FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mikhail Glinka
Mikhail Glinka

Background information
Birth name Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka
Born June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20], Novospasskoye, Russian Empire
Died February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3], Berlin, Germany
Occupation(s) Composer
Notable instrument(s)
Orchestra
opera
piano
Chamber Music

Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Михаил Иванович Глинка Mihail Ivanovič Glinka) (June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20] - February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3]), was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian classical music. Glinka's compositions were an important influence on future Russian composers, notably the members of the Mighty Handful, who took Glinka's lead and produced a distinctively Russian kind of classical music. Mikhail Glinka, from March 1913 The Etude This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan. ... A grand piano, with the lid up. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... The Mighty Handful (Moguchaya Kuchka / Могучая Кучка in Russian), better known as The Five in English-speaking countries, was a label applied in 1867 by the critic Vladimir Stasov to a loose collection of Russian classical composers brought together under...

Contents

Early life

Mikhail Glinka was born in the village of Novospasskoye, a village not far from the Desna river in the Smolensk Guberniya of the Russian Empire. His father was a wealthy retired army captain, as the family had strong tradition of loyalty and service to the Tsar, while several members of his extended family had also developed a lively interest in culture. As a small child, Mikhail was reared by his over-protective and pampering grandmother who fed him sweets, wrapped him in furs, and confined him to her room, which was always to be kept at 77°F; as such, he developed a sickly disposition, later in his life retaining the services of numerous physicians, and often falling victim to a number of quacks. The only music he heard in his youthful confinement was the sounds of the village church bells and the folk songs of passing peasant choirs. The church bells were tuned to a dissonant chord and so his ears became used to strident harmony. While his nurse would sometimes sing folksongs, the peasant choirs who sang using the podgolosnaya technique (an improvised style - literally under the voice - which uses improvised dissonant harmonies below the melody) influenced the way he later felt free to emancipate himself from the smooth progressions of Western harmony. After his grandmother’s death, Glinka was moved to his maternal uncle’s estate some 10 km away, and was able to hear his uncle’s orchestra, whose repertoire included pieces by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. He was about ten when he heard them play a clarinet quintet by the Finnish composer, Bernhard Crusell. It had a profound effect upon him. "Music is my soul," he was to write many years later, recalling this experience. While his governess taught him Russian, German, French, and geography, he also received instruction on the piano and the violin. A village is a human residential settlement commonly found in rural areas. ... Desna () is a river in Russia and Ukraine, left tributary of the Dnieper. ... River upstream of an Australian trout farm A river is a large natural waterway. ... Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia | Smolensk Oblast ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Western music is a broad category of music that includes all musical genres that use a 12-note chromatic scale, including Western classical music, rock and roll, and many other forms of popular music. ... Franz [1] Joseph Haydn (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was one of the most prominent composers of the Classical period, called the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. A life-long resident of Austria, Haydn spent most of his career as a court musician for... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and highly influential composer of Classical music. ... 1820 portrait by Karl Stieler Ludwig van Beethoven (pronounced ) (baptised December 17, 1770[1] – March 26, 1827) was a German composer and pianist. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... A quintet is a formation containing five members. ... A grand piano, with the lid up. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


At the age of 13 Glinka was sent to the capital, Saint Petersburg, to study at a school for children of the nobility. Here he was taught Latin, English, and Persian, studied mathematics and zoology, and was able to considerably widen his musical experience. He had three piano lessons from John Field, the Irish composer of nocturnes, who spent some time in St Petersburg. He then continued his piano lessons with Carl Meyer, and began composing. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Persian, (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Zoology is the biological discipline which involves the study of non human animals. ... John Field (July 26, 1782 – January 23, 1837) was an Irish composer and pianist. ... A nocturne (from the French for nocturnal) is usually a musical composition that is inspired by, or evocative of, the night. ...


