FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Mike Gravel
Mike Gravel
Mike Gravel

In office
January 3, 1969 – January 3, 1981
Preceded by Ernest Gruening
Succeeded by Frank Murkowski

3rd Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives
In office
January 3, 1965 – January 3, 1967
Preceded by Bruce Biers Kendall
Succeeded by William K. Boardman

Member of the Alaska House of Representatives from 8th district
In office
January 3, 1963 – January 3, 1967

Born May 13, 1930 (1930-05-13) (age 77)
Springfield, Massachusetts
Political party Democratic (until 2008)

Libertarian (2008-present) Image File history File links Alaska Senator Mike Gravel. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Bronze by George Anthonisen. ... Francis Hughes Murkowski (born March 28, 1933) is an American politician and a member of the Republican Party. ... Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives is a presiding officer of this body: This is incomplete list - please expand it. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Bruce Biers Kendall (born 1919) is a retried American republican politician from Alaska. ... William Knight Broadman (born 1915) is a United States politician, a Republican from Alaska, best know aa a Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives. ... The Alaska House of Representatives is the lower house in the Alaska Legislature of the U.S. state of Alaska. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampden Settled 1636 Incorporated 1852 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Charles Ryan (D) Area  - Total 33. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major United States political parties. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party created in 1971. ...

Spouse Rita Martin (divorced)
Whitney Stewart Gravel
Profession Real estate development, author
Religion Unitarian Universalism[1]
Signature Mike Gravel's signature

Maurice Robert "Mike" Gravel (pronounced /grəˈvɛl/) (born May 13, 1930) is a former Democratic United States Senator from Alaska, who served two terms from 1969 to 1981, and is a candidate in the 2008 presidential election. A real estate developer builds on land, thereby increasing its value. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ...


Born and raised in Springfield, Massachusetts to French-Canadian immigrant parents, Gravel served in the United States Army in West Germany and graduated from Columbia University. He moved to Alaska in the late 1950s, becoming a real estate developer and entering politics. He served in the Alaska House of Representatives from 1963 to 1966 and became its Speaker of the House. Gravel was elected to the United States Senate in 1968. Nickname: Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampden Settled 1636 Incorporated 1852 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Charles Ryan (D) Area  - Total 33. ... Canadiens redirects here. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... The Alaska House of Representatives is the lower house in the Alaska Legislature of the U.S. state of Alaska. ... Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives is a presiding officer of this body: This is incomplete list - please expand it. ...


As Senator, Gravel became nationally known for his forceful but unsuccessful attempts to end the draft during the Vietnam War and for having put the Pentagon Papers into the public record in 1971 despite risk to himself. He conducted an unusual campaign for the Democratic nomination for Vice President of the United States in 1972, and then played a crucial role in getting Congressional approval for the Trans-Alaska pipeline in 1973. He was re-elected to the Senate in 1974, but gradually alienated most of his Alaskan constituencies and his bid for a third term was defeated in a Democratic primary election in 1980. Conscription in the United States has been employed several times, usually during war but also during the nominal peace of the Cold War. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Pentagon Papers is the colloquial term for United States-Vietnam Relations, 1945-1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, a 47 volume, 7,000-page, top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Map of the pipeline The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS), usually called the Alyeska Pipeline in Alaska or the Alaska Pipeline elsewhere, is a major U.S. oil pipeline connecting oil fields in northern Alaska to a sea port where the oil can be shipped to the Lower 48 states... For other uses, see Primary. ...


Gravel returned to business ventures and went through difficult times, suffering corporate and personal bankruptcies amid poor health. He became a passionate advocate of direct democracy and the National Initiative, and in 2006 began a run for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in part to promote those ideas. His campaign gained an Internet following and national attention due to forceful and idiosyncratic debate appearances during 2007, but has consistently shown very little support in national polls or in 2008 caucuses and primaries. In March 2008 he announced he was switching to the Libertarian Party and continuing his presidential candidacy by competing for its nomination. Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... // These have filed (or announced plans to file) with the Federal Elections Commission (FEC). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Libertarian Party is an American political party founded on December 11, 1971. ...

Contents

Early life, military service, education

Gravel was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, to French-Canadian immigrant parents, Marie Bourassa and Alphonse Gravel,[2] a painting contractor.[3] There, he was raised in a working class neighborhood,[4] speaking only French until he was seven years old.[5] Initially a poor student (due to what he later said was undiagnosed dyslexia[6][5]), he was educated in parochial schools as a Roman Catholic, attending Assumption College Preparatory School. He has a sister, Marguerite, who became a nun,[3] but Gravel himself struggled with Catholicism.[1] Nickname: Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampden Settled 1636 Incorporated 1852 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Charles Ryan (D) Area  - Total 33. ... Canadiens redirects here. ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... This article is about developmental dyslexia. ... A parochial school (or faith school) is a type of private school which engages in religious education in addition to conventional education. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about the college in Worcester, Massachusetts, USA. For other colleges of the same name see Assumption College (disambiguation) Assumption College is a private, Catholic, liberal arts college located on 175 acres (708,000 m²) in Worcester, Massachusetts. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ...


Gravel studied for one year at American International College in Springfield,[7] then enlisted in the United States Army in 1951 and served in West Germany as a Special Adjutant in the Communication and Intelligent Services and as a Special Agent in the Counter Intelligence Corps until 1954,[8][4] eventually becoming a First Lieutenant.[9] He attended Columbia University's School of General Studies in New York City, where he studied economics and received a B.S. in 1956.[10] He had come to New York "flat broke",[9] and supported himself by working as a bar boy in a hotel,[9] driving a taxicab,[11] and working in the investment bond department at Bankers Trust.[9] During this time he left the Catholic faith.[1] DAR Hall American International College is a private, co-educational institution located in the Mason Square neighborhood of Springfield, Massachusetts. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The History of the Counter Intelligence Corps was a classified 30 volume book prepared in the late 1950s by Maj. ... First Lieutenant is a military rank. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... The School of General Studies, commonly known as General Studies or simply GS, is Columbia Universitys undergraduate college for non-traditional students. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... BS or bs is an abbreviation with multiple meanings, including: Bachelor of Science degree British Standard Bahamas (ISO country code) The postcode for Bristol, England A somewhat more polite abbreviation of bullshit A card game The Swiss canton of Basel_Stadt Shorthand for the backspace and the backspace control character Shorthand... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ... The Bankers Trust is a historic American banking organisation that was acquired by Deutsche Bank in 1998. ...


