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Encyclopedia > Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
Михаил Сергеевич Горбачёв
Mikhail Gorbachev

In office
15 March 1990 – 25 December 1991
Preceded by Office created
Himself (as Chairman of Supreme Soviet)
Succeeded by Office abolished

In office
11 March 1985 – 24 August 1991
Preceded by Konstantin Chernenko
Succeeded by Vladimir Ivashko

Born March 02, 1931 (1931-03-02) (age 76)
Stavropol, Russian SFSR, USSR
Political party Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1950–1991)
Social Democratic Party of Russia (2001–2004)
Union of Social Democrats (2007-present)
Spouse Raisa Gorbachyova (d. 1999)
Religion Atheism

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: [mʲɪxɐˈil sʲɪrˈgʲeɪvʲɪʨ gərbɐˈʨof]; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. He was the last General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, as well as head of state of the USSR, serving from 1985 until its collapse in 1991. His attempts at reform, perestroika and glasnost, as well as summit conferences with United States President Ronald Reagan, contributed to the end of the Cold War, and also ended the political supremacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990, and is currently the leader of the Union of Social-Democrats[2], a political party founded after the official dissolution of the Social Democratic Party of Russia in 2007. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 382 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (596 × 936 pixels, file size: 374 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Please see the file description page for further information. ... The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko (Russian: , Ukrainian: ) (1932–1994) was briefly the acting General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the period from August 24, 1991 to August 29, 1991. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stavropol (Russian: ) is a city located in south-western Russia. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... The Socialist Democratic Party of Russia is a political party founded in Russia by Mikhail Gorbachev on November 26, 2001. ... Union of Social Democrats is a Russian non-governmental organization founded on October 20, 2007 by Mikhail Gorbachev[1]. The party has its roots in the former Social Democratic Party of Russia, which lost its official status in April 2007 due to low party membership. ... Ronald Reagan, Nancy Reagan, Raisa Gorbachev and Mikhail Gorbachev in 8 December 1987. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Ru-Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Reagan redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Union of Social Democrats is a Russian non-governmental organization founded on October 20, 2007 by Mikhail Gorbachev[1]. The party has its roots in the former Social Democratic Party of Russia, which lost its official status in April 2007 due to low party membership. ... The Socialist Democratic Party of Russia is a political party founded in Russia by Mikhail Gorbachev on November 26, 2001. ...

Contents

Early life

Gorbachev faced a tough childhood under the totalitarian leadership of Joseph Stalin; his paternal grandfather was sentenced to nine years in the gulag for withholding grain from the collective's harvest [3]. He lived through World War II, during which, starting in August 1942, German troops occupied Stavropol. Although they left by February 1943, the occupation increased the hardship of the community and left a deep impression on the young Gorbachev.[4] From 1946 through 1950, he worked during the summers as an assistant combine harvester operator at the collective farms in his area.[4] He would take an increasing part in promoting peasant labour, which he describes as "very hard" because of enforced state quotas and taxes on private plots. Furthermore, as peasants were not issued passports, their only opportunity to leave their peasant existence was through enlisting in 'orgnabour' (organised recruitment) labour projects, which prompted Gorbachev to ask "what difference was there between this life and serfdom?".[5] Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Stavropol (Russian: ) is a city located in south-western Russia. ... A CLAAS Caterpillar LEXION Combine. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Serf redirects here. ...


Political career

Despite the hardship of his background, Gorbachev excelled in the fields and in the classroom. He was considered one of the most intelligent in his class [3], with a particular interest in history and mathematics. After he left school he helped his father harvest a record crop on his collective farm. As a result, he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labour, at just 16 (1947). It was rare for someone his age to be given such an honour. It was almost certain that this award, coupled with his intelligence, helped secure his place at Moscow University, where he studied law from September 1950.[4] Gorbachev may never have intended to practice law, however he simply may have seen it as preparation for working in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). He became a candidate member of the Party that same year.[4] While living in Moscow, he met his future wife, Raisa Maksimovna Titarenko.[4] They married on 25 September 1953 and moved to Gorbachev's home region of Stavropol in southern Russia when he graduated in June 1955, where he immersed himself in party work.[4] Upon graduating, he briefly worked in the Prokuratura (Soviet State Procuracy) before transferring to the Komsomol, or Communist Union of Youth. He served as First Secretary of the Stavropol City Komsomol Committee from September, 1956, later moving up to the Stavropol Krai (regional) Komsomol Committee, where he worked as Second Secretary from April 1958 and as First Secretary from March 1961.[4] Raisa would give birth to their first child, a daughter, Irina, on 6 January 1957.[5] Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... The Order of the Red Banner of Labour was an Order (decoration) of the Soviet Union for accomplishments in labour and civil service. ... Moscow State University campus M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Московский Государственный Университет име&#1085... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Raisa Maximovna Gorbacheva (Russian: Раи́са Макси́мовна Горбачёва), maiden name Raisa Maximovna Titarenko (Раи́са Макси́мо&#1074... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Stavropol (Russian: ) is a city located in south-western Russia. ... Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist... Stavropol (Russian: ) is a city located in south-western Russia. ... Krai (Russian: край; British English transliteration: kray), is a term used to refer to several of Russias 89 administrative regions (federal subjects). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


He attended the important XXIInd CPSU Party Congress in October 1961, where Khrushchev announced a plan to move to a communist society within 20 years and surpass the U.S. in per capita production. Gorbachev was promoted to Head of the Department of Party Organs in the Stavropol Agricultural Kraikom in 1963.[4] By 1966, at age 35, he obtained a correspondence degree as an agronomist-economist from the Agricultural Institute.[4] His career moved forward rapidly — in 1970, he was appointed First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Kraikom, becoming one of the youngest provincial party chiefs in the USSR.[4] In this position he helped to reorganize the collective farms, improve workers' living conditions, expand the size of their private plots, and give them a greater voice in planning.[4] His work was evidently effective, because he was made a member of the CPSU Central Committee in 1971. In 1972, he headed a Soviet delegation to Belgium,[4] and two years later, in 1974, he was made a Representative to the Supreme Soviet, and Chairman of the Standing Commission on Youth Affairs. He was subsequently appointed to the Central Committee Secretariat for Agriculture in 1978, replacing Fyodor Kulakov, who had backed his rise to power, after Kulakov died of a heart attack.[4][5] The Congress of the CPSU was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its predecessors. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Stavropol (Russian: ) is a city located in south-western Russia. ... The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ...


In 1979, he was promoted to the Politburo as a candidate member, and received full membership in 1980. Gorbachev owed his steady rise to power to the patronage of Mikhail Suslov, the powerful chief ideologist of the CPSU, and Yuri Andropov, head of the KGB and also a native of Stavropol, and was promoted during Andropov's brief time as leader of the Party before Andropov's death in 1984. [1] With responsibility over personnel, working together with Andropov, 20 percent of the top echelon of government ministers and regional governors were replaced, often with younger men. During this time Grigory Romanov, Nikolai Ryzhkov, and Yegor Ligachev were elevated, the latter two working closely with Gorbachev, Ryzhkov on economics, Ligachev on personnel. He was also close to Konstantin Chernenko, Andropov's successor, serving as second secretary.[6] Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... Mikhail Suslov. ... Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Stavropol (Russian: ) is a city located in south-western Russia. ... Grigory V. Romanov (born 1923) was a Soviet Politburo member and chief rival to Mikhael Gorbachev in the succession struggle following the death of Konstantin Chernenko. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Ryzhkov (Николай Иванович Рыжков; born September 28, 1929-) was a Soviet official and, after the breakup of the Soviet Union, a Russian politician. ... Yegor Kuzmich Ligachev (Его́р Кузьми́ч Лигачёв) (b. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


His positions within the CPSU created more opportunities to travel abroad and this would profoundly affect his political and social views in the future as leader of the country. In 1975, he led a delegation to West Germany, and in 1983 he headed a delegation to Canada to meet with Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and members of the Commons and Senate. In 1984, he traveled to the UK, where he met Margaret Thatcher. Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the Minister of the Crown who is head of the Government of Canada. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ...


Member of the Club of Madrid [2]. [7] The Club of Madrid is an independent organization created for the purpose of promoting democracy and change in the global community. ...


