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Encyclopedia > Mikhail Tukhachevsky
Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky
February 16, 1893June 12, 1937

Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky
Place of birth Flag of Russia Alexandrovskoye, Russia
Allegiance Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union
Rank Marshal of the Soviet Union
Battles/wars Russian Civil War, Polish-Soviet War

Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Russian: Михаи́л Никола́евич Тухаче́вский; Polish: Michał Tuchaczewski) (February 16 [O.S. February 4] 1893 – June 12, 1937), was a Soviet military commander, chief of the Red Army (1925–1928), and one of the most prominent victims of Stalin's Great Purge of the late 1930s. is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Tukhachevsky-mikhail-2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskovo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... The Russian Civil War (1917-1922) began immediately after the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd, rapidly intensifying after the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly and signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ...

Contents

Early Life

Tukhachevsky was born on his family estate Alexandrovskoye (currently in Safonovsky District, Smolensk Oblast) into an aristocratic family of Polish origin. He graduated from the Aleksandrovskoye Military School in 1914, joining the Semyenovsky Guards Regiment. A second lieutenant during World War I, Tukhachevsky was decorated for personal courage in the battles. After he was taken prisoner by the Germans in February 1915, he escaped four times from the camps, was captured again, and finally as an incorrigible escapee held in Ingolstadt fortress, where he met another incorrigible - the then captain Charles de Gaulle. Smolensk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Leib Guards reception at the Constantine Palace. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Ingolstadt (Austro-Bavarian: Inglstådt) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, Germany. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ...


His fifth escape was successful, and he returned to Russia in October 1917. After the Russian Revolution he joined the Bolshevik Party. 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...


During the Civil War

He became an officer in the Red Army and rapidly advanced in rank due to his great ability. During the Russian Civil War he was given responsibility for defending Moscow. The Bolshevik Defence Commissar Leon Trotsky gave Tukhachevsky command of the 5th Army in 1919, and he led the campaign to capture Siberia from the White forces of Aleksandr Kolchak. He also helped defeat General Anton Denikin in the Crimea in 1920. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Russian Civil War (1917-1922) began immediately after the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd, rapidly intensifying after the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly and signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... White Army redirects here. ... Admiral Kolchak Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Александр Васильевич Колчак in Russian) (November 4 (November 16 NS), 1874 – February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of the anti-Bolshevik White forces during the Russian Civil War. ... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


The suppression of anti-Bolshevik uprisings

Both the Kronstadt rebellion and the Tambov peasant revolt were suppressed by forces under Tukhachevsky's command. Under direct order from Tukhachevsky state of the art chemical weapons were employed against civil population - rebellious Tambov peasants.[1] Combatants Soviet Sailors Red Army Commanders Stepan Petrichenko Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky Strength c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Antonovschina. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ...


During the Polish-Soviet War

Tukhachevsky led the Bolshevik armies during the Polish-Soviet War in 1920, and was defeated by Józef Piłsudski outside Warsaw. It was during the Polish war that Tukhachevsky first came into conflict with Stalin. Each blamed the other for the Soviet failure to capture Warsaw, which brought Soviet defeat in the war. Tukhachevsky is commonly criticized for inadequate control of his forces. His orders were frequently disobeyed, even by high-ranking officers, which led the Bolshevik armies to several major failures throughout the campaign (see also 1st Cavalry Army). On the other hand, Tukhachevsky argued that he could not choose his division commanders or move his headquarters from Moscow, for political reasons. The animosity between him and Stalin continued into the 1930s. Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... Combatants Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Republic of Poland Ukrainian Peoples Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Dead estimated at 100,000... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman Political party none (see Sanacja for details), formerly PPS Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... The 1st Cavalry Army (Russian: ) was the most famous Red Army сavalry formation also known as Budyonnys Cavalry Army or simply Konarmia. ...


The reform of the Red Army

Tukhachevsky served as chief of staff of the Red Army (1925–1928) and as Deputy Commissar for Defence. He attempted to transform the irregular revolutionary detachments of the Red Army into a well-drilled, professional military. In particular, Tukhachevsky strongly advocated for an industrialized modernization of the Red Army, replacing the traditional reliance on cavalry with a tank-based military. At this early point his ideas were rejected by Stalin as well as rival conservative forces in the Soviet military establishment, and he was removed from the Red Army staff and censured by Stalin for encouraging "Red militarism." Following this, he wrote several books on modern warfare and in 1931, after Stalin had accepted the need for an industrialized military, Tukhachevsky was given a leading role in reforming the army. He held advanced ideas on military strategy, particularly on the use of tanks and aircraft in combined operations. Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The theory of deep operations

His theory of deep operations, where combined arms formations strike deep behind enemy lines to destroy the enemy's rear and logistics[2] [3] [4] [5] [6], were opposed by some in the military establishment[7], but were largely adopted by the Red Army in the mid-1930's. They were expressed as a concept in the Red Army's Field Regulations of 1929, and more fully developed in 1935's Instructions on Deep Battle. The concept was finally codified into the army in 1936 in the Provisional Field Regulations of 1936. An early example of the potential effectiveness of deep operations can be found in the Soviet victory over Japan at the Battle of Khalkhin Gol (Nomonhan), where a Soviet Corps under the command of G. K. Zhukov defeated a substantial Japanese force in August-September, 1939. During the 1930s, Soviet military theorists introduced the concept of deep battle. ... During the 1930s, Soviet military theorists introduced the concept of deep battle. ... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolian Peoples Republic Empire of Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced) Casualties Archival research 7,974 killed, 15,251 wounded[1] Japanese government claim 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded Soviet claim 60,000... Nomonhan is a small village near the border between Mongolia and Manchuria, China south of the Chinese city of Manzhouli. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun...