Move to Alaska

Gravel "decided to become a pioneer in a faraway place,"[9] and moved to pre-statehood Alaska in 1956, without funds or a job, looking for a place where someone without social or political connections could be a viable candidate for public office;[11][5] Alaska's voting age of 19, less than most other states' 21, played a role,[12] as did its newness[5] and cooler climate.[11] He found work in several areas, including real estate sales, brakeman for the Alaska Railroad, and as a very successful property developer on the Kenai Peninsula.[13][9] He joined the Anchorage Unitarian Universalist fellowship, and would continue a sporadic relationship with the movement throughout his life.[1] Public administration is, broadly speaking, the implementation of policy within a state framework. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... A Santa Fe Railroad brakeman atop a train that has paused at Cajon, California, to cool its brakes after descending Cajon Pass in March 1943. ... The Alaska Railroad (AAR reporting marks ARR) is a Class II railroad that extends from Seward, in the south of the state of Alaska, in the United States, to Fairbanks, in the interior of that state. ... The Kenai Peninsula in Alaska The Kenai Peninsula is a large peninsula jutting from the southern coast of Alaska in the United States. ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ...


Gravel married Rita Jeannette Martin, who had been Anchorage's "Miss Fur Rendezvous" of 1958,[14] on April 29, 1959.[14] They had two children, Martin Anthony Gravel and Lynne Denise Gravel,[14] born circa 1960 and 1962 respectively.[12] Meanwhile, he ran unsuccessfully for the territorial legislature in 1958.[11] He went on a national speaking tour concerning tax reform in 1959, sponsored by the Jaycees.[10] He ran unsuccessfully for the Anchorage City Council in 1960.[11] The Fur Rendezvous Festival (usually called Fur Rendezvous, Fur Rondy, or simply Rondy) is an annual winter festival held in Anchorage, Alaska in late February. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tax reform is the process of changing the way taxes are collected or managed by the government. ... The United States Junior Chamber or Jaycees is an organization aimed at individuals aged 21 to 39 to help them in business and their professional careers. ... This article is about the city in the U.S. state of Alaska. ...


State legislator

With some newfound wealthy backers,[12] Gravel ran for the Alaska House of Representatives representing Anchorage in 1962 and won.[11] The Alaska House of Representatives is the lower house in the Alaska Legislature of the U.S. state of Alaska. ...


Gravel served in the Alaska House of Representatives from 1963 to 1966, winning re-election in 1964. During 1965 and 1966, he served as the Speaker of the House, surprising observers by winning that post.[12] As Speaker he antagonized fellow lawmakers by imposing his will on the legislature's committees.[12] The Alaska House of Representatives is the lower house in the Alaska Legislature of the U.S. state of Alaska. ...


He did not run for re-election in 1966, instead choosing to run for Alaska's seat in the U.S. House of Representatives, losing to four-term incumbent Democrat Ralph Rivers[11] by 1,300 votes[12] and splitting the Democratic party in the process.[12] Alaskas At-large congressional district comprises the entire state of Alaska. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Ralph Julian Rivers (May 23, 1903 - August 14, 1976) was a Democratic U.S. Representative from Alaska. ...


Following his defeat, Gravel returned to the real estate business in Anchorage.[12]


U.S. Senator

Senator Mike Gravel
Senator Mike Gravel

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Election to Senate in 1968

In 1968 he ran against the 81-year-old incumbent Democratic Senator Ernest Gruening, a popular former governor of the Alaska Territory who was considered one of the fathers of Alaska's statehood,[11] for his party's nomination to the U.S. Senate. Gravel's campaign was primarily based on his youth.[12] He hired Joseph Napolitan, the first self-described political consultant, in late 1966.[12] They spent over a year and a half planning a short primary election campaign that featured the slogan "Let's do something about the state we're in"[15] as well as a half-hour, well-produced[11] biographical film of Gravel that was shown frequently on both television and on home projectors in many Eskimo villages.[12] The heavy showings quickly reversed a large Gruening lead in polls into a Gravel lead.[12] Gravel also benefited by being deliberately ambiguous about his Vietnam policy. Gruening had been one of only two Senators to vote against the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and, according to Gravel, "...all I had to do was stand up and not deal with the subject, and people would assume that I was to the right of Ernest Gruening, when in point of fact I was to the left of him."[11] Bronze by George Anthonisen. ... This is a list of the governors of the U.S. state of Alaska, of the Territory of Alaska and of the District of Alaska, and the military commanders of the Department of Alaska, as well as the governors of Russian America. ... Alaska Territory was an organized territory of the United States from August 24, 1912 to January 3, 1959, when Alaska became the 49th state. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Political consulting is the business which has grown up around advising and assisting political campaigns, primarily in the United States. ... For other uses, see Eskimo (disambiguation). ... The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed in August 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. ...


Gravel unexpectedly beat Gruening in a tight result[16] in the primary and went on to win the general election, gaining 45 percent of the vote against 37 percent for Republican Elmer E. Rasmuson and 18 percent for Gruening, who ran a write-in campaign as an Independent.[17] The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Elmer E. Rasmuson (1909-2000) was an Alaskan banker and philanthropist. ... A write-in candidate is a candidate in an election whose name does not appear on the ballot, but for whom voters may vote nonetheless by writing in the persons name. ... In politics, an independent is a politician who is not affiliated with any political party. ...


Senate assignments and style

Gravel served on the Environment and Public Works Committee throughout his Senate career. He also served on the Finance and Interior Committees and he chaired the Energy, Water Resources, and Environmental Pollution subcommittees.[18] The United States Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works is responsible for dealing with matters related to the environment and infrastructure. ... The U.S. Senate Committee on Finance (or, less formally, Senate Finance Committee) is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... The United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources has jurisdiction over matters related to energy and nuclear waste policy, territorial policy, native Hawaiian matters, and public lands. ... Senate Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee on Water and Power is one of four subcommittees of the U.S. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee. ... The U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Superfund and Environmental Health is one of six subcommittees of the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works. ...