General Secretary of the CPSU

Upon the death of Konstantin Chernenko, Mikhail Gorbachev, at age 54, was elected General Secretary of the Communist Party on 11 March 1985, defeating Grigory Romanov, who was considered the other favourite. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Grigory V. Romanov (born 1923) was a Soviet Politburo member and chief rival to Mikhael Gorbachev in the succession struggle following the death of Konstantin Chernenko. ...


He became the Party's first leader to have been born after the Revolution. As de facto ruler of the USSR, he tried to reform the stagnating Party and the state economy by introducing glasnost ("openness"), perestroika ("restructuring"), and uskoreniye ("acceleration", of economic development), which were launched at the 27th Congress of the CPSU in February 1986. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Uskoreniye (Russian: ) was a slogan and a politics announced by Mikhail Gorbachev on April 20 1985 at a Party Plenum, aimed at the acceleration of social and economical development of the Soviet Union. ...


Domestic reforms

Domestically, Gorbachev implemented economic reforms that he hoped would improve living standards and worker productivity as part of his perestroika program. However, many of his reforms were considered radical at the time by orthodox apparatchiks in the Soviet government. Apparatchik (Russian: аппара́тчик, IPA: plural apparatchiki) is a Russian colloquial term for a full-time, professional functionary of the Communist Party or government; i. ...


1985

In 1985, Gorbachev announced that the Soviet economy was stalled and that reorganization was needed. Initially, his reforms were called uskoreniye (acceleration) but later the terms glasnost (liberalization, opening up) and perestroika (reconstruction) became much more popular. Uskoreniye (Russian: ) was a slogan and a politics announced by Mikhail Gorbachev on April 20 1985 at a Party Plenum, aimed at the acceleration of social and economical development of the Soviet Union. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Gorbachev was not operating within a vacuum. Although the Brezhnev era is usually thought of as one of economic stagnation, a number of economic experiments (particularly in the organization of business enterprises, and partnerships with Western companies) did take place. A number of reformist ideas were discussed by technocratic-minded managers, who often used the facilities of the Young Communist League as discussion forums. The so-called 'Komsomol Generation' would prove to be Gorbachev's most receptive audience, and the nursery of many post-communist businessmen and politicians, particularly in the Baltic republics. Komsomol (Комсомол) is a syllabic abbreviation word, from the Russian Kommunisticheski Soyuz Molodiozhi (Коммунистический союз молодёжи), or Communist... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Baltic States. ...


After becoming General Secretary, Gorbachev proposed a "vague programme of reform", which was adopted at the April Plenum of the Central Committee.[5] He made a speech in May in Leningrad advocating widespread reforms. The reforms began in personnel changes; the most notable change was the replacement of Andrei Gromyko with Eduard Shevardnadze as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Gromyko, disparaged as 'Mr. Nyet' in the West, had served for 28 years as Minister of Foreign Affairs and was considered an 'old thinker'. Robert D. English notes that, despite Shevardnadze's diplomatic inexperience, Gorbachev "shared with him an outlook" and experience in managing an agricultural region of the Soviet Union (Georgia), which meant that both had weak links to the powerful military-industrial complex.[8] The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ... Andrei Gromyko Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (Андре́й Андре́евич Громы́ко) (July 18 (July 5, Old Style), 1909 – July 2, 1989) was Minister for Foreign Affairs and Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ...


The first major reform programme introduced under Gorbachev was the 1985 alcohol reform, which was designed to fight wide-spread alcoholism in the Soviet Union. Prices of vodka, wine and beer were raised, and their sales were restricted. People who were caught drunk at work or in public were prosecuted. Drinking on long-distance trains and in public places was banned. Many famous wineries were destroyed. Scenes of alcohol consumption were cut out from the movies. The reform did not have any significant effect on alcoholism in the country, but economically it was a serious blow to the state budget (a loss of approximately 100 billion rubles according to Alexander Yakovlev) after alcohol production migrated to the black market economy. Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Alexander Yakovlev (left) with Mikhail Gorbachev. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ...


1986

Perestroika and its attendant radical reforms were enunciated at the XXVIIth Party Congress between February and March of 1986. Nonetheless, many found the pace of reform too slow. Many historians, including Robert D. English, have explained this by the rapid mutual estrangement within the Soviet elite of the 'New Thinkers' and conservatives; conservatives were deliberately blocking the process of change. This was exposed in the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster. In this incident, as English observes, Gorbachev and his allies were "misinformed by the military-industrial complex" and "betrayed" by conservatives, who blocked information concerning the incident and thus delayed an official response.[8] Jack F. Matlock Jr. stresses that Gorbachev told the authorities to give "full information" but the "Soviet bureaucracy blocked the flow".[9] This brought international ire upon the Soviets and many blamed Gorbachev. Despite this, English suggests that there was a "positive fallout" to Chernobyl, as Gorbachev and his fellow reformers received an increased domestic and international impetus for reform.[8] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Congress of the CPSU was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its predecessors. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is the worst nuclear power plant accident in history, resulting in a severe nuclear meltdown. ... Jack Matlock was an American career diplomat who was posted in Moscow during some of the most tumultuous years of the Cold War. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant is the worst nuclear power plant accident in history, resulting in a severe nuclear meltdown. ...


Domestic changes continued apace. In a bombshell speech during Armenian SSR's Central Committee Plenum of the Communist Party the young First Secretary of Armenia's Hrazdan Regional Communist Party, Hayk Kotanjian, criticized rampant corruption in the Armenian communist party's highest echelons, implicating Armenian SSR Communist Party First Secretary Karen Demirchian and called for the latter's resignation. Symbolically, intellectual Andrei Sakharov was invited to return to Moscow by Gorbachev in December 1986 after six years of internal exile in Gorky. During the same month, however, signs of the nationalities problem that would haunt the later years of the Soviet Union surfaced as riots, named Jeltoqsan, occurred in Kazakhstan after Dinmukhamed Kunayev was replaced as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. Andrei Sakharov, 1943 For the historian, see Andrey Nikolayevich Sakharov. ... Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: ), colloquially shortened as Nizhny, is the fourth largest city in Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. ... Jeltoqsan (Kazakh: ; English: December) riot of 1986 was a spontaneous nationwide[1] revolt that took place in Almaty, Kazakhstan in response to General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachevs dismissal of Dinmukhamed Kunayev, the First Secretary of the Kazakh SSR and an ethnic Kazakh, and the subsequent appointment of outsider Gennady Kolbin... Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunayev (January 12, 1912 (December 31, 1911, old calendar) - August 22, 1993) was a Kazakh Soviet Communist political figure; secretary-general of the Kazakh Communist Party 1960-1962, 1964-1986. ... The Communist Party of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Kommunistik Partiyasi) is a political party in Kazakhstan. ...


1987

The Central Committee Plenum in January 1987 would see the crystallization of Gorbachev's political reforms, including proposals for multi-candidate elections and the appointment of non-Party members to government positions. He also first raised the idea of expanding co-operatives at the plenum. Later that year, May would be a month of crisis. In an almost incredible incident, a young West German, Mathias Rust, managed to fly a plane into Moscow and land near Red Square without being stopped. This massively embarrassed the military and Gorbachev made sweeping personnel changes, beginning at the top, where he appointed Dmitry Yazov as Minister of Defence.[5] The Central Committee, abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, Tseka, was the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). ... Rust in a Moscow courtroom Mathias Rust (born 1968) is a German man known for his illegal landing near the Red Square in Moscow in 1987. ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... Dmitri Timofeyevich Yazov (Дмитрий Тимофеевич Язов in Russian) (born November 8, 1923) was the last Marshal of the Soviet Union to be appointed before the collapse of the Soviet Union. ...


Economic reforms took up much of the rest of 1987, as a new law giving enterprises more independence was passed in June and Gorbachev released a book, Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World, in November, elucidating his main ideas for reform. Nevertheless, at the same time, the personal and professional acrimony between Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin increased; after Yeltsin criticized Gorbachev and others at the October Plenum, he was replaced as First Secretary of the Moscow Gorkom Party. This move only temporarily removed Yeltsin's influence.[5] “Yeltsin” redirects here. ...


In 1987 he rehabilitated many opponents of Stalin, another part of the destalinisation, which began 1956, when Lenin's Testament was published as a booklet there. De-Stalinization and the Khrushchev era For further details, see Nikita Khrushchev After Stalin had died in March 1953, he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Georgi Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. ...


