ...

Contents

Overview

Under the justification of potential application of force, militarism asserts that civilian populations are dependent upon — and thereby subservient to —the needs and goals of its military. Common tenets include advocation of "peace through strength" as the proper method to secure the interests of society — and is expressed as one that overrides all others; including traditional precursory diplomatic relations and issues related to social welfare. In physics, the force experienced by a body is defined as the rate of change of momentum with time. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Peace through strength is the doctrine that military strength is a primary or necessary component of peace. ... Diplomat redirects here. ... ...


Militarism is sometimes contrasted with the concepts of comprehensive national power and soft power and hard power. This quality may be identified in economic terms by several methods; including the determination of those nations with large modern militaries requiring large or substantially higher budgets than the average among nations to maintain large military forces (as of 2005 viz United States, the People's Republic of China, Russia) or to expand such forces (as of 2005 viz Israel, Kuwait, Singapore), or to nation-states devoting substantial portions of their GDPs per capita to develop such forces (as of 2005 viz. North Korea, Equatorial Guinea, Saudi Arabia). Comprehensive National Power (CNP) is a concept which is important in the contemporary political thought of the Peoples Republic of China and refers to the general power of a nation-state. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ...


Militarism is manifest in practice by the preferentiality toward goals, concepts, doctrines, and policies derived, originated, or directed from personnel in the military. It is likewise characterized by preferentiality toward persons officially or tangentially associated with causes, and regards loyalty to those narrow interests to be paramount. In a democratic republic, a central component of any state constitution are rules concerning how military rule (martial law, executive powers) may be implemented, and how such powers are to be returned to the elected government. Loyalty is faithfulness or devotion to a person or cause. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ...


German militarism

Prussian generals in Sadowa (1866): Bismark, general Vogel von Falkenstein, general Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz, Albrecht von Roon, general von Fliess & general Herwarth von Bittenfeld.

Militarism has been defined as "a policy which maintains huge standing armies for purposes of aggression." The fact that a nation, through universal conscription, maintains a large standing army in times of peace does not necessarily make it a militarist state; prior to the First World War most European nations (except Great Britain) maintained such an army, yet not all had a government which could be defined as militaristic. Prior to the First World War in Germany, however, the armed forces were the strongest influence in government, and at times used their influence to override the civil power. Additionally, most Chancellors and some leading German political figures in this period were serving or retired officers in the armed forces. There was a strong culture of nationalism and deference towards the Kaiser. The Captain of Köpenick incident in 1906 is considered in Germany as an iconic example of that era's attitudes. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1222x1489, 1347 KB) Other versions / File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Militarism ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1222x1489, 1347 KB) Other versions / File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Militarism ... Sadová (in old German documents Sadowa) is a village in the Czech Republic, in East Bohemia, in Hradec Kralove Region, in Mikroregion Nechanicko, on a main road and a railroad from Hradec Králové to Jičín. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz (December 27, 1796 - August 2, 1877), Prussian generalfeldmarschall, was born at Eisenach. ... Count Albrecht Theodor Emil von Roon (30 April 1803 - 23 February 1879) was a Prussian soldier and politician. ... Hans Heinrich Herwarth von Bittenfeld (Berlin July 14, 1904 - Küps August 21, 1999), also known as Johnnie or Johann von Herwarth, was a German diplomat. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Chancellor (Latin: cancellarius), an official title used by most of the peoples whose civilization has arisen directly or indirectly out of the Roman empire. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A police mugshot of Wilhelm Voigt Friedrich Wilhelm Voigt (February 13, 1849 - January 3, 1922) was a German impostor who masqueraded as a Prussian military officer in 1906 and became famous as the Captain of Köpenick (Hauptmann von Köpenick). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The roots of German militarism can be found in the history of Prussia during the nineteenth century, and the subsequent unification of Germany under Prussian leadership. After Napoleon conquered Prussia, early in the nineteenth century, one of the conditions of peace was that Prussia should reduce her army to not more than forty-two thousand men. In order that the country should not again be so easily conquered, the king of Prussia enrolled the permitted number of men for one year, then dismissed that group, and enrolled another of the same size, and so on. Thus, in the course of ten years, it would be possible for him to gather an army of four hundred thousand men who had had at least one year of military training. The officers of the army were drawn almost entirely from among the land-owning nobility. The result was that there was gradually built up a large class of professional officers on the one hand, and, on the other, a much larger class, the rank and file of the army. These men had become used, in the army, to obeying implicitly all the commands of the officers, creating a class-based culture of deference. Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


This led to several results. Since the officer class furnished also most of the officials for the civil administration of the country, the interests of the army came to be considered the same as the interests of the country as a whole. A second result was that the governing class desired to continue a system which gave them so much power over the common people, contributing to the continuing influence of the Junker noble classes. Junkers (English pronunciation: ; German pronunciation: ) were the landed aristocracy of Prussia and Eastern Germany - often also called Eastelbia (Ostelbien in German - the land east of river Elbe). ...


