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Encyclopedia > Miletus
The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005)
The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005)

Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria. The site first became inhabited in the Bronze age. The city was part of the Ionian League. Image File history File linksMetadata MiletusTheater6August2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MiletusTheater6August2005. ... The Carian language was the language of the Carians. ... Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern BoÄŸazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ... Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one script into another script. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... shows the Location of the Province Aydın Aydin (Turkish spelling: Aydın) is a province of Turkey, and its located in the southwestern Anatolian district, or more specifically in the Aegan region, in Turkish called Ege bölgesi. ... The Maeander River is the classical Latin name for the Büyük Menderes River in southwestern Turkey. ... Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Ionian League (also called the Panionic League) was a religious and cultural (as opposed to a political or military) confederacy comprised of 12 Ionian cities, formed as early as 800 BC. The cities were, (from south to north), Miletus, its principal city, Myus, Priene, Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos...

Contents

Legend

Homer records that during the time of the Trojan War, it was a Carian city (Iliad, book II). Other Greek myths relate that the city was founded by a hero named Miletus, who fled Crete to avoid being forced to become the eromenos of King Minos (according to Antoninus Liberalis, after Nicander (Metamorphoses XXX 1-2)). These myths further relate that the hero Miletus found the city only after slaying a giant named Asterius, son of Anax; and that the region known as Miletus was originally called 'Anactoria'. For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... The Carians (Greek Καρες Kares, or Καρικοι Karikoi) were the eponymous inhabitants of Caria. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... According to some accounts, Miletus was a boy loved by all three sons of Europa—Minos, Rhadamanthus and Sarpedon. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... Front face of the MINOS far detector. ...


Location

Miletus is south of Soka. The ruin lies 5 km north of Akkoy. It is believed that Paul stopped by Great Harbour Monument and sat on its steps, on his way back to Jerusalem by boat. He may have met the Ephesian Elders there and then bid them farewell on the nearby beach, which was recorded in the book of Acts.


History

Bronze Age

Miletus is first mentioned in the Hittite Annals of Mursili II as Millawanda. In ca. 1320 BC, Millawanda supported the rebellion of Uhha-Ziti of Arzawa. Mursili ordered his generals Mala-Ziti and Gulla to raid Millawanda, and they proceeded to burn parts of it (damage from LHIIIA:2 has been found on-site: Christopher Mee, Anatolia and the Aegean in the Late Bronze Age, p. 142). In addition the town was fortified according to a Hittite plan (ibid, p. 139). Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ... Mursili II was a king of the Hittite Empire (New kingdom) from ca. ... (Redirected from 1320 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC Events and Trends Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty (1320... Uhha-Ziti was the last independent king of Arzawa, a Bronze Age kingdom of western Anatolia. ... Arzawa is a region or kingdom in what was later to be known as Lydia in Western Anatolia. ...


Millawanda is then mentioned in the "Tawagalawa letter", part of a series including the Manapa-Tarhunta letter and the Milawata letter, all of which are less securely dated. The Tawagalawa letter notes that Milawata had a governor, Atpa, who was under Ahhiyawan (today known as Achaean) jurisdiction; and that the town of Atriya was under Milesian jurisdiction. The Manapa-Tarhunta letter also mentions Atpa. Together the two letters tell that the adventurer Piyama-Radu had humiliated Manapa-Tarhunta before Atpa (in addition to other misadventures); a Hittite king then chased Piyama-Radu into Millawanda and, in the Tawagalawa letter, requested Piyama-Radu's extradition to Hatti. The Tawagalawa letter (CTH 181) was written by a Hittite king to a king of Ahhiyawa around 1250 BC. This letter, of which only the third tablet has been preserved, concerns the activities of an adventurer Piyama-Radu against the Hittites. ... The Manapa-Tarhunta letter (CTH 191; KUB 19. ... The Milawata letter (CTH 182) is a diplomatic correspondence from a Hittite king at Hattusa to a client king in western Anatolia. ... This article is about the ancient people of the Achaeans. ... // Piyama-Radu (also spelled Piyamaradu, Piyama Radu, Piyamaradus, PiyamaraduÅ¡) was a warlike aristocratic personage whose name figures prominently in the Hittite archives of the middle and late 13th century BC in western Anatolia. ... Hatti is the reconstructed ancient name of a region in Anatolia inhabited by the Hattians between the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC, and later by the Hittites, who were at the height of their power ca 1400 BC–1200 BC. The capital city of both peoples was Hattusa (modern...


The Milawata letter mentions a joint expedition by the Hittite king and a Luwiyan vassal (probably Kupanta-Kurunta of Mira) against Milawata (apparently its new name), and notes that Milawata (and Atriya) were now under Hittite control. Distribution of the Luwian language (after Melchert 2003) Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the city of Carchemish. ... Kupanta-Kurunta was the first recorded king of Arzawa, in the late 15th century BC. He was defeated by an earlier Tudhaliya and his son, the future Arnuwanda I. He then attacked Arnuwandas restive vassal Madduwatta at Zippasla. ...