1988

1988 would see Gorbachev's introduction of glasnost, which gave new freedoms to the people, such as a greater freedom of speech. This was a radical change, as control of speech and suppression of government criticism had previously been a central part of the Soviet system. The press became far less controlled, and thousands of political prisoners and many dissidents were released. Gorbachev's goal in undertaking glasnost was to pressure conservatives within the CPSU who opposed his policies of economic restructuring, and he also hoped that through different ranges of openness, debate and participation, the Soviet people would support his reform initiatives. At the same time, he opened himself and his reforms up for more public criticism, evident in Nina Andreyeva's critical letter in a March edition of Sovetskaya Rossiya.[5] //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Soviet Russia (Russian: Советская Россия, Sovetskaya Rossiya) is a political newspaper in Russia. ...


The Law on Cooperatives enacted in May 1988 was perhaps the most radical of the economic reforms during the early part of the Gorbachev era. For the first time since Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy, the law permitted private ownership of businesses in the services, manufacturing, and foreign-trade sectors. The law initially imposed high taxes and employment restrictions, but these were later revised to avoid discouraging private-sector activity. Under this provision, cooperative restaurants, shops, and manufacturers became part of the Soviet scene. It should be noted that some of the SSRs ignored these restrictions. In Estonia, for example, co-operatives were permitted to cater to the needs of foreign visitors and forge partnerships with foreign companies. The large 'All-Union' industrial organisations started to be restructured. Aeroflot, for example, was split into a number of independent enterprises, some of which became the nucleus for future independent airlines. These newly autonomous business organisations were encouraged to seek foreign investment. Law on Cooperatives USSR Supreme Soviet, Law on Cooperatives. ... Lenin redirects here. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... JSC Aeroflot - Russian Airlines (Russian: ) (MICEX:AFLT RTS:AFLT), or Aeroflot (Russian: ) as the airline is commonly known, is the Russian flag carrier and the largest airline in Russia. ...


In June 1988, at the CPSU's XIXth Party Conference, Gorbachev launched radical reforms meant to reduce party control of the government apparatus. He proposed a new executive in the form of a presidential system, as well as a new legislative element, to be called the Congress of People's Deputies.[5] The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ...


1989

Elections to the Congress of People's Deputies were held throughout the Soviet Union in March and April 1989. On March 15, 1990, Gorbachev was elected as the first executive President of the Soviet Union[5] with 59% of the Deputies' votes being an unopposed candidate. The Congress met for the first time on 25 May. Their first task was to elect representatives from Congress to sit on the Supreme Soviet. Nonetheless, the Congress posed problems for Gorbachev — its sessions were televised, airing more criticism and encouraging people to expect evermore rapid reform. In the elections, many Party candidates were defeated. Furthermore, Yeltsin was elected in Moscow and returned to political prominence to become an increasingly vocal critic of Gorbachev.[5] The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ...


The rest of 1989 was taken up by the increasingly problematic nationalities question and the dramatic collapse of the Eastern Bloc. Despite international detente reaching unprecedented levels, with the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan completed in January and U.S.-Soviet talks continuing between Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush, domestic reforms were suffering from increasing divergence between reformists, who criticized the pace of change, and conservatives, who criticised the extent of change. Gorbachev states that he tried to find the centre ground between both groups, but this would draw more criticism towards him.[5] The story from this point on moves away from reforms and becomes one of the nationalities question and the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union. A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ...


'New Thinking' Abroad

In contrast to his controversial domestic reforms, Gorbachev was largely hailed in the West for his 'New Thinking' in foreign affairs. During his tenure, he sought to improve relations and trade with the West by reducing Cold War tensions. He established close relationships with several Western leaders, such as West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, U.S. President Ronald Reagan, and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher - who famously remarked: "I like Mr Gorbachev — we can do business together".[10] West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Reagan redirects here. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ...


Gorbachev understood the link between achieving international detente and domestic reform and thus began extending 'New Thinking' abroad immediately. On April 8, 1985, he announced the suspension of the deployment of SS-20s in Europe as a move towards resolving intermediate-range nuclear weapons (INF) issues. Later that year, in September, Gorbachev proposed that the Soviets and Americans both cut their nuclear arsenals in half. He went to France on his first trip abroad as Soviet leader in October. November saw the Geneva Summit between Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan - though no concrete agreement was made, Gorbachev and Reagan struck a personal relationship and decided to hold further meetings.[5] April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The RT-21M Pioneer was a medium-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988. ... The Geneva Summit was first held on July 18th, 1955 in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Reagan redirects here. ...


January 1986 would see Gorbachev make his boldest international move so far, when he announced his proposal for the elimination of intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe and his strategy for eliminating all nuclear weapons by the year 2000 (often referred to as the 'January Proposal'). He also began the process of withdrawing troops from Afghanistan and Mongolia on the 28th July.[5] Nonetheless, many observers, such as Jack F. Matlock Jr. (despite generally praising Gorbachev as well as Reagan), have criticized Gorbachev for taking too long to achieve withdrawal from the Afghanistan War, citing it as an example of lingering elements of 'old thinking' in Gorbachev.[9] The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Jack Matlock was an American career diplomat who was posted in Moscow during some of the most tumultuous years of the Cold War. ... Combatants USSR DRA Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45,000 (in 1983) 150...


On October 11, 1986, Gorbachev and Reagan met in Reykjavík, Iceland to discuss reducing intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe. To the immense surprise of both men's advisers, the two agreed in principle to removing INF systems from Europe and to equal global limits of 100 INF missile warheads. Incredibly, they also essentially agreed in principle to eliminate all nuclear weapons in 10 years (by 1996), instead of by the year 2000 as in Gorbachev's original outline.[9] Continuing trust issues, particularly over reciprocity and Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), meant that the summit is often regarded as a failure for not producing a concrete agreement immediately, or for leading to a staged elimination of nuclear weapons. In the long term, nevertheless, this would culminate in the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in 1987, after Gorbachev had proposed this elimination on 22nd July 1987 (and it was subsequently agreed on in Geneva on the 24th November).[5] is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: , Constituency Government  - Mayor (Borgarstjóri) Dagur B. Eggertsson Area  - City 274. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... U.S. President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev signing the INF Treaty, 1987. ...


In February 1988, Gorbachev announced the full withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan. The withdrawal was completed the following year, although the civil war continued as the Mujahedin pushed to overthrow the pro-Soviet Najibullah regime. An estimated 15,000 Soviets were killed between 1979 and 1989 as a result of the Afghanistan War. Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... Dr. Mohammad Najibullah (Pashto/Persian: ‎ ; born 1947, died September 27, 1996) was the fourth and last President of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. ... Combatants USSR DRA Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45,000 (in 1983) 150...

Gorbachev in one-on-one discussions with Reagan
Gorbachev in one-on-one discussions with Reagan

Also during 1988, Gorbachev announced that the Soviet Union would abandon the Brezhnev Doctrine, and allow the Eastern bloc nations to freely determine their own internal affairs. Jokingly dubbed the "Sinatra Doctrine" by Gorbachev's Foreign Ministry spokesman Gennadi Gerasimov, this policy of non-intervention in the affairs of the other Warsaw Pact states proved to be the most momentous of Gorbachev's foreign policy reforms. In his July 6, 1989 speech arguing for a "common European home" before the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, Gorbachev declared: "The social and political order in some countries changed in the past, and it can change in the future too, but this is entirely a matter for each people to decide. Any interference in the internal affairs, or any attempt to limit the sovereignty of another state — friend, ally, or another — would be inadmissible." Public photo of US President Ronald Reagan holding discussions with USSR General Secretary Gorbachev http://www. ... Public photo of US President Ronald Reagan holding discussions with USSR General Secretary Gorbachev http://www. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... The Sinatra Doctrine was the name that the Soviet government of Mikhail Gorbachev used jokingly to describe its policy of allowing neighboring Warsaw Pact nations to determine their own internal affairs. ... Gennadi (or Gennady) Gerasimov was the foreign spokesman for Mikhail Gorbachev and later press secretary to Eduard Shevardnadze. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev promoted the idea of a Common European Home. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... For other uses, see Strasburg. ...


