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Encyclopedia > Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov
Mikhail Kutuzov
Mikhail Kutuzov

Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (Russian: князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов) (September 16, 1745April 28, 1813 (n.s.), or 5th September 1745 - 16th April 1813 (o.s.)) was the Russian Field Marshal popularly credited with saving his country from Napoleon's invasion. This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The term prince (the female form is princess), from the Latin root princeps, when used for a member of the highest aristocracy, has several fundamentally different meanings - one generic, and several types of titles. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Gregorian calendar is the calendar that is used nearly everywhere in the world. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and took force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...

Contents


Early career

Golenishchev-Kutuzov (usually shortened as Kutuzov), born at Saint Petersburg, entered the Russian army in 1759 or 1760. He saw active service in Poland (17641769), and against the Turks (17701774); lost an eye in action in the latter year; and after that traveled for some years in central and western Europe. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1764 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighboring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...


In 1784 he became a major-general, in 1787 governor-general of the Crimea; and under Suvorov, whose disciple he became, he won considerable distinction in the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792, at the taking of Ochakov, Odessa, Tighina and Ismail, and the battles of Rimnik and Mashin. He was now (1791) a lieutenant-general, and successively occupied the positions of ambassador at Constantinople, governor-general of Finland, commandant of the corps of cadets at Saint Petersburg, ambassador at Berlin, and governor-general of Saint Petersburg. 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Russian: ) (sometimes transliterated as Aleksandr, Aleksander and Suvarov), Count Suvorov of Rymnik, Prince of Italy () (November 24, 1729 – May 18, 1800), was the fourth and last Russian Generalissimo (not counting Stalin). ... The Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792 was a futile attempt by the Ottoman Empire to regain lands lost to Russia in the course of the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774. ... Ochakov (Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Özi) is a town in Mykolaiv (Nikolaev) Oblast, in southern Ukraine, located near the site of ancient Greek colony of Olbia. ... For other uses, see Odessa (disambiguation). ... Tighina or Bender (Russian: Бендеры) is a city in Transnistria, a breakaway region of Moldova. ... Izmail or Ismail (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Romanian: Ismail), is a town in south-western Ukraine, located near Danube delta in Odessa Oblast (province). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Map of Constantinople. ... A cadet is a person who is junior in some way. ... Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ...


Napoleonic wars in Europe

Kutuzov at the Battle of Borodino.
Kutuzov at the Battle of Borodino.

In 1805 he commanded the Russian corps which opposed Napoleon's advance on Vienna, and won the hard-fought action of Dürrenstein on 11 November 1805. This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Napoleon I Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Russian Empire Commanders Édouard Mortier Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov Strength about 8,000 about 24,000 The Battle of Dürenstein (also known as the Battle of Dürrenstein or Battle of Dürnstein) was an engagement in the Napoleonic Wars during the War of... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


On the eve of Austerlitz Kutuzov tried to prevent the Allied generals from fighting a battle, and, being overruled by the Austrians, took so little interest in the event that he fell asleep during the reading of the orders. He was, however, present at the battle itself (2 December 1805), and was wounded. From 1806 to 1811 Kutuzov served as governor-general of Lithuania and Kiev. Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Strength 67,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead 6,940 wounded 573 captured about 9,000 total 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded 12,000 captured about 27,000 total 180... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Joyce Rollins is a lesbian. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ...


He was then put in charge of the Russian army operating against the Turks in the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812. Understanding that his armies would be needed badly in the upcoming fight with the French, he hastily brought the prolonged war to a victorious end and concluded the propitious Treaty of Bucharest, which stipulated for incorporation of Bessarabia into the Russian Empire. For this success he was made prince (knyaz). The Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812 was one of many wars fought between Imperial Russia and Ottoman Empire. ... Treaty of Bucharest of 1812 was signed on 28 May 1812 by the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, at the end of the Russian-Turkish war (1806-1812). ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish) was the name by which the Imperial Russia designated the eastern part of the principality of Moldavia ceded by the Ottoman Empire to Russia in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... The term prince (the female form is princess), from the Latin root princeps, when used for a member of the highest aristocracy, has several fundamentally different meanings - one generic, and several types of titles. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages. ...


The Patriotic War (1812)

Kutuzov at the Fili conference decides to surrender Moscow to Napoleon.
Kutuzov at the Fili conference decides to surrender Moscow to Napoleon.

When Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (then Minister of War) wisely chose to follow the scorched earth principle and retreat rather than to risk a major battle. His strategy aroused grudges from most of the generals and soldiers, notably knyaz Petr Bagration. Therefore, when Kutuzov was appointed commander-in-chief and arrived to the army on August 17, he was greeted with delight. Aleksey D. Kivshenko (1851-95). ... Aleksey D. Kivshenko (1851-95). ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... Knyaz de Tolly Knyaz Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, called by the Russians as Mikhail Bogdanovich Barklay de Tolly (Михаи́л Богда́нович Баркла́й-де-То́лли) (born December 21, 1761 in Riga, [then] Imperial Russia; died May 26, 1818 in Insterburg, [then] Prussia), was a Russian field marshal and Minister of War. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages. ... Petr Ivanovich Bagration Prince Petr Ivanovich Bagration (Пётр Иванович Багратион) (1765 - September 12, 1812), a descendant of the Georgian Royal family of the Bagratids, served as a Russian general. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Within two weeks Kutuzov decided to give major battle on approaches to Moscow. Two huge armies clashed near Borodino on 7 September 1812 in what has been described as the greatest battle in human history up to that date, involving nearly a quarter of a million soldiers. The result of the battle was inconclusive, with a quarter of the French and half of the Russian army killed or wounded. After the famous conference at the village of Fili, Kutuzov fell back on the strategy of his predecessor: withdraw in order to save the Russian army as long as possible. Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Combatants First French Empire Russian Empire Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov Strength 134,000 155,000 Casualties 30,000 45,000 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Borodino (Russian: Бородино) (September 7, 1812, or August 26 in the Julian calendar then used in Russia), also called the Battle of the Moskva, was... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... See Fíli and Kíli for the Dwarves appearing in The Hobbit. ...