When he left school his father wanted him to join the Foreign Office, and he was appointed assistant secretary of the Department of Public Highways. The work was light, which allowed Mikhail to settle into the life of a musical dilettante, frequenting the drawing rooms and social gatherings of the city. He was already composing a large amount of music, such as melancholy romances which amused the rich amateurs. His songs are among the most interesting part of his output from this period. (ital. ... In British society, a drawing room is a room in a house where visitors may be entertained. ...


In 1830, at the recommendation of a physician, Glinka decided to travel to Italy with the tenor Ivanov. The route was leisurely, ambling uneventfully through Germany and Switzerland, before they settled in Milan. There, Glinka took lessons at the conservatory with Francesco Basili, although he struggled with counterpoint, which he found irksome. Although he spent his three years in Italy listening to singers of the day, romancing women with his music, and meeting many famous people including Mendelssohn and Berlioz, he became disenchanted with Italy. He realized that his mission in life was to return to Russia, write in a Russian manner, and do for Russian music what Donizetti and Bellini had done for Italian music. His return route took him through the Alps, and he stopped for a while in Vienna, where he heard the music of Franz Liszt. He stayed for another five months in Berlin, during which time he studied composition under the distinguished teacher Siegfried Dehn. A Capriccio on Russian themes for piano duet and an unfinished Symphony on two Russian themes were important products of this period. Several individuals have the surname Ivanov: Alexander Ivanov, Russian artist (the chess player of the same name is described on the same page) Georgi Ivanov, Bulgarian cosmonaut Igor Ivanov, Russian foreign minister Porfiry Ivanov, Russian mystic who promoted a health system called Detka. Sergei Ivanov, Russian defence minister Sergei Ivanov... Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese: Milán (listen)) is the main city of northern Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... The Milan Conservatory is a famous music school in Milan whose alumni include Giacomo Puccini, Vittorio Giannini, Francisco Mignone, and Italo Montemezzi Categories: Music stubs | Music schools ... Counterpoint is a broad organisational feature of much music, involving the simultaneous sounding of separate musical lines. ... Felix Mendelssohn at the age of thirty Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and known generally as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Hector Louis Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer best known for the Symphonie fantastique, first performed in 1830, and for his Grande Messe des Morts (Requiem) of 1837, with its tremendous resources that include four antiphonal brass choirs. ... Gaetano Donizetti Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was a famous Italian opera composer. ... Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (November 3, 1801 – September 23, 1835) was an Italian opera composer. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 Vienna (German: Wien ) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Portrait of Franz Liszt, painted in 1839 by Henri Lehmann. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


When word reached Mikhail Glinka of his father's death in 1836, he left Berlin and returned to Novospasskoye.


Middle years

Statue near Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg.
Statue near Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg.

While in Berlin, Glinka had become enamored with a beautiful singer (for whom he composed Six Studies for Contralto). He contrived a plan to return to her, but when his sister's German maid turned up without the necessary paperwork to cross to the border with him, he abandoned his plan as well as his love and turned north for St. Petersburg. There he reunited with his mother, and met the acquaintance of Maria Petrovna Ivanova. After courting her for a brief period, the two married. The marriage was short-lived, as Maria proved to be utterly without tact and uninterested in his music. Although his initial fondness for her was said to have inspired the trio in the first act of opera A Life for the Tsar (Жизнь за царя) (1836), his naturally sweet disposition coarsened under the constant nagging of his wife and her mother. After separating, she would remarry, while Glinka moved in with his mother, and later his sister (Lyudmila Shestakova). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 91 KB) Monument to Mikhail Glinka near St. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (480x640, 91 KB) Monument to Mikhail Glinka near St. ... The Maryinsky (or Mariinsky) Theatre (or Theater), is the St Petersburg theatre where the Mariinsky Ballet is located. ... A Life for the Tsar (Russian: Žizn’ za carâ) is a patriotic-heroic tragic opera in five acts with an epilogue by Mikhail Glinka. ...