Moscow's abrogation of the Brezhnev Doctrine led to a string of revolutions in Eastern Europe throughout 1989, in which Communism collapsed. By the end of 1989, mass revolts had spread from one Eastern European capital to another, ousting the regimes imposed on Eastern Europe after World War II. With the exception of Romania, the popular upheavals against the pro-Soviet Communist regimes were all peaceful ones. (See Revolutions of 1989) The loosening of Soviet hegemony over Eastern Europe effectively ended the Cold War, and for this, Gorbachev was awarded the Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold in 1989 and the Nobel Peace Prize on October 15, 1990. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold is named after the German nuclear chemist and 1944 Nobel Prizewinner Professor Dr. Dr. h. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Coit D. Blacker wrote in 1990 that the Soviet leadership "appeared to have believed that whatever loss of authority the Soviet Union might suffer in Eastern Europe would be more than offset by a net increase in its influence in western Europe." [11] Nevetheless, it is unlikely that Gorbachev ever intended for the complete dismantling of Communism in the Warsaw Pact countries. Rather, Gorbachev assumed that the Communist parties of Eastern Europe could be reformed in a similar way to the reforms he hoped to achieve in the CPSU. Just as perestroika was aimed at making the USSR more efficient economically and politically, Gorbachev believed that the Comecon and Warsaw Pact could be reformed into more effective entities. Alexander Yakovlev, a close advisor to Gorbachev, would later state that it would have been "absurd to keep the system" in Eastern Europe. In contrast to Gorbachev, Yakovlev had come to the conclusion that the Soviet-dominated Comecon was inherently unworkable and that the Warsaw Pact had "no relevance to real life." [12] Dr. Coit Dennis Blacker served as Special Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs and Senior Director for Russian, Ukrainian and Eurasian Affairs at the National Security Council under National Security Advisor Anthony Lake during the Clinton administration. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... Alexander Yakovlev (left) with Mikhail Gorbachev. ...


Collapse of the Soviet Union

While Gorbachev's political initiatives were positive for freedom and democracy in the Soviet Union and its Eastern bloc allies, the economic policy of his government gradually brought the country close to disaster. By the end of the 1980s, severe shortages of basic food supplies (meat, sugar) led to the reintroduction of the war-time system of distribution using food cards that limited each citizen to a certain amount of product per month. Compared to 1985, the state deficit grew from 0 to 109 billion rubles; gold funds decreased from 2,000 to 200 tons; and external debt grew from 0 to 120 billion dollars. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... This article is about the food. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ...


Furthermore, the democratization of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe had irreparably undermined the power of the CPSU and Gorbachev himself. The relaxation of censorship and attempts to create more political openness had the unintended effect of re-awakening long-suppressed nationalist and anti-Russian feelings in the Soviet republics. Calls for greater independence from Moscow's rule grew louder, especially in the Baltic republics of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia which had been annexed into the Soviet Union by Stalin in 1940. Nationalist feeling also took hold in Georgia, Ukraine, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989 In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314...


In December 1986, the first signs of the nationalities problem that would haunt the later years of the Soviet Union's existence surfaced as riots, named Jeltoqsan, occurred in Alma Ata and other areas of Kazakhstan after Dinmukhamed Kunayev was replaced as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan. Nationalism would then surface in Russia in May 1987, as 600 members of Pamyat, a nascent Russian nationalist group, demonstrated in Moscow and were becoming increasingly linked to Boris Yeltsin, who received their representatives at a meeting.[5] Jeltoqsan (Kazakh: ; English: December) riot of 1986 was a spontaneous nationwide[1] revolt that took place in Almaty, Kazakhstan in response to General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachevs dismissal of Dinmukhamed Kunayev, the First Secretary of the Kazakh SSR and an ethnic Kazakh, and the subsequent appointment of outsider Gennady Kolbin... Alma-Ata Pioneers palace Russian Orthodox Cathedral Night city. ... Dinmukhamed Akhmedovich Kunayev (January 12, 1912 (December 31, 1911, old calendar) - August 22, 1993) was a Kazakh Soviet Communist political figure; secretary-general of the Kazakh Communist Party 1960-1962, 1964-1986. ... The Communist Party of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Kommunistik Partiyasi) is a political party in Kazakhstan. ... The symbol of NPF Pamyat with the Russian swastika Pamyat (Russian language: Память, English translation: Memory) is a Russian ultra-nationalist organization identifying itself as the Peoples National-patriotic Orthodox Christian movement. History In the end of 1970s, a historical association Vityaz (В&#1080... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ...


Glasnost hastened the development of the nationalities problem. Violence erupted in Nagorno-Karabakh - an Armenian-populated enclave within Azerbaijan - between February and April, when Armenians living in the area began a new wave of protests over the arbitrary transfer of the historically Armenian region from Armenia to Azerbaijan in 1920 upon Joseph Stalin's decision.[13] Gorbachev imposed a temporary solution, but it did not last, as fresh trouble arose in Nagorno-Karabakh between June and July. Turmoil would once again return in December, this time in Armenia itself, when the Leninakan Earthquake hit the region on December 7th. Poor local infrastructure magnified the hazard and some 25,000 people died.[5] Gorbachev was forced to break off his trip to the U.S. and cancel planned travels to Cuba and Britain.[5] //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... The Saint Saviour Church in Gyumri The Leninakan Earthquake was a tremor with a moment magnitude of 7. ...


Elections to the Congress of People's Deputies, which took place throughout the Soviet Union in March and April 1989, returned many pro-independence republicans, as many CPSU candidates were rejected. The televised Congress debates allowed the dissemination of pro-independence propositions. Indeed, 1989 would see numerous nationalistic expressions protests. Initiated by the Baltic republics in January, laws were passed in most non-Russian republics giving precedence for the republican language over Russian. April 9 would see the crackdown of nationalist demonstrations by Soviet troops in Tbilisi. There would be further bloody protests in Uzbekistan in June, where Uzbeks and Meskhetian Turks clashed in Fergana. Apart from this violence, three major events that altered the face of the nationalities issue occurred in 1989. Estonia had declared its sovereignty in November, 1988, to be followed by Lithuania in May 1989 and by Latvia in July (the Communist Party of Lithuania would also declare its independence from the CPSU in December). This brought the Union and the republics into clear confrontation and would form a precedent for other republics. The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... The April 9 Tragedy (or the Tbilisi Massacre of 9 April 1989) refers to the bloody events in Tbilisi, Georgia on April 9, 1989, when peaceful anti-Soviet and pro-independence demonstrations were brutally dispersed by the Soviet army using entrenching spades and toxic gas. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Georgia Established c. ... Communist Party of Lithuania (Lithuanian: ) - communist party in Lithuania, established in early October 1918. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ...


Following this, in July, on the eve of the anniversary of the signing of the Nazi-Soviet Pact, it was formally revealed that the treaty did indeed include a plan for the annexation of the Baltic countries into the USSR (as happened in 1940) and the division of Poland between the two countries. The unsavory past was exposed and gave impetus to the peoples of the Baltic countries who could now even more legitimately claim that they were subject to oppression. Finally, the Eastern bloc collapsed in the fall of 1989, raising hopes that Gorbachev would extend his non-interventionist doctrine to the internal workings of the USSR.[5] Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...


Crisis of the Union, 1990-91

1990 began with nationalist turmoil in January. Azerbaijanis rioted and troops needed to be sent in to restore order; many Moldavians protested in favour of unification with the newly-democratic Romania; and Lithuanian demonstrations continued. The same month, in a hugely significant move, Armenia asserted its right to veto laws coming from the All-Union level, thus intensifying the 'war of laws' between republics and Moscow.[5]


Soon after, the CPSU, which had already lost much of its control, began to lose even more power as Gorbachev deepened political reform. The February Central Committee Plenum advocated multi-party elections; local elections held between February and March returned a large amount of pro-independence candidates. The Congress of People's Deputies then amended the Soviet Constitution in March, removing Article 6, which guaranteed the monopoly of the CPSU. The process of political reform was therefore coming from above and below, and was gaining a momentum that would augment republican nationalism. Soon after the constitutional amendment, Lithuania declared independence and elected Vytautas Landsbergis as President.[5] The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... Professor Vytautas Landsbergis ( (help· info), born October 18, 1932) is a Lithuanian conservative politician and member of the European Parliament. ...