Militarism in Germany continued after the First World War and the fall of the German monarchy. During the period of the Weimar Republic (1919-1933), the Kapp Putsch, an attempted coup against the republican government, was launched by disaffected members of the armed forces. After this, the more radical militarists and nationalists were subsumed into the Nazi Party, while more moderate elements of militarism declined. Nazi Germany was a strongly militarist state; after its fall in 1945, militarism in German culture was dramatically reduced, as a backlash against the Nazi period. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state(KING)In most monarchies the monarch usually reigns as head of state for life; this is... Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler... The Putsch —or more accurately the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch —was an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic, based in opposition to the imposed Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I. It was branded right-wing, monarchist and reactionary afterwards. ... The Nazi Party, (German: , or NSDAP, English: National Socialist German Workers Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

Main article: Nationalism

Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ...

Japanese militarism

Main article: Japanese militarism

In parallel with 20th century Germany's militarism, Japanese militarism began with a series of events by which the military gained prominence in dictating Japan's affairs as evident in 15th century Japan's Sengoku Period or Age of Warring States where powerful samurai warlords or shogun played a significant role in Japanese politics. Japan's militarism is deeply rooted in the ancient samurai tradition, centuries way before Japan's modernization. Centuries of civil wars have brought about rigid military rule and secured a place for the military in government affairs only to last until Japan's unconditional surrender in World War II after the United States brought about democracy to the once militaristic state. With this dictatorial power, Japan invaded the Republic of China in 1931 and overtook half of Chinese land within 11 years, and finally spread the Second World War to the Pacific by the Pearl Harbor Attack. Japanese militarism (日本軍国主義) refers to militarism, the philosophical belief that military personnel (army or navy) should exercise full power in a nation. ... Motto: Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanjing (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Su Tseng-chang... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan)is the largest body of water on Earth – at 165. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS), Shigekazu Shimazaki (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, 1 light cruiser, 8...


US militarism

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries political and military leaders reformed the US federal government to establish a stronger central government than had ever previously existed for the purpose of enabling the nation to pursue an imperial policy in the Pacific and in the Caribbean and economic militarism to support the development of the new industrial economy. This reform was the result of a conflict between Neo-Hamiltonian Republicans and Jeffersonian-Jacksonian advocates over the proper administration of the state and direction of its foreign policy--between proponents of professionalism based on business management organizations and fuller local control by available figures-including amateurs. After the end of the American Civil War the national army fell into disrepair. Reforms based on various European states including Imperial Britain, Imperial Germany, and Switzerland were made so that it would become responsive to control from the central government, prepared for future conflicts, and develop refined command and support structures; it led to the development of a professional military. During this time the intellectual ideas of Social Darwinism propelled the development of an American Empire in the Pacific and Caribbean and necessitated extensive efficient central government due to its administration requirements. Economic militarism is a process whereby economic activity is manipulated to assist in gaining military advantages. ... Jeffersonians, so named after Thomas Jefferson, support a federal government with greatly constrained powers, as would follow the strict interpretation of the U.S. Constitution that Jefferson followed. ... Jacksonian school One of four US diplomatic schools as described by Walter R. Mead Jacksonian democracy ... This article is becoming very long. ... Social Darwinism in the most basic form is the idea that biological theories can be extended and applied to the social realm. ... American Empire is a term sometimes used to describe the historical expansionism and the current political, economic, and cultural influence of the United States on a global scale. ...


The enlargement of the US army for the Spanish-American War was considered essential to the occupation and control of the new territories acquired from Spain in its defeat (Guam, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Cuba). The previous limit by legislation of 24 000 men was expanded to 60 000 regulars in the new army bill on 2 February 1901, with allowance at that time for expansion to 80 000 regulars by presidential discretion at times of national emergency. Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (only 432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish...


Israeli militarism

Israel's many security difficulties since the establishment of the State have led to a prominence of security in politics and civil society, resulting in many of Israel's top politicians being former high ranking military officials (partial list: Yitzhak Rabin, Ariel Sharon, Ezer Weizman, Ehud Barak, Shaul Mofaz, Moshe Dayan, Yitzhak Mordechai, Amram Mitzna). On the other hand, the military culture of the Israel Defence Forces has been affected greatly by the civilian culture. Israeli culture is much less formal and regimented than most and this has spilled over into the military, especially since the vast majority of the officers and soldiers are reservists who bring their civilian background and behavioural norms into the army when they are mobilized (an example is the minimum of formality between separate ranks - commanders often being called by name rather than by rank by their subordinates, very little saluting except in ceremonies and such-like). Also the army has been entrusted with many civilian missions (social work, providing teachers in areas where they are lacking and so on), and this too has had its effect on the way army career personnel view the role of the army and their commitment to civilian society and norms. Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... For other people named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Ezer Weizman (עזר ויצמן) (Tel Aviv, June 15, 1924 – Caesarea Maritima, April 24, 2005) was the seventh President of the State of Israel (1993-2000). ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942, in Mishmar HaSharon kibbutz,[1] then British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli politician and was the 10th Prime Minister of Israel from 1999 to 2001. ... Shaul Mofaz during a meeting with U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld on November 10, 2003. ... Moshe Dayan, DSO (Hebrew: משה דיין)a (May 20, 1915 – October 16, 1981), was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... Yitzhak Mordechai (Hebrew: יצחק מרדכי, born November 22, 1944) was a Major General in the Israeli army, and later Israeli Minister of Defense and of Transport. ... Amram Mitzna is an Israeli politician who served as the mayor of Haifa from 1993 to 2003. ...