In the last stage of LHIIIB, the citadel of Pylos counted among its female slaves "Mil[w]atiai", women from Miletus. This article is about the Greek geographical feature and town. ...


During the collapse of Bronze Age civilisation, Miletus was burnt again - presumably by the Sea Peoples. The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ...


Mythology

During the Classical period, the women of Miletus retained a tradition of never sitting at table with their husbands. [citation needed]


Mythographers told that Neleus son of Codrus of Athens had come to Miletus after the return of the Heraclids (so, during the Greek Dark Age). The Ionians killed the men of Miletus and married their widows. Neleus was the son of Poseidon and Tyro, brother of Pelias. ...


Historical Period

The city of Miletus became one of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia Minor. Its gridlike layout, planned by Hippodamos, became the basic layout for Roman cities. The city also once possessed a harbor, before it was clogged by alluvium brought by the Meander. The Ionian League (also called the Panionic League) was a religious and cultural (as opposed to a political or military) confederacy comprised of 12 Ionian cities, formed as early as 800 BC. The cities were, (from south to north), Miletus, its principal city, Myus, Priene, Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Hippodamus of Miletus (sometimes also called Hippodamos), was a Greek architect of the 5th century BC. It was he who introduced order and regularity into the planning of cities, in place of the previous intricacy and confusion. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Harbor (disambiguation). ... Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, to wash against) is soil or sediments deposited by a river or other running water. ...


Miletus was one of the cities involved in the Lelantine War of the 8th century BCE. By the 6th century BC, Miletus had earned a maritime empire but brushed up against powerful Lydia at home. The Lelantine War was a long battle between Eretria and Chalcis at the end of the 8th century BC. Eretria was defeated, losing a sum of land in Boeotia. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ...

Map of Miletus and Other Cities within the Lydian Empire
Map of Miletus and Other Cities within the Lydian Empire

When Cyrus of Persia defeated Croesus of Lydia, Miletus fell under Persian rule. In 502 BC, the Ionian Revolt began in Naxos; and when Miletus's tyrant Aristagoras failed to recapture the island, Aristagoras joined the revolt as its leader. Persia quashed this rebellion and punished Miletus in such a fashion that the whole of Greece mourned it. A year afterward, Phrynicus produced the tragedy The Capture of Miletus in Athens. The Athenians fined him for reminding them of their loss. Image File history File links Map_of_Lydia_ancient_times. ... Image File history File links Map_of_Lydia_ancient_times. ... The name Cyrus (or Kourosh in Persian) may refer to: [[Cyrus I of Anshan]], King of Persia around 650 BC [[Cyrus II of Persia | Cyrus the Great]], King of Persia 559 BC - 529 BC — See also Cyrus in the Judeo-Christian tradition Cyrus the Younger, brother to the Persian king... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... The Ionian Revolts were triggered by the actions of Aristagoras, the tyrant of the Ionian city of Miletus at the end of the 6th century BC and the beginning of the 5th century BC. They constituted the first major conflict between Greece and Persia. ... Naxos (Greek: Νάξος; Italian: Nicsia; Turkish: Nakşa) is a Greek island, the largest island (428 km²) in the Cyclades island group in the Aegean. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Aristagoras was the leader of Miletus in the late 6th century BC and early 5th century BC. He was the son of Molpagoras, and son_in_law (and nephew) of Histiaeus, whom the Persians had set up as tyrant of Miletus. ... Phrynichus, son of Polyphradmon and pupil of Thespis, was one of the earliest of the Greek tragedians. ...


In 479 BC, the Greeks decisively defeated the Persians at the Greek mainland, and Miletus was freed of Persian rule. During this time several other cities were formed by Milesian settlers, spanning across what is now Turkey and even as far as Crimea. 479 pr. ... The Milesians of Hellenic (Greek) civilization were the inhabitants of Miletus, a city in the Anatolia province of modern-day Turkey, near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and at the mouth of the Meander River. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ...


Miletus was an important center of philosophy and science, producing such men as Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes. The courtesan Aspasia, mistress of Pericles, was also born in Miletus. Thales of Miletos (, ca. ... Anaximander Possibly what Anaximanders map looked like Anaximander (Greek: Αναξίμανδρος)(c. ... Anaximenes (in Greek: Άναξιμένης) of Miletus (585 BC - 525 BC) was a Greek philosopher from the latter half of the 6th century, probably a younger contemporary of Anaximander, whose pupil or friend he is said to have been. ... Marble herm in the Vatican Museums inscribed with Aspasias name at the base. ... Pericles or Perikles (ca. ...


In 334 BC, the city was liberated from Persian rule by Alexander the Great. Events Alexander the Great crosses the Bosporus, invading Persia. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


The New Testament mentions Miletus as the site where the apostle Paul met with the elders of the church of Ephesus before his capture and travel to Rome for trial, as well as the city where Trophimus, one of Paul's travelling companions, recovered while sick. This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Map of Lydia in ancient times showing location of Ephesus and other ancient cities in western Anatolia Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ) was an Ionian Greek city in ancient Anatolia, founded by colonists from Athens in the 10th century BC[1]. The city was located in Ionia, where the Cayster River (K... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...