On March 15, Gorbachev himself was elected as the first and only President of the Soviet Union by the Congress of People's Deputies and chose a Presidential Council of 15 politicians. Gorbachev was essentially creating his own political support base independent of CPSU conservatives and radical reformers. The new Executive was designed to be a powerful position to guide the spiraling reform process, and the Supreme Soviet and Congress of People's Deputies had already given Gorbachev increasingly presidential powers in February. This would be again a source of criticism from reformers. Despite the apparent increase in Gorbachev's power, he was unable to stop the process of nationalistic assertion. Further embarrassing facts about Soviet history were revealed in April, when the government admitted that the NKVD had carried out the infamous Katyn Massacre of Polish army officers during World War II; previously, the Soviets had blamed the Nazis. More significantly for Gorbachev's position, Boris Yeltsin was reaching a new level of prominence, as he was elected Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR in May, effectively making him the de jure leader of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Problems for Gorbachev would once more come from the Russian parliament in June, when it declared the precedence of Russian laws over All-Union level legislation.[5] is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Katyn and KatyÅ„ redirect here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... The Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was the de jure leader of the Russian SFSR between 1938 and 1991. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None ( Russian in practice) Capital Moscow (last) Chairman of the...


Gorbachev's personal position continued changing. At XXVIIIth CPSU Congress in July, Gorbachev was re-elected General Secretary but this position was now completely independent of Soviet government, and the Politburo had no say in the ruling of the country. Gorbachev further reduced Party power in the same month, when he issued a decree abolishing Party control of all areas of the media and broadcasting. At the same time, Gorbachev was working to consolidate his Presidential position, culminating in the Supreme Soviet granting him special powers to rule by decree in September in order to pass a much needed economic plan for transition to the market. However, the Supreme Soviet could not agree on which programme to adopt. Gorbachev pressed on with political reform — his proposal for setting up a new Soviet government, with a Soviet of the Federation consisting of representatives from all 15 republics, was passed through the Supreme Soviet in November. In December, Gorbachev was once more granted increasing executive power by the Supreme Soviet, arguing that such moves were necessary to counter "the dark forces of nationalism". Such moves led to Eduard Shevardnadze's resignation; Gorbachev's former ally warned of an impending dictatorship. This move was a serious blow to Gorbachev personally and to his efforts for reform.[5] This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Meanwhile, Gorbachev was losing further ground to nationalists. October 1990 saw the founding of DemoRossiya, the Russian nationalist party; a few days later, both Ukraine and Russia declared their laws completely sovereign over Soviet level laws. The 'war of laws' had become an open battle, with the Supreme Soviet refusing to recognise the actions of the two republics. Gorbachev would publish the draft of a new union treaty in November — which envisioned a continued union called the Union of Sovereign Soviet Republics - but, going into 1991, the actions of Gorbachev were steadily being overtaken by the centrifugal secessionist forces.[5] The New Union Treaty (Russian: ) was a draft treaty that would have replaced the 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and thus replaced the Soviet Union by a new entity, an attempt of Mikhail Gorbachev to salvage the Soviet state. ...


January and February would see a new level of turmoil in the Baltic republics. On January 10, 1991 Gorbachev issued an ultimatum-like request addressing the Lithuanian Supreme Council demanding the restoration of the validity of the constitution of the Soviet Union in Lithuania and the revoking of all anti-constitutional laws. In his Memoirs, Gorbachev asserts that, on January 12th, he convened the Council of the Federation and political measures to prevent bloodshed were agreed, including sending representatives of the Council of the Federation on a "fact-finding mission" to Vilnius. However, before the delegation arrived, the local branches of the KGB and armed forces had worked together to seize the TV tower in Vilnius; Gorbachev asked the heads of these power industries if they had approved such action, and there is no evidence that they, or Gorbachev, ever approved this move. Gorbachev cites documents found in the RSFSR Prokuratura after the August Coup, which only mentioned that "some 'authorities'" had sanctioned the actions.[5] A book called Alpha — the KGB's Top Secret Unit also suggests that a "KGB operation co-ordinated with the military" was undertaken by the KGB Alpha Group.[14] Archie Brown, in The Gorbachev Factor, uses the memoirs of many people around Gorbachev and in the upper echelons of the Soviet political landscape, to implicate General Valentin Varennikov, a member of the August coup plotters, and General Viktor Achalov, another August coup conspirator and later a putschist against Yeltsin in 1993. These persons were characterized as individuals "who were prepared to remove Gorbachev from his presidential office unconstitutionally" and "were more than capable of using unauthorised violence against nationalist separatists some months earlier". Brown criticizes Gorbachev for "a conscious tilt in the direction of the conservative forces he was trying to keep within an increasingly fragile... coalition" who would later betray him; he also criticises Gorbachev "for his tougher line and heightened rhetoric against the Lithuanians in the days preceding the attack and for his slowness in condemning the killings" but notes that Gorbachev did not approve any action and was seeking political solutions.[15] This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... A member of the FSB Alpha Group, equipped with the silenced AS VAL assault rifle. ... Archie Brown is a British academic and historian. ... Valentin Varennikov interviewed by CNN in August of 1997 Valentin Ivanovich Varennikov (Russian: Валентин Иванович Варенников)(born December 15, 1923), Soviet general and Russian politician. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... Archie Brown is a British academic and historian. ...


As a result of continued violence, at least 14 civilians were killed and more than 600 injured from January 11th-13th, 1991 in Vilnius, Lithuania. The strong Western reaction and the actions of Russian democratic forces put the president and government of the Soviet Union into an awkward situation, as news of support for Lithuanians from Western democracies started to appear. Further problems surfaced in Riga, Latvia, on the 20th and 21st January, where OMON (special Ministry of the Interior) troops killed 4 people. Archie Brown suggests that Gorbachev's response this time was better, condemning the rogue action, sending his condolences and suggesting that secession could take place if it went through the procedures outlined in the Soviet constitution. According to Gorbachev's aide, Shakhnazarov (quoted by Archie Brown), Gorbachev was finally beginning to accept the inevitability of "losing" the Baltic republics, although he would try all political means to preserve the Union. Brown believes that this put him in "imminent danger" of being overthrown by hard-liners against the secession.[15] Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ...


Gorbachev thus continued to draw up a new treaty of union which would have created a truly voluntary federation in an increasingly democratised Soviet Union. The new treaty was strongly supported by the Central Asian republics, who needed the economic power and markets of the Soviet Union to prosper. However, the more radical reformists, such as Russian SFSR President Boris Yeltsin, were increasingly convinced that a rapid transition to a market economy was required and were more than happy to contemplate the disintegration of the Soviet Union if that was required to achieve their aims. Nevertheless, a referendum on the future of the Soviet Union was held in March (with a referendum in Russia on the creation of a presidency), which returned an average of 76.4% in the 9 republics where it was taken, with a turn-out of 80% of the adult population.[15] Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Armenia, Georgia and Moldova did not participate. Following this, an April meeting at Novo-Ogarevo between Gorbachev and the heads of the 9 republics issued a statement on speeding up the creation of a new Union treaty. Meanwhile, Boris Yeltsin was elected President of the Russian Federation by 57.3% of the vote (with a turnout of 74%).[5] Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... Novo-Ogaryovo (also Novo-Ogaryovo, Russian: ) is an estate in the suburbs of Moscow to the west of the city, by the Rublyovo-Uspenskoye Highway. ... The President of Russia (ru: Президент России) is the highest position within the Government of Russia. ...


The August 1991 Coup

In contrast to the reformers' lukewarm approach to the new treaty, the hard-line apparatchiks, still strong within the CPSU and military establishment, were completely opposed to anything which might lead to the breakup of the Soviet Union. On the eve of the treaty's signing, the hardliners struck. During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... Apparatchik (Russian: аппара́тчик, IPA: plural apparatchiki) is a Russian colloquial term for a full-time, professional functionary of the Communist Party or government; i. ...