By his own admission, Gravel was too new and "too abrasive" to be effective in the Senate by the usual means of seniority-based committee assignments or negotiating backroom deals with other senators,[12][19] and was sometimes seen as arrogant by the more senior members.[12] Gravel instead relied upon attention-getting gestures to achieve what he wanted, hoping national exposure would force other senators to listen to him.[19] As part of this he voted with Southern Democrats to keep the Senate filibuster rule in place,[12] and accordingly supported Russell Long and Robert Byrd and opposed Ted Kennedy in Senate leadership battles.[12] In retrospect assessment, University of Alaska Anchorage history professor Stephen Haycox would say, "Loose cannon is a good description of Gravel's Senate career. He was an off-the-wall guy, and you weren't really ever sure what he would do."[20] As a form of obstructionism in a legislature or other decision making body, a filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or completely prevent a vote on its passage. ... Russell Long is the coolest 16 year old this side of the west side yo. ... Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ... For other persons named Ted Kennedy, see Ted Kennedy (disambiguation). ... University of Alaska Anchorage is the largest member of the University of Alaska System, with more than 17,000 students, 14,000 of whom attend classes at the main Anchorage campus. ...


Nuclear issues and the Cold War

In the late 1960s and early 1970s the U.S. Department of Defense was in the process of performing tests for the nuclear warhead for the Spartan anti-ballistic missile interceptor. Two tests, the Milrow and Cannikin tests, were planned, involving the detonation of nuclear bombs under Amchitka Island in Alaska. The Milrow test would be a one megaton calibration exercise for the second, and larger five megaton, Cannikin test, which would measure the effectiveness of the warhead. Gravel opposed the tests in Congress. Before the October 1969 Milrow test took place, he wrote that there were significant risks of earthquakes and other adverse consequences, and called for an independent national commission on nuclear and seismic safety to be created;[21] he then made a personal appeal to President Nixon to stop the test.[22] After Milrow was conducted, there was continued pressure on the part of environmental groups against going forward with the larger Cannikin test, while the Federation of American Scientists claimed the warhead being tested was already obsolete.[22] In May 1971 Gravel sent a letter to Atomic Energy Commission hearings held in Anchorage, in which he said the risk of the test was not worth taking.[23] Eventually a group not involving Gravel took the case to the U.S. Supreme Court, which declined to issue an injunction against it,[24] and the Cannikin test took place as scheduled in November 1971.[24] Gravel had failed to stop the tests (notwithstanding his later claims during his 2008 presidential campaign[25]). The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Launch of a Spartan The Spartan, designation LIM-49A, was a United States Army anti-ballistic missile. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... Amchitka is a volcanic, tectonically unstable island in the Rat Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... Amchitka is a volcanic, tectonically unstable island in the Rat Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska. ... Environmentalism is the support or involvement with the environmental movement by environmentalists. ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... Almost a year after World War II ended, Congress established the United States Atomic Energy Commission to foster and control the peace time development of atomic science and technology. ...


Nuclear power was considered an environmentally clean alternative for the commercial generation of electricity and was part of a popular national policy for the peaceful use of atomic energy in the 1950s and 1960s.[26] Gravel publicly opposed this policy; besides the dangers of nuclear testing, he was a vocal critic of the Atomic Energy Commission,[26] which oversaw American nuclear efforts, and of the powerful United States Congress Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, which had a stranglehold on nuclear policy and which Gravel tried to circumvent.[26] In 1971, Gravel sponsored a bill to impose a moratorium on nuclear power plant construction and to make power utilities liable for any nuclear accidents;[27] in 1975, he was still proposing similar moratoriums.[28] By 1974, Gravel was allied with Ralph Nader's organization in opposing nuclear power.[29] This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ... Almost a year after World War II ended, Congress established the United States Atomic Energy Commission to foster and control the peace time development of atomic science and technology. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist in the areas of consumer rights, humanitarianism, environmentalism and democratic government. ...


Six months before United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's secret mission to the People's Republic of China in July 1971, Gravel introduced legislation to recognize and normalize relations with Communist China, including a proposal for unity talks between Communist China and Taiwan regarding the China seat at the United Nations.[30] Gravel reiterated his position in favor of recognition, with four other senators in agreement, during Senate hearings in June 1971.[31] Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American politician, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ... Chinas seat in the United Nations has been occupied by the Peoples Republic of China since October 25, 1971. ...


Vietnam War, the draft, and the Pentagon Papers

President Richard Nixon had campaigned in 1968 on a promise to end the U.S. military draft,[32][33] a decision endorsed by the February 1970 report of the Gates Commission.[32][34] The existing draft law was scheduled to conclude at the end of June 1971, and the Senate faced a contentious debate about whether to extend it as the Vietnam War continued.[35] The Nixon administration announced in February 1971 that it wanted a two-year extension to June 1973, after which the draft would end;[36][37] Army planners had already been operating under the assumption of a two-year extension, after which an all-volunteer force would be in place.[38] Skeptics such as Senate Armed Services Committee chairman John Stennis thought this unrealistic and wanted a four-year extension,[36] but the two-year proposal is what went forward in Congress.[35] By early May 1971, Gravel had indicated his intention to filibuster the draft renewal legislation, halting conscription and thereby bringing U.S. involvement in the war to a rapid end.[39] Nixon redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Conscription in the United States has been employed several times, usually during war but also during the nominal peace of the Cold War. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 - April 22, 1994) was the thirty-sixth (1953–1961) Vice President, and the thirty-seventh (1969–1974) President of the United States. ... The Committee on Armed Services is a committee of the United States Senate empowered with legislative oversight of the nations military, including the Department of Defense, military research and development, nuclear energy (as pertaining to national security), benefits for members of the military, the Selective Service System and other... John Cornelius Stennis (August 3, 1901 - April 23, 1995) was a Senator from the state of Mississippi. ... As a form of obstructionism in a legislature or other decision making body, a filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or completely prevent a vote on its passage. ...