This came at the price of losing Moscow, whose population was evacuated. Having retreated to the Kaluga road and replenished his ammunitions, he forced Napoleon into retreat in the Battle of Maloyaroslavets. The old general's cautious pursuit evoked much criticism, but at any rate he allowed only a remnant of the Grand Army to regain Prussian soil. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga, built in 1967 Kaluga (Калу́га in Russian) is a city in central Russia on the Oka River 188 km southwest of Moscow, administrative center of Kaluga Oblast. ... The Battle of Maloyaroslavets took place on October 24, 1812, between the Russians, under Marshal Kutuzov, and part of the corps of Eugène de Beauharnais, Napoleons son_in_law, under General Delzons with numbered about 20,000 strong. ... La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ...


Kutuzov now held the rank of Field Marshal and had been awarded the victory title of His Serene Highness Knyaz Smolensky (Светлейший князь Смоленский) - having achieved this title for a victory over part of the French army at Smolensk in November 1812. A victory title is an honorific title adopted by a successful military commander to commemorate his defeat of an enemy nation. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages. ... The First Battle of Smolensk took place on August 17, 1812, between 175,000 French under Napoleon Bonaparte and 130,000 Russians under Prince Bagration, of whom about 50,000 and 60,000 respectively were actually engaged. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: ) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dnieper River at 54. ...

Kutuzov monument in St Petersburg (1837).
Kutuzov monument in St Petersburg (1837).

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 1026 KB) Koetoezov monument on the square in front of the Kazan cathedral in Saint Petersburg. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 1026 KB) Koetoezov monument on the square in front of the Kazan cathedral in Saint Petersburg. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...

Memorials

Equestrian statue of Kutuzov on Kutuzov Avenue, Moscow.
Equestrian statue of Kutuzov on Kutuzov Avenue, Moscow.

Early in 1813 Kutuzov fell ill and died on 28 April 1813 at Bunzlau. Memorials have been erected to him at that place, at the Poklonnaya Hill in Moscow and in front of the Kazan Cathedral, St Petersburg, where he is buried. As he had no male issue, his estates passed to the Tolstoy family. Among Russian generals Kutuzov has been held second only to his teacher Suvorov. Alexander Pushkin addressed the Field Marshal in the famous elegy on Kutuzov's sepulchre, and he also figures as a wise and popular leader in Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace. During the Great Patriotic War (1941-45) the Soviet government established the Order of Kutuzov which, among several other decorations, was preserved in Russia upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union, thus remaining to be one of the highest military awards in the Russian Federation. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 1022 KB) own work, august 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1536, 1022 KB) own work, august 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bolesławiec is a town in southwestern Poland (Lower Silesia), with 41,300 inhabitants (2000). ... Night view of the hill from Kutuzov Avenue. ... 19th-century view of the Kazan Cathedral in St. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Coat of arms of Count Leo Tolstoy This article is about the Tolstoy family; for the famous novelist, see Leo Tolstoy. ... Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (Russian: ) (sometimes transliterated as Aleksandr, Aleksander and Suvarov), Count Suvorov of Rymnik, Prince of Italy () (November 24, 1729 – May 18, 1800), was the fourth and last Russian Generalissimo (not counting Stalin). ... Aleksandr Pushkin was a Russian poet and a founder of modern Russian literature Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин) (June 6 (May 26, O.S... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , Lev Nikolaevič Tolstoj), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) was a Russian novelist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of the Tolstoy... War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир, Vojna i mir; in original orthography: Война и миръ, Vojna i mir) is an epic novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Order of Kutuzov 1st class (first variant) The Order of Kutuzov (Russian: Орден Кутузова) is a Soviet military award, named after famous Russian Field Marshal Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov. ...


Further reading

  • Parkinson, Roger. The Fox of the North: The Life of Kutuzov, General of War and Peace. New York: David McKay, 1976 (ISBN 0679507043).

External links

  • Kutuzov's military career
  • Short biography & painting from the Hermitage Museum
  • History of the memorial at Kutuzov's place of death
  • The Russian Army during the Napoleonic Wars

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov (564 words)
Kutuzov, born at Saint Petersburg, entered the Russian army in 1759 or 1760.
Kutuzov gave battle at Borodino (7 September 1812) in the Patriotic War against Napoleon, and after its undecisive results he fell back on the strategy of his predecessor: withdraw in order to save the Russian army from possible defeat.
Kutuzov now held the rank of Field Marshal and had become Prince of Smolensk - having achieved this title for a victory over part of the French army at that place in November 1812.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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