Hard-liners in the Soviet leadership, calling themselves the 'State Emergency Committee', launched the August Coup in 1991 in an attempt to remove Gorbachev from power and prevent the signing of the new union treaty. During this time, Gorbachev spent three days (August 19 to 21) under house arrest at a dacha in the Crimea before being freed and restored to power. However, upon his return, Gorbachev found that neither union nor Russian power structures heeded his commands as support had swung over to Yeltsin, whose defiance had led to the coup's collapse. Furthermore, Gorbachev was forced to fire large numbers of his Politburo and, in several cases, arrest them. Those arrested for high treason included the "Gang of Eight" that had led the coup, including Kryuchkov, Yazov, Pavlov and Yanayev. Pugo was found shot; and Akhromeyev who offered his assistance but was never implicated was found hanging in his Kremlin office. Most of these men had been former allies of Gorbachev's or promoted by him, which drew fresh criticism.[5] During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... Dacha of Boris Pasternak in Peredelkino. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Group of eight conspirators holding top level positions within the KGB and the CPSU who conspired a coup attempt against Mikhail Gorbachev from August 18, 1991-August 20, 1991. ... Vladimir Alexandrovich Kryuchkov (Владимир Александрович Крючков in Russian) was born in Volgograd in 1924. ... Dmitry Timofeyevich Yazov (Язов, Дмитрий Тимофеевич in Russian) (born 1924), Russian military figure, Marshal of the Soviet Union (1990). ... Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov (September 26, 1937 - March 30, 2003) was the Prime Minister of the Soviet Union from January to August 1991. ... Gennady Ivanovich Yanayev (Янаев, Геннадий Иванович in Russian) (born August 26, 1937), Russian politician and statesman. ... Boris Karlovich Pugo (Russian: Бори́с Ка́рлович Пу́го) (February 19, 1937 _ August 22, 1991, in Moscow, also spelled Boriss Pugo) was a Latvian (Russian_born) Communist political figure. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Aftermath of the coup and the final collapse

Between August 21 and September 22, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikstan declared their independence. Simultaneously, Boris Yeltsin ordered the CPSU to suspend its activities on the territory of Russia and closed the Central Committee building at Staraya Ploschad. The Russian flag now flew beside the Soviet flag at the Kremlin. In light of these circumstances, Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary of the CPSU on August 24 and advised the Central Committee to dissolve. Gorbachev's hopes of a new Union were further hit when the Congress of People's Deputies dissolved itself on September 5. Though Gorbachev and the representatives of 8 republics (excluding Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldavia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia) signed an agreement on forming a new economic community on October 18, events were overtaking Gorbachev.[5] The Republic of Tajikistan (Тоҷикистон), formerly known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, is a country in Central Asia. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ... This article is about Russian citadels. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ...


The final blow to Gorbachev's vision was effectively dealt by a Ukrainian referendum on December 1st, where the Ukrainian people voted for independence. The Presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus met in Belovezh Forest, near Brest, Belarus, on December 8, founding the Commonwealth of Independent States and declaring the end of the Soviet Union in the Belavezha Accords. Gorbachev was presented with a fait accompli and reluctantly agreed with Yeltsin, on December 17, to dissolve the Soviet Union. Gorbachev resigned on Christmas Day and the Soviet Union was formally dissolved the next day. Two days later, on December 27th, Yeltsin moved into Gorbachev's old office.[5] BiaÅ‚owieża Primaeval Forest, known as Belaveskaya Pushcha (Белавеская пушча) or Belovezhskaya Pushcha in Belarus and Puszcza BiaÅ‚owieska in Poland, is an ancient woodland straddling the border between Belarus and Poland, located 70 km north of Brest. ... Brest (Belarusian: , Russian: , Polish: ; Alternative names), formerly Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western Bug and Mukhavets Rivers meet. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... The Belavezha Accords (Russian: ) is the agreement signed at the state Dacha near Visculi in Belarussian part of the BiaÅ‚owieża Forest (also known as Belovezhskaya Pushcha) on December 8, 1991, by the Presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus (Boris Yeltsin, Leonid Kravchuk and Stanislav Shushkevich), which declared the... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ...


Gorbachev had aimed to maintain the CPSU as a united party but move it in the direction of social democracy. The inherent contradictions in this approach — praising Lenin, admiring Sweden's social model and seeking to keep the three Baltic states — were difficult enough. But when the CPSU was proscribed after the August coup, Gorbachev was left with no effective power base beyond the armed forces. In the end, Yeltsin won them around with promises of better payment. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a... During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ...


Activities after resignation

Gorbachev relaxes with Reagan at Reagan's California ranch, 1992
Gorbachev relaxes with Reagan at Reagan's California ranch, 1992
Gorbachev (left) with former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher at the funeral of Ronald Reagan, June 11, 2004
Gorbachev (left) with former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher at the funeral of Ronald Reagan, June 11, 2004

As part of the agreement about his resignation, Gorbachev is guaranteed a lifetime pension, personal protection, and domicile at the state residence of his choice. This is the same set of retirement benefits entitled to all post-Soviet Russian Presidents (Yeltsin received the same benefits upon his retirement).[citation needed] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rancho del Cielo, or Ranch of the Sky, is a 688 acre (2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mulroney_Thatcher_and_Gorbachev_at_Reagan's_funeral. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mulroney_Thatcher_and_Gorbachev_at_Reagan's_funeral. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Former United States First Lady Nancy Reagan kisses the casket of her husband, Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the week long state funeral honoring him in June of 2004. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Gorbachev founded the Gorbachev Foundation in 1992, headquartered in San Francisco, California. In 1993, he also founded Green Cross International, with which he was one of three major sponsors of the Earth Charter. He also became a member of the Club of Rome. Green Cross International is an environmentalist organization founded by former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in 1993, building upon the work started by the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... The Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental values and principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. ... The Club of Rome is a global think tank that deals with a variety of international political issues. ...


In 1993 Gorbachev was awarded a Legum Doctor, honoris causa from Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada This article is about the university in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ...


1995 saw Gorbachev receive an Honorary Doctorate from Durham University for his contribution to "the cause of political tolerance and an end to cold war-style confrontation".[16] Affiliations 1994 Group European University Association Association of MBAs EQUIS Universities UK N8 Group Association of Commonwealth Universities Website http://www. ...


In 1996, Gorbachev re-ran for President in Russia, but only received 0.5% of the vote. While on a pre-election tour at that time he was punched in the face by an unknown man, and spat in the face by an unknown woman.[citation needed]


In 1997, Gorbachev appeared with his granddaughter Anastasia in an internationally-screened television commercial for Pizza Hut. The US corporation's fee for the 60-second ad went to his not-for-profit Gorbachev Foundation. "I am creating a library and the Perestroika archive," he explained.[17] Pizza Hut Inc. ...


On November 26, 2001, Gorbachev also founded the Social Democratic Party of Russia — which is a union between several Russian social democrat parties. He resigned as party leader in May 2004 over a disagreement with the party's chairman over the direction taken in the December 2003 election campaign. On April 13, 2007, the party was banned by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation due to its failure to establish local offices with at least 500 members in the majority of Russian regions that is required by Russian law for a political organization to be listed as party. A representative of the party alleged that the court decision was based on politics since the party just met the requirement on the number of the local offices (47 with the requirement of 45) [18] is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Socialist Democratic Party of Russia is a political party founded in Russia by Mikhail Gorbachev on November 26, 2001. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (Russian: ) is the final instance in administrative law, civil law and criminal law cases. ...


In early 2004, Gorbachev moved to trademark his famous port wine birthmark, after a vodka company featured the mark on labels of one of their drinks to capitalize on its fame. The company now no longer uses the trademark.[19] A port-wine stain or naevus flammeus is a vascular birthmark consisting of superficial and deep dilated capillaries in the skin which produce a reddish to purplish discoloration of the skin. ... A birthmark is a blemish on the skin formed before birth. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ...


In June 2004, Gorbachev represented Russia at the funeral of Ronald Reagan. President George W. Bush, his wife, Laura, Vice-President Richard Cheney and his wife, Lynne, and former president Bill Clinton and his wife, Hillary, New York Democratic senator, watch the casket of former president Ronald Reagan carried into the Washington National Cathedral Nancy Reagan was escorted by Army Major General...


In September 2004, following Chechen militant attacks across Russia, President Vladimir Putin launched an initiative to replace the election of regional governors with a system whereby they would be directly appointed by the President and approved by regional legislatures. Gorbachev criticized Putin's actions as a step away from democracy.[20] The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the current President of the Russian Federation. ...


In 2005, Gorbachev was awarded the Point Alpha Prize for his role in supporting German reunification. He also received an honorary Doctorate from the University of Münster.[21] This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... The University of Münster (German Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, WWU) is a public university located in the city of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. ...


In November 2006, Gorbachev was admitted to a hospital in Munich, Germany after he reported that he was not feeling well. He had an operation on a carotid artery in his neck on November 21, 2006. He returned to Russia on December 9, 2006. For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


On February 5, 2007, Gorbachev urged Bill Gates, the co-founder of Microsoft to intercede in a case on computer piracy against Alexander Ponosov, a Russian headteacher. [22] is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other persons named Bill Gates, see Bill Gates (disambiguation). ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Ponosovs case is an action against Aleksandr Ponosov, a teacher and principal of a high school in Sepych village of Perm Krai of Russia. ...


