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Encyclopedia > Miklós Horthy
Miklós Horthy in 1921

Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya (Vitéz Nagybányai Horthy Miklós in Hungarian) (June 18, 1868February 9, 1957) was a Hungarian Admiral and statesman and served as the Regent of Hungary from March 1, 1920 until October 15, 1944. Download high resolution version (553x893, 116 KB)A 1921 photograph of Admiral Miklós Horthy. ... Download high resolution version (553x893, 116 KB)A 1921 photograph of Admiral Miklós Horthy. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1868 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Admiral is a word from either the Arabic term amir-al-bahr, or the Irish term Ard muirfhear or Ardmurar , both meaning commander of the seas. ... The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... A regent is an acting governor. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in Leap years). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Contents

Early Life and Naval Career

As a young man Horthy traveled around the world and served as a diplomat for the Austro-Hungarian Empire in Turkey and other countries. From 1908 until 1914 he was an aide-de-camp to Emperor Franz Joseph, for whom he had a great respect, according to his memoirs. Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Franz Joseph I Franz Joseph (in English also Francis Joseph) (August 18, 1830 - November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and King of Hungary from 1867 until 1916. ...


During World War I, Horthy distinguished himself as an admiral in the Austro-Hungarian Navy. During the war he defeated the Italian Navy several times, and was wounded at the battle of the Otranto Straits. Because of his success on behalf of the Dual Monarchy, he was promoted to Commander in Chief of the Imperial Fleet in March, 1918, and held that position until he was ordered by Emperor Karl to surrender the fleet to the new State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs on October 31. Horthy stopped the deportation of about a million jews of Budapest resisting Hitler's command. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Austro-Hungarian Navy was the naval force of the Austro_Hungarian Empire. ... The Royal Italian Navy, Regia Marina, was created after the Italian unification. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Karl I, a. ... The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba) was a short-lived state formed from the southernmost parts of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy after its dissolution at the end of the World War I by the resident population of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ...


Interwar Period, 1919-1939

The end of the war made Hungary a landlocked nation, and hence they had little need for Horthy's services anymore. However, he was still regarded by his people as a war hero, and this status paid off in 1919, when the Communist Béla Kun seized power in the Hungarian capital of Budapest. Horthy became head of the armed forces of the counter-revolutionary government established on April 10 in the eastern city of Szeged (occupied by French forces). On August 6 Romanian forces acting under a mandate of the Entente occupied Budapest chasing the Communists. During the Romanian occupation counter-revolutionaries and Romanian forces launched the White Terror against Leftists and Jews. After the retreat of the Romanians from Budapest on November 14, Horthy entered the city. Romanian troops finally evacuated Hungary on February 25, 1920, taking with them everything they could carry. 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Béla Kun Béla Kun (February 20, 1886–1939?) was a Hungarian Communist who ruled Hungary for a brief time in 1919. ... Budapest (pronounced or ), the capital city of Hungary and the countrys principal political, industrial, commercial and transportation centre, has more than 1. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... Location: 46° 15′ 0″ N 20° 10′ 0″ E Szeged  listen (in Serbian Segedin, in Polish Segedyn, in Romanian Seghedin, in Slovak Segedín) is the fourth largest city of Hungary, the regional centre of South-Eastern Hungary and the capital of Csongrád county. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... Entente, meaning a diplomatic understanding, may refer to a number of agreements: The Entente Cordiale, 1904 between France and the United Kingdom. ... Budapest (pronounced or ), the capital city of Hungary and the countrys principal political, industrial, commercial and transportation centre, has more than 1. ... Historical origin and common usage The original White Terror took place in 1794 in the aftermath of the Reign of Terror. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...


In March, 1920, the National Assembly of Hungary re-established the Kingdom of Hungary, but elected not to recall Charles IV of Hungary from exile. Instead, they proclaimed Horthy as Regent for an indefinite period of time. The Admiral without a fleet in a country without a coastline spent the next 24 years as the Regent for a Kingdom without a King. 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Karl I, a. ...


A staunch conservative, Horthy eventually began to sympathize with Fascism and appointed several pro-fascist officials to cabinet posts in the 1930s. Eventually, when the Nazi government of Adolf Hitler began to rise in power and put pressure on neighboring nations to return territories lost after the war, Horthy became his willing accomplice. In November 1938, the Vienna Arbitrage enabled him to annex nearly one-third of Slovakia. Five months later, when Hitler took over what remained of Czechoslovakia, the Germans allowed Hungary to seize Ruthenia, as well. Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Events and trends The 1930s were spent struggling for a solution to the global depression. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Imperial chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The two Vienna Awards or Vienna Arbitration Awards or Vienna Arbitral Awards or Vienna Diktats or Viennese Arbitrals is the name of two arbitral awards (1938 and 1940), by which arbiters of the National Socialist Germany and of Fascist Italy tried to enforce territorial claims of the Revisionist Hungary ruled... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ...