Militarism in fiction

Starship Troopers is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first published (in abridged form) as a serial in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (October, November 1959, as Starship Soldier) and published hardcover in 1959. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... The Forever War is a 1975 Hugo Award winning science fiction novel by Joe Haldeman, the first book of the Forever War series which also includes Forever Peace, and Forever Free. ... Joseph William Haldeman is an American science fiction author. ... Barrayar is a planet in Lois McMaster Bujolds Vorkosigan Saga series of novels and stories. ... The Vorkosigan Saga is a series of science fiction novels and short stories by Lois McMaster Bujold, most of which concern Miles Vorkosigan, a disabled aristocrat from the planet Barrayar who creates his own private army at the age of just seventeen. ... Lois McMaster Bujold (November 2, 1949, Columbus, Ohio) is an American author of science fiction and fantasy works. ...

See also

Antimilitarism is a doctrine commonly found in the anarchist and socialist movement, which may be both characterized as internationalist movements. ... Christian nonviolence is supported by peace churches. ... U.S. President Abraham Lincolns active involvement in the conduct of the American Civil War, which frequently involved pressing his generals to undertake more aggressive actions, set a precedent for the power of the civilian Commander-in-Chief. ... The following is a list of military officers who have led divisions of a civil service. ...

References

  • Bacevich, Andrew J. The New American Militarism. Oxford: University Press, 2005.
  • Barr, Ronald J. "The Progressive Army: US Army Command and Administration 1870-1914." St. Martin's Press, Inc. 1998. ISBN 0-312-21467-7.
  • Bond, Brian. War and Society in Europe, 1870-1970. McGill-Queen's University Press. 1985 ISBN 0-7735-1763-4
  • Ensign, Tod. America's Military Today. The New Press. 2005. ISBN 1-56584-883-7.
  • Fink, Christina. Living Silence: Burma Under Military Rule. White Lotus Press. 2001. ISBN 1-85649-925-1.
  • Frevert, Ute. A Nation in Barracks: Modern Germany, Military Conscription and Civil Society. Berg, 2004. ISBN 1-85973-886-9
  • Huntington, Samuel P.. Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1981.
  • Ritter, Gerhard The Sword and the Scepter; the Problem of Militarism in Germany, translated from the German by Heinz Norden, Coral Gables, Fla., University of Miami Press 1969-73.
  • Shaw, Martin. Post-Military Society: Militarism, Demilitarization and War at the End of the Twentieth Century. Temple University Press, 1992.
  • Tang, C. Comprehensive Notes on World History Hong Kong, 2004
  • Vagts, Alfred. A History of Militarism. Meridian Books, 1959.
  • Western, Jon. Selling Intervention and War. Johns Hopkins University Press. 2005. ISBN 0801881080

Gerhard Albert Ritter (April 6, 1888-July 1, 1967) was a well-known German conservative historian. ...

External links

  • Military Expenditure by Total, Per Capita, and Percentage of GDP - Nationmaster.com
  • The IWW’s Position on War and Militarism

  Results from FactBites:
 
Women and Militarism (6910 words)
Militarization is the "gradual encroachment of the military institution into the civilian arena," including, for example, industrial plants becoming dependent on military contracts or the state relying on the military to solve its unemployment problems.
Therefore it is essential that feminists examine militarism and challenge it as one of the root causes of women's oppression and equally necessary that peace activists examine and challenge patriarchy as one of the root causes of militarism.
In addition to militarism's reinforcement of the gender categories which restrict women's lives and perpetuate their marginalization, there are material ways in which militarism has a gendered affect and has a different impact on women than it does on men, both in "peacetime" and in war.
Militarism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1430 words)
Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military.
Militarism is ideologically rooted in or related to concepts of alarmism, expansionism, extremism, imperialism, loyalism, nationalism, patriotism, protectionism, supremacy, triumphalism and warmongering.
Militarism is manifest in practice by the preferentiality toward goals, concepts, doctrines, and policies derived, originated, or directed from personnel in the military.
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