By June 1971, some Democratic senators opposed to the war wanted to limit the renewal to a one-year extension, while others wanted to end it immediately;[35] Gravel reiterated that he was one of the latter, saying, "It's a senseless war, and one way to do away with it is to do away with the draft."[35] A Senate vote on June 4 indicated majority support for the two-year extension.[35] On June 18 Gravel announced again his intention to counteract that by filibustering the renewal legislation,[40] defending the practice against those who associated it only with blocking civil rights legislation.[40] The first filibuster attempt failed on June 23 when, by three votes, the Senate voted cloture for only the fifth time since 1927.[41] is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... American Civil Rights Movement redirects here. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In parliamentary procedure, cloture (pr: KLO-cher) (also called closure, and sometimes a guillotine) is a motion or process aimed at bringing debate to a quick end. ...


Protracted negotiations took place over House conference negotiations on the bill, revolving in large part around Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield's eventually unsuccessful amendment to tie renewal to a troop withdrawal timetable from Vietnam; during this time the draft law expired and no more were conscripted.[42] On August 5, the Nixon administration pleaded for a renewal before the Senate went on recess, but Gravel successfully blocked Stennis's attempt to limit debate, and no vote was held.[43] Finally on September 21, 1971, the Senate invoked cloture over Gravel's second filibuster attempt by one vote, and then passed the two-year draft extension.[42] Gravel's attempts to stop the draft had failed[19] (notwithstanding Gravel's latter claims that he had stopped or shortened the draft, taken at face value in some media reports, during his 2008 presidential campaign[44]). Mike Mansfield, Congressional portrait This article describes the American politician. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ...


Meanwhile, on June 13, 1971, The New York Times began printing large portions of the Pentagon Papers.[45] That was a large collection of secret government documents and studies pertaining to the Vietnam War, of which former Defense Department analyst Daniel Ellsberg had made unauthorized copies and was determined to make public.[46] Ellsberg had for a year and a half approached members of Congress — such as William Fulbright, George McGovern, Charles Mathias, and Pete McCloskey — about publishing the documents, on the grounds that the Speech or Debate Clause of the Constitution would give congressional members immunity from prosecution, but all had refused.[47] Instead, Ellsberg gave the documents to the Times. is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The Pentagon Papers is the colloquial term for United States-Vietnam Relations, 1945-1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, a 47 volume, 7,000-page, top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... Daniel and Patricia Marx Ellsberg - 2006 Jacob Appelbaum Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national uproar in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, the U.S. militarys account of activities during the Vietnam War... James William Fulbright (April 9, 1905 – February 9, 1995) was a well-known member of the United States Senate representing Arkansas. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. ... Charles Mathias, Jr. ... Paul Norton Pete McCloskey Jr. ... The Speech or Debate Clause (found in Article I, Section 6, Clause 1) is a clause in the United States Constitution which states that members of both Houses of Congress Its intended purpose is to prevent a President or other officials of the Executive branch from having members arrested on... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... Immunity, also known as transactional immunity, confers a status on a person or body that places them beyond the law and makes that person or body free from otherwise legal obligations such as, for example, liability for torts or damages or prosecution under criminal law for criminal acts. ...


The U.S. Justice Department immediately tried to halt publication, on the grounds that the information revealed within the papers harmed the national interest.[46] Within the next two weeks, a federal court injunction halted publication in The Times; The Washington Post and several other newspapers began publishing parts of the documents, with some of them also being halted by injunctions; and the whole matter went to the U.S. Supreme Court for arguments.[46] Looking for an alternate publication mechanism, Ellsberg returned to his idea of having a member of Congress read them, and chose Gravel based on the latter's efforts against the draft;[5] Gravel agreed where previously others had not. Ellsberg arranged for the papers to be given to Gravel on June 26[5] via an intermediary.[48] Gravel used his counter-intelligence experience to choose a midnight transfer in front of the Mayflower Hotel in the center of Washington.[49] The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Front Entrance to Mayflower Hotel This article is about the hotel in Washington, DC. There are other historic hotels by the name of Mayflower, including the Mayflower Hotel on the Park in New York City (closed and demolished in 2004), the Mayflower Hotel in Beirut, and the Mayflower Park Hotel...


On the night of June 29, 1971, Gravel attempted to read the papers on the floor of the Senate as part of his filibuster against the draft, but was thwarted when no quorum could be formed.[50] Gravel instead convened a session of the Buildings and Grounds subcommittee that he chaired, and began reading from the papers with the press in attendance,[50] omitting supporting documents that he felt might compromise national security,[51] and declaring, "It is my constitutional obligation to protect the security of the people by fostering the free flow of information absolutely essential to their democratic decision-making."[51] is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ...


He read until 1 a.m., until with tears and sobs he said that he could no longer physically continue,[51] the previous three nights of sleeplessness and fear about the future having taken their toll.[5] Gravel ended the session by inserting 4,100 pages of the Papers into the Congressional Record of his subcommittee.[46][19] The following day, the Supreme Court's New York Times Co. v. United States decision ruled in favor of the newspapers[46] and publication in The Times and others resumed. In July 1971, Bantam Books published an inexpensive paperback edition of the papers containing the material The Times had published.[52] The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. ... Holding In order to exercise prior restraint, the Government must show sufficient evidence that the publication would cause a “grave and irreparable” danger. ... Bantam Books is a major U.S. publishing house owned by Random House and is part of the Bantam Dell Publishing Group. ...