World War II

Enlarge
Admiral Horthy inspecting the German fleet with Adolf Hitler

In 1940, Hungary prepared to go to war with Romania to regain another lost province, Transylvania. Again, Hitler intervened on his behalf and gave Hungary half of the disputed territory without firing a shot. In April of 1941, Hungary became a full member of the Axis, participating together with Germany and Bulgaria in the invasion of Yugoslavia (in protest against that, Prime-Minister Pál Teleki committed suicide). Before the year was over, the country was at war with the Soviet Union as a German ally. However, Horthy resisted German pressure and refused to allow the deportation of Hungarian Jews to the German extermination camps in occupied Poland as part of the Holocaust (although there were a number of Pogroms against Jews in occupied Transylvania and in the teritories taken from Yugoslavia. In January raid in 1942 numerous Serb and Jewish civilians were brutally murdered in Backa region of Vojvodina, and their corpses were thrown into the iced waters of rivers Danube and Tisa). Hitler and Regent Miklós Horthy of Hungary observing Kriegsmarine U-Boat maneuvers in 1938. ... Hitler and Regent Miklós Horthy of Hungary observing Kriegsmarine U-Boat maneuvers in 1938. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Serbian: Transilvanija, Turkish: Erdel, Slovak: Sedmohradsko or Transylvánia, Polish: Siedmiogród) is a historic region that forms the western and central parts of Romania. ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Axis Powers is a term for those participants in World War II opposed to the Allies. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... Pál Count Teleki de Szék (November 1, 1879 – April 3, 1941) was prime minister of Hungary from 1920 till 1921 and from 1939 till 1941. ... Majdanek - crematorium Extermination camp (German Vernichtungslager) was the term applied to a group of camps set up by Nazi Germany during World War II for the express purpose of killing the Jews of Europe, although members of some other groups whom the Nazis wished to exterminate, such as Roma (Gypsies... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка Hungarian: Bácska) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... Serbia and Montenegro  – Serbia    – Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    – Vojvodina  – Montenegro Official languages Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn1 Capital Novi Sad Area  – Total  – % water  21,500 km²  n/a Population  – Total (2002)  – Density  2,031,992  94. ... Length 2,888 km Elevation of the source 1,078 m Average discharge 30 km before Passau: 580 m³/s Vienna: 1,900 m³/s Budapest: 2,350 m³/s just before Delta: 6,500 m³/s Area watershed 817,000 km² Origin Black Forest (Schwarzwald-Baar, Baden- Württemberg, Germany... The Tisza (in Hungarian, Ukrainian: Tysa/Тиса, Russian: Tisa/Тиса, Romanian, Slovak and Serbian: Tisa, German: Theiß, Latin: Tissus, Tisia or Pathissus) is a river, tributary of the Danube and one of the major rivers of Central Europe, passing through Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine and Serbia and Montenegro. ...


By 1944, the fortunes of war had turned against Germany and its allies, and the Red Army was approaching Hungary's borders. The Germans intervened in March to appoint a puppet government in Budapest, but Horthy dismissed it in August and began negotiations with the Soviets. Again, the Germans intervened by sending commando Otto Skorzeny to Budapest. Skorzeny kidnapped Horthy's son Nicholas as he went to negotiate with the Soviets, and forced Horthy to abdicate as Regent on October 15. Horthy's loss of power was disastrous for Hungarian Jewry. 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Otto Skorzeny Otto Skorzeny (June 12, 1908 - July 5, 1975) was a colonel in the German Waffen-SS during World War II. He is best-known as the commando leader who rescued Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow. ...


In March, the Germans began transporting Hungarian Jews to Poland for extermination, and most Hungarian Jews perished in the Holocaust toward the end of the war. Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust was Nazi Germanys systematic genocide (ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II. Early elements include the Kristallnacht pogrom and the T-4 Euthanasia Program established by Hitler that killed some 200,000 people. ...


Horthy spent the rest of the war under house arrest in Bavaria, being treated remarkably well under the circumstances, and was arrested by the Americans in May of 1945. 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Post-War Life

Although the new Yugoslavia demanded he be tried as a war criminal, the Allies refused to do so. This was mainly the result of American influence. He was released and settled in Estoril, Portugal, where he died in 1957. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... The Estoril Coast is close to Lisbon, the capital of Portugal. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


While in Portugal he wrote his memoirs, Ein Leben für Ungarn (English: A Life for Hungary), in which he narrated many personal experiences from his youth until the end of World War II, claimed to have distrusted Hitler for much of the time he knew him, claimed that he tried to perform the best actions and appoint the best officials in his country, and gave evidence for Hungary's mistreatment by many other countries since the end of World War I.


Horthy married once. He had two sons, Nicholas and Steven, who served as his political assistants. Of his four children, only Nicholas outlived him. According to footnotes in his memoirs, Horthy was very distraught about the failure of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. In his will, Horthy asked that his body not be returned to Hungary "until the last Russian soldier has left". His heirs honored the request. In 1993, when the Russians ended 48 years of military occupation of Hungary, Horthy's body was returned and he was buried in his hometown of Kenderes. Miklos Horthy II (1907–1982) was a politician in Hungary during World War II. He was the son of regent Admiral Miklos Horthy. ... István Horthy (died August 21, 1942) was a politician and fighter pilot from Hungary during World War II. He was appointed Deputy Regent of Hungary in January 1942 by his father, Regent Admiral Miklós Horthy. ... Hungarians investigate a disabled Soviet tank in Budapest The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, also known as the Hungarian Uprising or simply the Hungarian Revolt, was a revolt in Hungary. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


See also

  • History of Hungary

This is the history of Hungary. ...

External links


 
 

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