On July 27, 2007, Gorbachev criticized recent U.S. foreign policy for sowing world disorder. “What has followed are unilateral actions, what has followed are wars, what has followed is ignoring the U.N. Security Council, ignoring international law and ignoring the will of the people, even the American people,” he said. [23] is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


On October 2, 2007, Gorbachev visited an American High School for the first time. He spoke to students at Ransom Everglades School in Coconut Grove, Florida. is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Ransom Everglades High Schools Harry H. Anderson Gymnasium Ransom Everglades consists of two educational institutions in Coconut Grove, Florida, one middle school and one upper school. ...


On October 5, 2007, Gorbachev on a visit to New Orleans promised to a crowd of listeners that he would return in 2011 to personally lead a local revolution if the U.S. government had failed by then to repair the levees. His comments were greeted with enthusiasm by the crowd, but he claimed that revolutionary action should be a last resort.[24] For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


On October 20, 2007, Gorbachev founded a new non-governmental organization in Russia, called Union of Social-Democrats.[25] is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Union of Social Democrats is a Russian non-governmental organization founded on October 20, 2007 by Mikhail Gorbachev[1]. The party has its roots in the former Social Democratic Party of Russia, which lost its official status in April 2007 due to low party membership. ...


Miscellany

  • In 1987, Gorbachev acknowledged that his liberalizing policies of glasnost and perestroika owed a great deal to Alexander Dubček's "socialism with a human face". When asked what the difference was between the Prague Spring and his own reforms, Gorbachev replied, "Nineteen years".[26]
  • In 1989, Gorbachev made an official visit to China. At the time, there were demonstrations in Tiananmen Square and martial law was about to be imposed in Beijing. Gorbachev was asked for his opinion on the Great Wall of China: "It's a very beautiful work", he replied, "but there are already too many walls between people". A journalist asked him, "would you like the Berlin Wall to be taken down?" Gorbachev replied very seriously, "Why not?"[citation needed]
  • On May 4, 1992, Gorbachev was awarded the first ever Ronald Reagan Freedom Award at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California. The award, presented by Former President Ronald Reagan, is the highest honor given by the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation, and the Reagan family, and President Reagan personally selected Gorbachev to receive the first. The award is only given to "those who have made monumental and lasting contributions to the cause of freedom worldwide," and who "embody President Reagan's lifelong belief that one man or woman truly can make a difference." Since then, eight more Reagan Freedom Awards have been given, and today, Former First Lady Nancy Reagan presents the award. [27]
  • In 1993, Gorbachev appeared as himself in the Wim Wenders film, Faraway, So Close!, the sequel to Wings of Desire.
  • On October 25, 2005, in an event organized by the Frank Foundation Child Assistance International (http://www.frankfoundationcai.org/en/), Gorbachev marked 20 Years of Perestroika. The event was held at the US Chamber of Commerce in Washington D.C. Among others, in attendance were Bill Clinton, Madeleine Albright, Ted Turner, Colin Powell, Shirley Maclaine, Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Betty Williams, former US Ambassador to Moscow Jack Matlock, and former Secretary of Defense Frank Carlucci.
  • Gorbachev, together with Bill Clinton and Sophia Loren were awarded the 2004 Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children for their recording of Sergei Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf.
  • On January 20, 2007, hackers attacked the website of Gorbachev's Fund, placing an open letter there, in which they accused Gorbachev of the massacre of 137 Baku natives during the night from January 19 to January 20, 1990 (it is known as the Black January). [28]
  • On August 2, 2007, French luxury brand Louis Vuitton announced that Gorbachev would be shown in an ad campaign for their signature luggage.
  • At one point, Gorbachev canceled the national high-school history exams because "there was no point in testing their knowledge of lies." [29]

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... Nancy Reagan presents the 2007 Ronald Reagan Freedom Award to former United States President George Bush. ... The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library is the presidential library of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... For the 1989 protest, see Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Nancy Reagan presents the 2007 Ronald Reagan Freedom Award to former United States President George Bush. ... The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library is the presidential library of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. ... Simi Valley is an incorporated city located in the extreme southeast corner of Ventura County, California, bordering the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Laura Bush Current First Lady (2001- ) First Lady of the United States is the unofficial title of the hostess of the White House. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... Faraway, So Close! is the English title of In weiter Ferne, so nah!, a 1993 film by German director Wim Wenders, written by him, Richard Reitinger and Ulrich Zieger. ... Wings of Desire is the English title of Der Himmel über Berlin, a 1987 film by the German-born director Wim Wenders. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... For other persons named Ted Turner, see Ted Turner (disambiguation). ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Shirley MacLaine (born April 24, 1934) is an Academy Award-winning American film and theatre actress, well-known not only for her acting, but for her devotion to her belief in reincarnation and aliens. ... Betty Williams Betty Williams (born 22 May 1943) was a co-recipient with Mairead Corrigan of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1976 for as a cofounder of Community of Peace People, an organization dedicated to promoting a peaceful resolution to The Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... Jack Matlock was an American career diplomat who was posted in Moscow during some of the most tumultuous years of the Cold War. ... Frank Carlucci Frank Charles Carlucci III (born October 18, 1930) was a government official in the United States, associated with the Republican Party. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Sophia Loren (born September 20, 1934) is a motion picture and stage, Academy Award-winning actress, widely considered to be the most popular Italian actress. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children has been awarded since 1994. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokofijev; April 27 (April 151 O.S.), 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ... 1947 coloring book cover. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - City 260 km²  (100. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Soviet government troops arrest several Azeris in a clash with Popular Front protesters in Baku in January 1990. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Louis vuitton was a great man he was born on fh 12 3845. ...

Religious affiliation

Gorbachev was baptized in the Russian Orthodox church as a child. He campaigned for establishment of freedom of religion laws in the former Soviet Union. The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with...


Gorbachev has also expressed pantheistic views, saying, in an interview with the magazine Resurgence, "Nature is my god."[30] Pantheism literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ...


At the end of a November 1996 interview on CSPAN's Booknotes, Gorbachev described his plans for future books. He made the following reference to God: "I don't know how many years god will be giving me, [or] what his plans are." [31]


Gorbachev was the recipient of the Athenagoras Humanitarian Award of the Order of St. Andrew Archons of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople on 20 November 2005[32]. The Archons of the Ecumenical Patriarchate are honorees of the Patriarch of Constantinople, who have been selected from among the laity due to service to those portions of the Eastern Orthodox Church under his particular guidance. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Naevus flammeus

Gorbachev is the most famous person in modern times with visible naevus flammeus. The crimson birthmark on the top of his bald head was the source of much satire among critics and cartoonists. (Among his official photos there was at least one on which this birthmark was removed.) Contrary to some accounts, it is not rosacea. Though some suggested that it be surgically removed, Gorbachev opted not to, as once he was publicly known to have the mark, he believed it would be perceived as him being more concerned with his appearance than other, more important issues.[33] A port-wine stain or naevus flammeus is a vascular birthmark consisting of superficial and deep dilated capillaries in the skin which produce a reddish to purplish discoloration of the skin. ... A birthmark is a blemish on the skin formed before birth. ... Rosacea (IPA: ) is a common but often misunderstood condition that is estimated to affect over 45 million people worldwide. ...