A Life for the Tsar was the first of Glinka's two great operas. It was originally entitled Ivan Susanin. Set in 1612 the story tells the story of the Russian peasant and patriotic hero Ivan Susanin who sacrifices his life for the Tsar by leading astray a group of marauding Poles who were hunting him. The Tsar himself followed the work’s progress with interest and suggested the change in the title. It was a great success at its premiere on December 9, 1836, under the direction of Catterino Cavos, who had written an opera on the same subject in Italy. Although the music is still more Italianate than Russian, Glinka shows superb handling of the recitative which binds the whole work, and the orchestration is masterly, foreshadowing the orchestral writing of later Russian composers. The Tsar rewarded Glinka for his work with a ring valued at 4000 rubles. (During the Soviet era, the opera was staged under its original title Ivan Susanin). Ivan Susanin (15?? - 1613) was a Russian folk hero and martyr of the early 17th centurys Time of Troubles. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 2, Charles Darwin returns from his voyage around the world. ... Catterino Cavos Catterino Albertovich Cavos also Catarino Camillo Cavos or Katerino Albertovič Kavos (Russian: Катери́но Альбе́ртович Каво́с, born: October 30, 1775, Venice, Italy – died: May 10 (OS April 28), 1840 St Petersburg, Russia) was an Italian composer, organist and conductor settled in Russia. ... Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas, oratorios, cantatas and similar works, is described as a melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words. ... Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed for another medium. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 11% (Russian only) Source CIA World Fact Book, 2005 est. ...


In 1837, Glinka was installed as the instructor of the Imperial Chapel Choir, with a yearly salary of 25,000 roubles, and lodging at the court. In 1838, at the suggestion of the Tsar, he went off to the Ukraine to gather new voices for the choir; the 19 new boys he found earned him another 1,500 roubles from the Tsar.


He soon embarked on his second opera: Ruslan and Lyudmila. The plot, based on the tale by Pushkin, was concocted in 15 minutes by Konstantin Bakhturin, a poet who was drunk at the time. Consequently the opera is a dramatic muddle, yet the quality of Glinka’s music is higher than in A Life for the Tsar. He uses a descending whole-tone-scale in the famous overture. This is associated with the villainous dwarf Chernomor who has abducted Lyudmila, daughter of the Prince of Kiev. There is much Italianate coloratura, and Act 3 contains several routine ballet numbers, but his great achievement in this opera lies in his use of folk melody which becomes thoroughly infused into the musical argument. Much of the borrowed folk material is oriental in origin. When it was first produced on 9 December 1842 it met with a cool reception, although subsequently it gained popularity. Ruslan and Lyudmila (Руслан и Людмила in Russian, Ruslan i Lyudmila in transliteration) is an opera in five acts by Mikhail Glinka to a Russian libretto by Valerian Fyodorovich Shirkov and Nestor Kukolnik, based on a poem by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... Pushkin may refer to: People Aleksandr Pushkin - a famous Russian poet Apollo Mussin-Pushkin - chemist and plant collector Aleksei Musin-Pushkin - statesman, historian, art collector Other Pushkin, a town in Russia Pushkin Square - square in Moscow Pushkin Museum - fine arts museum in Moscow This is a disambiguation page — a... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Coloratura is an ornate, flowery style in classical singing. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Later years

Glinka went through a dejected year after the poor reception of Ruslan and Lyudmila. His spirits rose when he travelled to Paris and Spain. In Paris, Berlioz conducted some excerpts from Glinka’s operas and wrote an appreciative article about him. Glinka in turn admired Berlioz’s music and resolved to compose some fantasies pittoresques for orchestra. Another visit to Paris followed in 1852 where he spent two years, living quietly and making frequent visits to the botanical and zoological gardens. From there he moved to Berlin where, after five months, he died suddenly on 15 February 1857, following a cold. He was buried in Berlin but a few months later his body was taken to St Petersburg and reinterred in the cemetery of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery.-1... Portrait of Berlioz by Signol, 1832 Louis Hector Berlioz (December 11, 1803 – March 8, 1869) was a French Romantic composer best known for the Symphonie Fantastique, first performed in 1830, and for his Requiem of 1837, with its tremendous resources that include four antiphonal brass choirs. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants both for scientific purposes and for the enjoyment and education of visitors. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo Zoo redirects here. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... View of the monastery in the early 19th century Alexander Nevsky Monastery was founded by Peter the Great in 1710 at the southern end of the Nevsky Prospect in St Petersburg to house the relics of Alexander Nevsky, patron saint of the newly-founded Russian capital. ...