Gravel, too, wanted to privately publish the portion of the papers he had read into the record, believing that "immediate disclosure of the contents of these papers will change the policy that supports the war."[48] After being turned down by many commercial publishers,[48] on August 4 he reached agreement with Beacon Press,[53] the publishing arm of the Unitarian Universalist Association, of which Gravel was a member.[19] Announced on August 17[52] and published on October 22, 1971,[48] this four-volume, relatively expensive set[52] became the "Senator Gravel Edition", which studies from Cornell University and the Annenberg Center for Communication have labeled as the most complete edition of the Pentagon Papers to be published.[54][55] The "Gravel Edition" was edited and annotated by Noam Chomsky and Howard Zinn, and included an additional volume of analytical articles on the origins and progress of the war, also edited by Chomsky and Zinn.[55] Beacon Press then was subjected to a FBI investigation;[49] an outgrowth of this was the Gravel v. United States court case, which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled upon in June 1972;[49] it held that the Speech or Debate Clause did grant immunity to Gravel for his reading the papers in his subcommittee, did grant some immunity to Gravel's congressional aide, but granted no immunity to Beacon Press in relation to their publishing the same papers.[56] is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Beacon Press, founded in 1854 and a department of the Unitarian Universalist Association, operates as a book publisher in the United States of America. ... Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), in full the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations in North America, is a liberal religious association of Unitarian Universalist congregations formed by the consolidation in 1961 of the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Cornell redirects here. ... The Annenberg Center for Communication (ACC) at the University of Southern California promotes interdisciplinary research in communications between the USC School of Cinema-Television, Viterbi School of Engineering, and the separate Annenberg School for Communication at USC, also funded by Walter Annenberg. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Howard Zinn (born August 24, 1922) is an American historian, political scientist, social critic, activist and playwright, best known as author of the bestseller[5] , A Peoples History of the United States. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Holding The privileges of the Constitutions Speech or Debate Clause enjoyed by members of Congress also extend to Congressional aides, but not to activity outside the legislative process. ... The Speech or Debate Clause (found in Article I, Section 6, Clause 1) is a clause in the United States Constitution which states that members of both Houses of Congress Its intended purpose is to prevent a President or other officials of the Executive branch from having members arrested on...


The events of 1971 changed Gravel in the months following from an obscure freshman senator in a far corner of the country to a nationally-visible political figure.[19] He became a sought-after speaking on the college circuit as well as at political fundraisers,[19] opportunities he welcomed as lectures were "the one honest way a Senator has to supplement his income."[19] The Democratic candidates for the 1972 presidential election sought out his endorsement.[19] In January 1972 Gravel did endorse Maine Senator Ed Muskie,[57] hoping his endorsement would help Muskie with the party's left wing and in the ethnic French-Canadian areas in first primary state New Hampshire[19] (which Muskie would indeed win, but not convincingly, and his campaign faltered soon thereafter). In April 1972, Gravel appeared on all three network nightly newscasts to decry the Nixon administration's reliance on Vietnamization by making reference to the secret National Security Study Memorandum 1 document, which stated it would take 8–13 years before the Army of the Republic of Vietnam could defend South Vietnam.[58] Gravel's attempt to read NSSM 1 into the Congressional Record was blocked by Senators Robert P. Griffin and William B. Saxbe.[58] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Edmund Muskie Edmund Sixtus Muskie (Edmund Marciszewski) (March 28, 1914–March 26, 1996) was a Polish-American politician from Maine. ... Canadiens redirects here. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ... The Vietnam War was a war fought between 1957 and 1975 on the ground in South Vietnam and bordering areas of Cambodia and Laos (See Secret War) and in bombing runs (Rolling Thunder) over North Vietnam. ... The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) was a military component of the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (commonly known as South Vietnam). ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Robert Paul Griffin (born November 6, 1923) was a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from the state of Michigan. ... William Bart Saxbe (born June 24, 1916) was an American politician of the Republican Party, who served as a U.S. Senator from Ohio and as U.S. Attorney General under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. ...


Run for Vice President in 1972

Gravel actively campaigned for the office of Vice President of the United States during the 1972 presidential election, announcing on June 2, 1972, over a month before the 1972 Democratic National Convention began, that he was interested in running for the nomination should the choice be opened up to convention delegates.[59] Towards this end he began soliciting delegates for their support in advance of the convention.[60] He was not alone in this effort, as former Governor of Massachusetts Endicott Peabody had been running a quixotic campaign for the same post[61] since the prior year. Likely presidential nominee George McGovern was in fact considering the unusual move of naming three or four acceptable vice-presidential candidates and letting the delegates choose.[61] The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[2] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1972 Democratic National convention nominated Senator George McGovern for President and Senator Thomas Eagleton for vice president. ... The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... For his grandfather, the educator, see Endicott Peabody (educator). ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. ...


At the convention's final day on July 14, 1972, presidential nominee McGovern selected and announced Senator Thomas Eagleton of Missouri as his vice-presidential choice.[62] Eagleton was unknown to many delegates and the choice seemed to smack of traditional ticket balancing considerations.[62][63] Thus, there were delegates willing to look elsewhere. Gravel was nominated by Bettye Fahrenkamp, the national committeewoman of Alaska;[64] He then seconded his own nomination, breaking down in tears at his own words[65] and maybe trying to withdraw his nomination.[65] In any case he won 226 delegate votes, coming in third behind Eagleton and Frances "Sissy" Farenthold of Texas, in chaotic balloting[66][63] that included several other candidates as well. is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Eagleton and George McGovern on July 24, 1972 cover of Time magazine after his nomination for vice president on the Democratic ticket Thomas Eagleton on August 7, 1972 cover of Time Magazine after his withdrawal for vice president on the Democratic ticket. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Frances Tarlton Farenthold (born 1926), also known as Sissy, is an American Democratic politician, attorney and educator, who was the first woman whose name was put into nomination for Vice President of the United States at a major partys nominating convention. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


For his efforts, Gravel attracted some attention: famed writer Norman Mailer would say he "provided considerable excitement" and was "good-looking enough to have played leads in B-films."[67] while Rolling Stone correspondent Hunter S. Thompson said Gravel "probably said a few things that might have been worth hearing, under different circumstances ..."[68] Yet, the whole process had been doubly disastrous for the Democrats. The time consumed with the nominating and seconding and other speeches of all the vice-presidential candidates had lost the attention of the delegates on the floor[68] and pushed McGovern's speech until 3:30 a.m.[68] The haste with which Eagleton had been selected led to surprise when his past mental health treatments were revealed; he withdrew from the ticket soon after the convention, to be replaced by Sargent Shriver. Norman Kingsley Mailer (January 31, 1923 – November 10, 2007) was an American novelist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter, and film director. ... This article is about the magazine. ... Hunter Stockton Thompson (July 18, 1937 – February 20, 2005) was an American journalist and author. ... Main article: Mental disorder The treatment of mental disorders may include the use of psychotherapy, psychiatric medication, case management, or other practices. ... Robert Sargent Shriver, Jr. ...