During the Byzantine age Miletus became a residence for archbishops. The small Byzantine castle called Castro Palation located on the hill beside the city, was built at this time. “Byzantine” redirects here. ...


Seljuk Turks settled into the city in the 12th century A.D. and used Miletus as a port to trade with Venice. The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


Finally, Ottomans utilized the city as a harbour during their rule in Anatolia. As the harbour became silted up, the city was abandoned. Today the ruins of city lie some 10 kilometres from the sea. The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ...


Inhabitants

Important Pre-Socratic philosophers are said to originate from Miletus. These include Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes. The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... Thales of Miletos (, ca. ... Anaximander Possibly what Anaximanders map looked like Anaximander (Greek: Αναξίμανδρος)(c. ... Anaximenes was the name of several notable people in ancient Greece. ...


Colonies of Miletus

Pliny the Elder mentions 90 colonies founded by Miletus in his Natural History (5.112). Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ...

Sozopol (Bulgarian: Созопол, Greek: Σωζοπολης) is a small, ancient town located 30 km south of Burgas, Bulgaria. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Tomi (also called Tomi) was a Greek colony in the province of Scythia on the Black Seas shore, founded around 500 BC for commercial exchanges with local Dacian populations. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Category:Histria Histria was first a Miletus colony and latter a roman town. ... Tyras, a colony of Miletus, probably founded about 600 BC, situated some 10 m. ... For Pontic Olbia, the Greek colony on the Black Sea coast, see Olbia, Ukraine. ... Panticapaeum and other ancient Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Theodosia (Russian: Феодосия; Ukrainian: Феодосія; Greek: Θεοδωσία; Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Kefe) is a port and resort city in southern Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimea at coordinates 45. ... Sarmatian cataphract from Tanais. ... Phanagoria was an ancient Greek colony on the Taman peninsula between the Black Sea and the Azov, roughly on the site of modern Tmutarakan. ... Pitsunda (Georgian: Bichvinta) is a resort town in Abkhazia, situated on the shore of the Black Sea 25 km south from Gagra. ... Sukhumi (სოხუმი in Georgian, in Abkhaz language) is the capital of Abkhazia, a de facto independent state that is internationally recognised, however, as being part of Georgia. ... The Rioni River is the principal river of western Georgia. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: Trapezoúnta, older: Trapezoûs), is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... now. ... Sinope was an ancient city on the Black Sea, in the region of Galatia, modern-day Sinop, Turkey. ...

Archaeological excavations

The first excavations in Miletus were conducted by the French archaeologist Olivier Rayet in 1873, followed by the German archaeologist Theodor Wiegand. But these were interrupted several times by wars and various other events. Today, excavations are organized by the Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany. 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Theodor Wiegand (Born October 30, 1864 at Bendorf am Rhein – died December 19, 1936 at Berlin) was one of the most famous German Archaeologists. ... Ruhr-University, Audi Max The Ruhr University (German Ruhr-Universität Bochum, RUB), located on the southern hills of central Ruhr area Bochum, was founded in 1962, the first new public university in Germany after World War II. Classes opened in 1965. ... Bochum is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ...


One remarkable artifact recovered from the city during the first excavations of the 19th century, the Market Gate of Miletus, was transported piece by piece to Germany and currently exhibited at the Pergamon museum in Berlin. The main collection of artifacts resides in the Miletus Museum in Didim, Aydın, serving since 1973. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pergamon Museum The Pergamon Museum (in German, Pergamonmuseum) is one of the museums on the Museum Island in Berlin. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Temple of Apollo in Didim Didim is a small town on the west coast of Turkey. ... Aydın (Greek: Αϊδίνιο) is a city in western Turkey and the seat of the Turkish province of the same name (Aydın Province). ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


See also

Lucius Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor was a Greek scholar who was enslaved by the Romans during the war of Sulla and taken to Rome as a tutor. ... The Pergamon Museum The Pergamon Museum (in German, Pergamonmuseum) is one of the museums on the Museum Island in Berlin. ...

References

  • John Garstang, The Hittite Empire (University Press, Edinburgh, 1930), pp. 179-80.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Miletus

Coordinates: 37°31′N, 27°17′E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Priene, Miletus and Didyma - All About Turkey (1549 words)
Miletus which is in the vicinity of Söke (nearby Kusadasi, in the Aegean region of Turkey), was on the seashore in the ancient times.
The Miletus people who had founded about 90 colonies in the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions, after 650 B.C., had resisted the Persian invasions in Anatolia, but they were defeated finally and the city was destroyed by the Persians in 5th c.
Didyma (nearby Didim, in the Aegean region of Turkey) was a cult center for the city of Miletus.
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