Due to the widespread purges of the Red Army officer corps in 1937-1939 deep operations briefly fell from favor, only later being gradually re-adopted following the embarrassment of the Red Army during the Winter War of 1939-40 when the Soviet Union invaded Finland. They were used to great success during the Great Patriotic War, in such victories as the Battle of Stalingrad and Operation Bagration. During the 1930s, Soviet military theorists introduced the concept of deep battle. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Combatants Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B: German Sixth Army # German Fourth Panzer Army... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch (to 28 June), Walter Model (Army Group Centre) Georg-Hans Reinhardt (Third Panzer Army) Hans Jordan (Ninth Army) Kurt von Tippelskirch (Fourth Army) Walter Weiss (Second Army) Georgy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovsky (3rd Belorussian Front) Hovhannes Bagramyan (1st Baltic Front) Ivan Chernyakhovsky (1st Belorussian...


The fall

In 1935 Tukhachevsky was made a Marshal of the Soviet Union, aged only 42. In January 1936 Tukhachevsky visited Britain, France and Germany. It was subsequently alleged that during these visits he contacted anti-Stalin Russian exiles and began plotting against Stalin. 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskovo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Tukhachevsky was arrested on May 22, 1937, and charged with organization of "military-Trotskyist conspiracy" and espionage for Nazi Germany. After a secret trial, known as Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization, Tukhachevsky and eight other higher military commanders were convicted, and executed on June 12, 1937. is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A secret trial is a trial that is not open to the public, nor reported in the news. ... Case of Trotskyist Anti-Soviet Military Organization (Дело троцкистской антисоветской военной организации, or дело антисоветской троцкистской военной организации) was a 1937 trial of high commanders of the Red Army, also known as Case of Military (дело военных) and Tukhachevskys case. During the trials it was also referred to as the military-fascist conspiracy (военно-фашистский заговор), the military-trotskyist organization, and the counter-revolutionary... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On January 31, 1957, Tukhachevsky and his colleagues were declared to have been innocent of all charges against them and were "rehabilitated." Both before and since the fall of the Soviet Union, however, some writers have suggested that there really was a military conspiracy against Stalin in which Tukhachevsky was involved. is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


In his book The Great Terror (1968), the British historian Robert Conquest argued that German agents, on the initiative of Heinrich Himmler, forged documents implicating Tukhachevsky in a conspiracy with the German General Staff, in order to make Stalin suspicious of him, thus weakening the Soviet Union's defence capacity. These documents, Conquest said, were passed to President Edvard Beneš of Czechoslovakia, who passed them on in good faith to Stalin. This version of events was given credence by a 1961 speech by the Polish Communist leader Władysław Gomułka but, inasmuch as it has not been confirmed by new evidence since the fall of the Soviet Union, the matter remains unresolved. Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. George Robert Ackworth Conquest (born July 15, 1917), British historian, became one of the best-known writers on the Soviet Union with the publication, in 1968, of his account of Stalins purges of the 1930s, The Great Terror. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900–23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ... Edvard BeneÅ¡ with wife 1921, autochrome portrait by Josef JindÅ™ich Å echtl Edvard BeneÅ¡ with his wife 1934 Edvard Benes meeting with Munkacs Wonder-Rabbi Chaim Elazar Spira Statue of Edvard BeneÅ¡ in front of headquarters of Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Prague Edvard BeneÅ¡ (IPA: ) (May 28, 1884... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw GomuÅ‚ka (February 6, 1905, Krosno – September 1, 1982) was a Polish Communist leader. ...


In the book The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is said that Tukhachevsky's confession, written by him, is stained in blood. We can assume that he and many of other executed officials were tortured. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book authored by several European academics and senior researchers from CNRS, and edited by Dr. Stéphane Courtois. ...


See also

The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskovo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... The Moscow Trials were a series of trials of political opponents of Joseph Stalin during the Great Purge. ...

References

  1. ^ History of Communist Party of Soviet Union
  2. ^ Richard Simpkin in association with John Erickson Deep battle : the brainchild of Marshal Tukhachevskii, London, Brassey's Defence, 1987. ISBN 0-08-031193-8
  3. ^ Alexander Vasilevsky The Case of All My Life (Дело всей жизни). 3d ed. Политиздат, 1978 Chapter8 (Russian)
  4. ^ Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mannouere and Artillery (Russian)
  5. ^ Mikhail Tukhachevsky Fashionable Fallacies (Russian)
  6. ^ Mikhail Tukhachevsky About the New Manual of the Red Army (Russian)
  7. ^ John Erickson The Soviet High Command: A Military-Political History, 1918-1941, Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-71-465178-8

Richard Evelyn Simpkin (1921 - 1986) was a British Army officer, attaining the rank of brigadier. ... John Erickson (1929 - 2002) was a British historian who wrote extensively on the Second World War, with key books on Operation Barbarossa and the Battle of Stalingrad. ... Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky (Russian: , September 30, 1895 – December 5, 1977) was a Soviet military commander, promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1943. ... John Erickson (1929 - 2002) was a British historian who wrote extensively on the Second World War, with key books on Operation Barbarossa and the Battle of Stalingrad. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Article about "Mikhail Tukhachevsky" in the English Wikipedia on 24-Apr-2004 (487 words)
Tukhachevsky was born near Vladimir, east of Moscow, into a noble family, and graduated from the Alekzanderskoe Military Academy in 1914.
Tukhachevsky led the Bolshevik armies during the Polish-Soviet War in 1921, where he was defeated by Jozef Pilsudski outside Warsaw.
Tukhachevsky served as chief of staff of the Red Army (1925-28) and as deputy Commissar for Defence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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