Re-election to Senate in 1974

Several years earlier, Alaska politicians had speculated that Gravel would have a hard time getting both renominated and elected when his first term expired,[19] given that he was originally elected without a base party organization and tended to focus on national rather than local issues.[19]


Nonetheless, in 1974 Gravel was re-elected to the Senate,[69] winning 58 percent of the vote against 42 percent for Republican State Senator C. R. Lewis, who was a national officer of the John Birch Society.[70] The John Birch Society is a conservative American exceptionalist organization founded in 1958 to fight what it saw as growing threats to the Constitution of the United States, especially a suspected communist infiltration of the United States government, and to support free enterprise. ...


Alaskan issues

Gravel (left) with fellow Alaska Senator Ted Stevens

By 1971, Gravel was urging construction of the much-argued Trans-Alaska pipeline, addressing environmental concerns by saying that the pipeline's builders and operators should have "total and absolute" responsibility for any consequent environmental damage.[71] Two years later, the debate over the pipeline came to a crux, with The New York Times describing it as "environmentalists [in] a holy war with the major oil companies."[72] In February 1973 the U.S. Court of Appeals blocked the issuance of permits for construction;[73] Gravel and fellow Alaskan Senator Ted Stevens reacted by urging Congress to pass legislation overturning the court's decision.[74] Environmentalists opposed to the pipeline, such as the Environmental Defense Fund and the Sierra Club[75] then sought to use the recently-passed National Environmental Policy Act to their advantage;[72] Gravel designed an amendment to the pipeline bill that would immunize the pipeline from any further court challenges under that law,[72] and thus speed its construction. Passage of the amendment became the key battle regarding the pipeline. On July 17, 1973, in a dramatic roll call vote, the Gravel amendment was approved as a 49–49 tie was broken in favor by Vice President Spiro Agnew.[75] The actual bill enabling the pipeline then passed easily;[75] Gravel had triumphed. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the senator. ... Map of the pipeline The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS), usually called the Alyeska Pipeline in Alaska or the Alaska Pipeline elsewhere, is a major U.S. oil pipeline connecting oil fields in northern Alaska to a sea port where the oil can be shipped to the Lower 48 states... This article is about the natural environment. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The United States Courts of Appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... This article is about the senator. ... Environmental Defense (formerly known as the Environmental Defense Fund or EDF), is a US-based nonprofit environmental advocacy group. ... The Sierra Club is an American environmental organization founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known preservationist John Muir, who became its first president. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Spiro Theodore Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States serving under President Richard M. Nixon, and the fifty-fifth Governor of Maryland. ...


In opposition to the Alaskan fishing industry, Gravel advocated American participation in the formation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. For two years he opposed legislation that established a 200-mile (320 km) Exclusive Economic Zone for marine resources. He was one of only 19 senators to vote against Senate approval for the expanded zone in 1976,[76] saying it would undermine the U.S. position in Law of the Sea negotiations and that nations arbitrarily extending their fishing rights limits would "produce anarchy of the seas."[76] The legislation was passed, and the United States has signed but never ratified the Law of the Sea treaty. Salmon for sale at a marketplace The Fishing industry is the commercial activity of fishing and producing fish and other seafood products. ... United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ...


In the early 1970s Gravel supported a demonstration project that established links between Alaskan villages and the National Institute of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, for medical diagnostic communications. Gravel helped secure a private grant to facilitate the first Inuit Circumpolar Conference in 1977,[77] attended by Inuit representatives from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. These conferences now also include representatives from Russia. In 1977, Gravel helped lead an effort to have the U.S. Interior Department rename Mount McKinley to Denali;[78] this eventually led to Denali National Park being so named. Subsequently Gravel proposed a never-built "Denali City" development above the Tokositna River near the mountain, to consist of a giant Teflon dome enclosing hotels, golf courses, condominiums, and commercial buildings.[79] The National Institutes of Health is an institution of the United States government which focuses on medical research. ... Bethesda is an urbanized, but unincorporated, area in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, near Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a church located there, the Bethesda Presbyterian Church, built in 1820 and rebuilt in 1850, which in turn took its name from Jerusalems Pool of Bethesda. ... Inuit Circumpolar Conference or ICC, is an multinational nongovernmental organization representing 150,000 Inuit, living in Canada (Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and the Yukon Territory), the United States (Alaska), Greenland, and on the Russian peninsula of Chukotka. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Denali redirects here. ... Denali National Park Denali National Park and Preserve is located in Interior Alaska and contains Mount McKinley, the tallest mountain in North America. ... Teflon is a trademark of DuPont and is commonly used for the chemical compound polytetrafluoroethylene. ...


A key, emotional issue in the state at the time was "locking up Alaska", making reference to allocation of its vast, mostly uninhabited land.[80] In 1978 Gravel blocked passage, via procedural delays[80] such as walking out of House-Senate conference committee meetings,[81] of a complex bill which represented a compromise on land use policy. The bill would have put some of Alaska's vast federal land holdings under state control while preserving other portions for federal parks and refuges;[11] the action would earn Gravel the enmity of fellow Alaska Senator Ted Stevens.[11] In 1980, a new lands bill came up for consideration, that was less favorable to Alaskan interests and more liked by environmentalists; it set aside 127,000,000 acres (510,000 km²) of Alaska's 375,000,000 acres (1,520,000 km²) for national parks, conservation areas, and other restricted federal uses.[82] Gravel blocked it, as not ensuring enough future development in the state.[82] A new compromise version of the bill came forward, which reduced the land set aside to 104,000,000 acres (420,000 km²).[80] Gravel, in representation of Alaskan interests, tried to stop the bill, including staging a filibuster.[11] The Senate, however, voted cloture and then passed the bill.[83][82] Frustrated, Gravel said "the legislation denies Alaska its rights as a state, and denies the U.S. crucial strategic resources,"[82] and commented that the Senate was "a little bit like a tank of barracudas."[80] A conference committee in the United States Congress is a committee appointed by the members of the upper and lower houses to resolve disagreements on a bill passed in different versions of each House. ... This article is about the senator. ...