References

  1. ^ surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov
  2. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7054274.stm
  3. ^ a b Sheehy, Gail (1991). Gorbachev. London: William Heinemann. 0-434-69518-1. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m (1985) Current Biography, 1985. New York: The H. W. Wilson Co.. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Gorbachev, M. S., Memoirs, 1996 (London: Bantam Books)
  6. ^ Roxburgh, Angus (1991). The Second Russian Revolution: The Struggle for Power in the Kremlin. London: BBC Books. 
  7. ^ (English) [http://www.clubmadrid.org The Club of Madrid is an independent organization dedicated to strengthening democracy around the world by drawing on the unique experience and resources of its Members – 66 democratic former heads of state and government.
  8. ^ a b c English, R., D, Russia and the Idea of the West: Gorbachev, Intellectuals and the End of the Cold War, 2000 (Columbia University Press)
  9. ^ a b c Matlock, J. F. Jr., Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended, 2004
  10. ^ Gorbachev becomes Soviet leader. BBC News (March 1985). Retrieved on 2006-05-22.
  11. ^ Coit D. Blacker. "The Collapse of Soviet Power in Europe." Foreign Affairs. 1990.
  12. ^ Steele, Jonathan. Eternal Russia: Yeltsin, Gorbachev and the Mirage of Democracy. Boston: Faber, 1994.
  13. ^ CIA — The World Factbook -- Armenia. Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  14. ^ Boltunov, M., Alfa — Sverkhsekretnyi Otryad KGB [Alpha — The KGB's Top-Secret Unit], 1992, (Moscow: Kedr)
  15. ^ a b c Brown, A., The Gorbachev Factor, 1996, (New York: Oxford University Press)
  16. ^ Honorary Doctorate from Durham
  17. ^ Mikhail Gorbachev appears in Pizza Hut advertising campaign, PRNewswire, 23 December 1997.Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  18. ^ http://www.mosnews.com/news/2007/04/13/nogorbyparty.shtml
  19. ^ Gorbachev to Trademark His Forehead. NewsMax.Com (February 2004). Retrieved on 2006-05-22.
  20. ^ Gorbachev, Mikhail. "Mikhail Gorbachev on Putin’s Reforms: “A Step Back from Democracy”", MosNews, 2004-09-16. Retrieved on 2006-05-22. 
  21. ^ Reunification Politicians Accept Prize. Deutsche Welle (June 2005). Retrieved on 2006-05-22.
  22. ^ Gorbachev Wades Into Piracy Row. BBC (February 2007). Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  23. ^ Gorbachev says U.S. is sowing world ‘disorder’. MSNBC. Retrieved on 2007-08-04.
  24. ^ Gorbachev Vows Revolution If New Orleans Levees Don't Improve. The Huffington Post. Retrieved on 2007-09-14.
  25. ^ "Gorbachev sets up Russia movement", BBC News, October 20, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-20. 
  26. ^ Almond, Mark (2002). Uprising: Political Upheavals that have Shaped the World. London: Mitchell Beazley. 
  27. ^ http://www.reaganfoundation.org/programs/cpa/awards.asp
  28. ^ http://lenta.ru/news/2007/01/20/gorby/
  29. ^ Appleby, Joyce; Lynn Hunt; and Margaret Jacobs. Telling the Truth About History," p. 290.
  30. ^ http://www.resurgence.org/resurgence/184/gorbachev.htm.
  31. ^ http://www.booknotes.org/transcripts/50155.htm.
  32. ^ Athenagoras humanitarian award to nobel peace prize laureate Mikhail Gorbachev Website of Gorbachev Foundation
  33. ^ den 11. time. Danmarks Radio. DR 2. 2007-10-24.

Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Danmarks Radio (normally referred to as just DR) is Denmarks national broadcasting corporation. ... DR-2 is the second numbered highway In the Dominican Republic. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Soviet government troops arrest several Azeris in a clash with Popular Front protesters in Baku in January 1990. ... The Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental values and principles for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The President of Georgia (ge: საქართველოს პრეზიდენტი) is the head of the state and commander-in-chief of Georgia. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Alexander Yakovlev (left) with Mikhail Gorbachev. ...

Other meanings

Raisa Maximovna Gorbacheva (Russian: Раи́са Макси́мовна Горбачёва), maiden name Raisa Maximovna Titarenko (Раи́са Макси́мо&#1074... The Russian Country The Owl Yuri Gorbachev (born on December 29, 1948 in Uglovka near Leningrad, U.S.S.R.) is a famous Russian painter and sculptor. ...

External links

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Mikhail Gorbachev
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Category:Mikhail Gorbachev
  • MikhailGorbachev.org
  • The Gorbachev Foundation
  • Public Opinion about Gorbachev
  • The Encyclopedia of Marxism, from which parts of this article have been taken.
  • Green Cross International official site
  • Mikhail S. Gorbachev Biography, in Russian
  • Out in the Cold Guardian interview March 8, 2005
  • TIME 100 for 2004: Mikhail Gorbachev
  • CNN Cold War — Profile: Mikhail Gorbachev from the 1998 series
    • September 1997 interview
  • Biography, talks, tributes and quotes
  • Ubben Lecture at DePauw University
  • Mikhail Gorbachev's Project Syndicate op/eds
  • Commanding Heights: Mikhail Gorbachev (PBS interview), April 2001.
  • USSR — USA: Summit Documents and Materials, Washington May 30 - June 3, 1990
  • Truth
  • [3] Gorbachev to speak at University of Dallas as McDermott Guest Lecturer

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ...

Further reading

Primary sources

  • Mikhail Gorbachev, Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World, Perennial Library, Harper & Row, 1988, ISBN 0-06-091528-5
  • Mikhail Gorbachev, Memoirs, Doubleday, 1996, ISBN 0-385-48019-9
  • Mikhail Gorbachev Moral Lesson of the Twentieth Century with Daisaku Ikeda (2005)
  • "At Historic Crossroads: Documents on the December 1989 Malta Summit" in Cold War International History Project Bulletin 2001 (12-13): 229-241. ISSN 1071-9652

Daisaku Ikeda (池田大作: Ikeda Daisaku; January 2, 1928–) is president of Soka Gakkai International (SGI), a Buddhist association with about 15 million members in more than 190 countries and territories, and founder of several educational, cultural and research institutions. ...

Secondary sources

  • Anders Åslund, Gorbachev's Struggle for Economic Reform Cornell University Press, 1991
  • Archie Brown, The Gorbachev Factor, Oxford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-19-288052-7
  • Farnham, Barbara. "Reagan and the Gorbachev Revolution: Perceiving the End of Threat" Political Science Quarterly 2001 116(2): 225-252. ISSN 0032-3195
  • Marshall Goldman, What Went Wrong with Perestroika? W.W. Norton, 1992
  • Jackson, William D. "Soviet Reassessment of Ronald Reagan, 1985–1988" Political Science Quarterly 1998–1999 113(4): 617-644. ISSN 0032-3195
  • Jack Matlock, Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended (2004)
  • Jack Matlock, Autopsy on an Empire: The American Ambassador's Account of the Collapse of the Soviet Union (1995)
  • David Remnick, Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire (New York: Random House, 1993)_.
  • Robert Strayer, Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse? Understanding Historical Change M. E. Sharpe. 1998
Preceded by
Konstantin Chernenko
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
1985–1991
Succeeded by
Vladimir Ivashko
Preceded by
Andrei Gromyko
as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1988–1989)
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (1989–1990)
President of the Soviet Union (1990–1991)

1988–1991
Succeeded by
Ivan Korotchenya as Executive Secretary of CIS
The Soviet Union was dissolved and replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States
Preceded by
-
Recipient of The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award
1992
Succeeded by
Colin Powell
Preceded by
Corazon Aquino
Time's Man of the Year
1987
Succeeded by
Endangered Earth
Preceded by
Endangered Earth
Time's Man of the Year
1989
Succeeded by
George H. W. Bush
Persondata
NAME Gorbachev, Mikhail
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Горбачёв, Михаи́л Серге́евич (Russian); Gorbačëv, Mihail Sergeevič (alternate transliteration); Gorbachyov, Mikhail Sergeyevich (alternate transliteration)
SHORT DESCRIPTION leader of the Soviet Union
DATE OF BIRTH March 2, 1931
PLACE OF BIRTH Privolnoye, Russia
DATE OF DEATH living
PLACE OF DEATH living

is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CNN Cold War - Profile: Mikhail Gorbachev (525 words)
Hoping to shift resources to the civilian sector of the Soviet economy, Gorbachev also began to argue in favor of an end to the arms race with the West.
Throughout his six years in office, Gorbachev always seemed to be moving too fast for the party establishment, which saw its privileges threatened, and too slow for more radical reformers, who hoped to do away with the one-party state and the command economy.
At the end of the year, Gorbachev was forced to resign as president of a Soviet Union no longer in existence.
Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich - MSN Encarta (797 words)
Gorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich (1931- ), leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1985 to 1991, the last leader of that country and the key figure in the liberalization and subsequent disintegration of Soviet and Eastern European Communism.
Gorbachev was born to peasant parents in the village of Privolnoye, in the agrarian Stavropol Territory in south-western Russia.
Gorbachev was admitted to law school at Moscow State University in 1950, partly because of his ability and hard work and partly because of his humble origins and his status as a probationary member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), a rarity for one so young.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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