Grave of Mikhail Glinka on Tikhvin Cemetery in Saint Petersburg
Grave of Mikhail Glinka on Tikhvin Cemetery in Saint Petersburg

After Glinka's death the relative merits of his two operas became a source of heated debate in the musical press, especially between Vladimir Stasov and his former friend Alexander Serov. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 412 KB) en:Mikhail Glinkas grave on en:Tikhvin Cemetery. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 412 KB) en:Mikhail Glinkas grave on en:Tikhvin Cemetery. ... Tikhvin Cemetery (Тихвинское кладбище) is located at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, in St. ... Stasov is a quintessential family of Russian intelligentsia. ... Composer Alexander Serov by Valentin Serov, 1887-1888 Alexander Nikolayevich Serov (Александр Николаевич Серов in Cyrillic; Aleksandr Nikolaevič Serov in transliteration) (11/23 Jan. ...


Outside Russia several of Glinka's orchestral works have been fairly popular in concerts and recordings. Besides the well-known overtures to the operas (especially the brilliantly energetic overture to Ruslan), his major orchestral works include the symphonic poem Kamarinskaya (1848), based on Russian folk tunes, and two Spanish works, A Night in Madrid (1848, 1851) and Jota Aragonesa (1845). This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Overture (French ouverture, meaning opening) in music is the instrumental introduction to a dramatic, choral or, occasionally, instrumental composition. ... 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Glinka also composed many art songs, many piano pieces, and some chamber music. An art song is a vocal music composition, usually written for one singer and often with piano accompaniment. ...


A much lesser work that received some attention in the last decade was Glinka's "The Patriotic Song", supposedly written for a contest for a national anthem in 1833; the music was adopted as the national anthem of Russia during 1990-2000. The Patriotic Song (Патриотическая Песня; Patrioticheskaya Pesnya) was the national anthem of Russia from 1991 to 2000. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ...


When evaluating Glinka’s achievement it is important to see him in the context of Russian music at the time. Ever since him, there has been a strong leaning towards the music of Western composers. Even Russian folksong in the cities had become Westernized with regular rhythms and phrase structures and simple harmony, quite unlike the purer forms of folk music Glinka would have known from his childhood. Glinka’s achievement lies in the way he let his Russian character pervade his Western-based compositional style, creating models for future Russian composers.


References

  • Brown, David (1974). Mikhail Glinka, a biographical and critical study, Oxford University Press.
  • ed. John Knowles Paine, Theodore Thomas, and Karl Klauser (1891). Famous Composers and Their Works, J.B. Millet Company.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mikhail Glinka Summary (2155 words)
Glinka's compositions were an important influence on future Russian composers, notably the members of the Mighty Handful, who took Glinka's lead and produced a distinctively Russian kind of classical music.
Mikhail Glinka was born in the village of Novospasskoye, a village not far from the Desna river in the Smolensk Guberniya of the Russian Empire.
In 1837, Glinka was installed as the instructor of the Imperial Chapel Choir, with a yearly salary of 25,000 roubles, and lodging at the court.
Glinka - MSN Encarta (190 words)
Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857), Russian composer, born in Novospasskoye, and educated in Saint Petersburg.
Glinka established himself as the founder of the Russian national school of music, which was subsequently carried on by such composers as Aleksandr Borodin, Modest Mussorgsky, and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov.
Glinka was also interested in the popular music and dance of Spain, where he lived from 1845 to 1847, which inspired the overtures Jota Aragonesa and Night in Madrid (1851).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m