In 1978, Gravel authored and secured the passage into law of the General Stock Ownership Corporation, that became Subchapter U of the Tax Code under the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.[84][85] While that was originally done as a prerequisite to a failed 1980 Alaskan ballot initiative that would have paid dividends to Alaskan citizens for pipeline-related revenue,[85] it also turned out to be significant in the development of binary economics.[84] The United States Internal Revenue Code of 1954 temporarily extended the 5 percentage point increase in corporate tax rates through March 31, 1955, increased depreciation deductions by providing additional depreciation schedules, and created a 4 percent dividend tax credit for individuals. ... In political science, the initiative (also known as popular or citizens initiative) provides a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or ordinance. ... Binary economics is a heterodox theory of economics that endorses both private property and a free market but proposes significant reforms to the banking system. ...


Loss of Senate seat in 1980

Main article: United States Senate election in Alaska, 1980

In 1980, Gravel was challenged for the Democratic Party's nomination by State Representative Clark Gruening, the grandson of the man Gravel had defeated in a primary 12 years earlier. Gruening won the bitterly-fought[83] primary, with about 55 percent of the vote to Gravel's 44 percent.[83] As an insurgent candidate in 1968, Gravel had never established a firm party base.[16] A group of Democrats, including future governor Steve Cowper,[86] led the campaign against Gravel, with Gravel's actions in respect to the 1978 and 1980 Alaskan lands bills a major issue,[11][83] especially given that the latter's dénouement happened but a week before the primary.[80] The sources of Gravel's campaign funds, some of which came from political action committees outside the state, also became an issue in the contest.[83] Another factor may have been Alaska's primary system, which allows unlimited voting across party lines and from its many independents.[86] Republicans believed Gruening would be an easier candidate to defeat in the general election.[83] In any case, Gravel would later concede that by the time of his defeat, he had alienated "almost every constituency in Alaska."[11] Gruening lost the general election to Republican Frank Murkowski. Gravel is the last Democrat to represent Alaska in Congress. Clark Gruening is an American politician. ... Steve Camberling Cowper (born August 21, 1938) is an American Democratic politician who was Governor of Alaska from 1986 to 1990. ... In the United States, a political action committee, or PAC, is the name commonly given to a private group organized to elect or defeat government officials in order to promote legislation, often supporting the groups special interests. ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... Francis Hughes Murkowski (born March 28, 1933) is an American politician and a member of the Republican Party. ...


Career after leaving the Senate

A difficult transition

Gravel took the 1980 defeat hard, recalling years later: "I had lost my career. I lost my marriage. I was in the doldrums for ten years after my defeat,"[87] and "Nobody wanted to hire me for anything important. I felt like I was worthless. I didn't know what I could do."[5] In the early 1980s, he and his first wife Rita were divorced; she would later get all of his Senate pension income.[11]


During the 1980s, Gravel was a real estate developer in Anchorage and Kenai, Alaska,[88] a consultant, and a stockbroker.[11] One of his real estate ventures, a condominium business, was forced to declare bankruptcy and a lawsuit ensued.[11] Gravel married his second wife, Whitney Stewart Gravel, a former administrative assistant for Senator Jacob Javits,[5] circa 1984.[89] A real estate developer (American English) or property developer (British English) makes improvements of some kind to real property, thereby increasing its value. ... This article is about the city in the U.S. state of Alaska. ... Kenai is a city in Kenai Peninsula Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. ... A consultant (from the Latin consultare meaning to discuss from which we also derive words such as consul and counsel) is a professional who provides expert advice in a particular area of expertise such as accountancy, the environment, technology, the law, human resources, marketing, medicine, finance, public affairs, communication, engineering... A stock broker or stockbroker or stock brokerage is someone or a firm who performs transactions in financial instruments on a stock market as an agent of his/her/its clients who are unable or unwilling to trade for themselves. ... This article is about the form of housing. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ... Civil action redirects here. ... Jacob Koppel Javits (May 18, 1904–March 7, 1986) was an American politician. ...


Return to politics

Mike Gravel and Whitney Gravel with their dog Ginger

In 1989, Mike Gravel reentered politics.[11] He founded and led The Democracy Foundation, which promotes direct democracy.[90] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ...


Gravel led an effort to get a United States Constitutional amendment to allow voter-initiated federal legislation similar to state ballot initiatives. He argued that Americans are able to legislate responsibly, and that the Act and Amendment in the National Initiative would allow American citizens to become "law makers". Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Amend redirects here. ... initiative, see Initiative (disambiguation). ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ...


Mike and Whitney Gravel live in Arlington County, Virginia. They have the two grown children from his first marriage, Martin Gravel and Lynne Gravel Mosier, and four grandchildren.[91] Whitney Gravel's income has sustained the couple since 1998.[5] In the 2000s, Gravel suffered poor health, requiring three surgeries in 2003 for back pain and neuropathy.[11] Due to unreimbursed medical expenses and debts from his political causes, he declared personal bankruptcy in 2004.[11][5] He began taking a salary from the non-profit organizations for which he was working; much of that income was lent to his presidential campaign. In 2007, he declared that he had "zero net worth."[11] Arlington County is an urban county of about 203,000 residents in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the U.S., directly across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. [1] Originally part of the District of Columbia, the land now comprising the county was retroceded to Virginia in a July... Back pain (also known dorsalgia) is pain felt in the back that may originate from the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine. ... Neuropathy is usually short for peripheral neuropathy, meaning a disease of the peripheral nervous system. ... Personal bankruptcy is a procedure which, in certain jurisdictions, allows an individual to declare bankruptcy. ...


Barnes Review controversy

In June 2003, Gravel gave a speech on direct democracy at a conference hosted by the American Free Press. The event was cosponsored by the Barnes Review,[11] a journal that endorses Holocaust denial.[92] In the wake of criticism for his appearance,[93] Gravel has said repeatedly that he does not share such a view,[93] stating, "You better believe I know that six million Jews were killed. I've been to the Holocaust Museum. I've seen the footage of General Eisenhower touring one of the camps. They're [referring to the Barnes Review and publisher Willis Carto] nutty as loons if they don't think it happened".[94] The newspaper had intended to interview Gravel about the National Initiative. Gravel later recounted the background to the event: Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... The American Free Press (AFP) is a weekly newspaper published in the United States which often focuses on the issue of the role of Zionism in the United States. ... The Barnes Review is a magazine founded by Willis Carto, dedicated to a both historical revisionism and Holocaust denial. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Willis Allison Carto (born July 17, 1926 in Indiana) is a longtime figure on the far right wing of American politics. ...

"He [Carto] liked the idea of the National Initiative. I figured it was an opportunity to discuss it. Whether it is the far right, far left, whatever, I'll make my pitch to them. They gave me a free subscription to American Free Press. They still send it to me today. I flip through it sometimes. It has some extreme views, and a lot of the ads in it are even more extreme and make me want to upchuck. Anyways, sometime later, Carto contacted me to speak at that Barnes Review Conference. I had never heard of the Barnes Review, didn't know anything about it or what they stood for. I was just coming to give a presentation about the National Initiative. I was there maybe 30 minutes. I could tell from the people in the room (mainly some very old men) that they were pretty extreme. I gave my speech, answered some questions and left. I never saw the agenda for the day or listened to any of the other presentations."[94]

The group invited Gravel to speak again, but he declined.[93]


Political positions

Mike Gravel with campaign finance reform activist and friend Ethel Granny D Haddock

Gravel has stated that he is an advocate for "a national, universal single-payer not-for-profit health care system" in the United States which would utilize vouchers and enable citizens to choose their own doctor.[95] He has proposed to index veteran health care entitlements to take full account of increases in the costs of care and medicine.[95] He supports a drug policy that legalizes and regulates all drugs, treating drug abuse as a medical issue, rather than a criminal matter.[96] Gravel favors a guest worker program,[95] supports the FairTax proposal that calls for eliminating the IRS and the income tax and replacing it with a progressive national sales tax of 23 percent on newly manufactured items and services, retaining progressivity via all taxes on spending up to the poverty level being refunded to every household.[95] Gravel has advocated that carbon energy should be taxed to provide the funding for a global effort to bring together the world's scientific and engineering communities to develop energy alternatives to significantly reduce the world’s energy dependence on carbon.[95] Gravel in principle does not object to the use of embryonic stem cells for medical research purposes. He is avowedly pro-choice on the issue of abortion and women's reproductive rights. He supports constitutional amendments towards direct democracy. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Campaign finance reform is the common term for the political effort in the United States to change the involvement of money in politics, primarily in political campaigns. ... Granny D (born January 24, 1910), born Ethel Doris Haddock, is an American politician and liberal political activist from the state of New Hampshire. ... Here are some of former United States Senator Mike Gravels remarks and positions on various issues. ... A voucher is a certificate which is worth a certain monetary value and which may only be spent for specific reasons or on specific goods. ... Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment[1] This article is an overview of the nontherapeutic use of alcohol and drugs of abuse. ... Massive mark-ups for drugs, areas/drugs/index. ... The Guest worker program is a program that has been proposed many times in the past and now also by U.S. President George W. Bush as a way to permit U.S. employers to sponsor non-U.S. citizens as laborers for approximately three years, to be deported afterwards... Throughout this article, the unqualified term dollar and the $ symbol refer to the United States dollar. ... IRS is short for U.S. Internal Revenue Service short for Indian Revenue Service short for Independent rear suspension, used in automobiles. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... A sales tax is a consumption tax charged at the point of purchase for certain goods and services. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... A carbon tax is a tax on energy sources which emit carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. ... Human embryonic stem cell colony. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Issues of discussion Pro-choice describes the political and ethical view that a woman should have complete control over her fertility and pregnancy. ... Amend redirects here. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ...


Gravel's political leanings and convictions are also in his 1972 manifesto, Citizen Power: A People's Platform.


2008 presidential campaign

Mike Gravel at the launch of his Presidential campaign in April 2006
Mike Gravel at the launch of his Presidential campaign in April 2006

At the start of 2006, Gravel decided the best way he could promote direct democracy and the National Initiative was to run for president.[11] On April 17, 2006,[97] Gravel became the first candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2008 election, announcing his run in a speech to the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. Short on campaign cash, he took public transportation to get to his announcement.[98] Other principal issues for Gravel were a progressive retail sales tax, which he saw as removing tax loopholes for the rich, relieving tax burdens on the middle class and the poor, and allowing abolition of the Internal Revenue Service; withdrawal from the war in Iraq within 120 days; a single payer national health care system; and term limits. Image File history File links Ballot_box_current. ... This article is about the political process. ...   Mike Gravel, a former United States Senator from Alaska, on April 17, 2006 became a declared candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2008 election,[1] announcing his run in a speech to the National Press Club. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... While it is rare for candidates for President of the United States to officially declare their candidacy prior to late in the year preceding the presidential election (in this case, 2007), some potential Democratic candidates have expressed their interest in running in the 2008 presidential election and are listed below. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... The National Press Club is an association of journalists based in Washington, D.C. It is well-known for its gatherings with invited speakers, including many presidential candidates and other influential public figuress. ... ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... Seal of the Internal Revenue Service Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Part of the Taxation series        IRS redirects here. ... Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ... Single-payer health care is a system of paying for health care, in which a single government entity pays for all health care costs, usually from taxes. ... A term limit is a provision of a constitution, statute, or bylaw which limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office. ...


Gravel campaigned almost full time in New Hampshire, the first primary state, following his announcement. Prior to February 2007, opinion polls of contenders for the Democratic nomination all showed Gravel with 1% or less support. He addressed the Democratic National Committee's Winter Convention in early February 2007 and was one of the participants in the Democratic Presidential Candidates forum in Carson City, Nevada, later that month. At the end of March 2007, Gravel's campaign had less than $500 in cash on hand against debts of nearly $90,000.[99] For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ... Main article: Opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2008 This is a collection of scientific, nation-wide public opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the 2008 Democratic presidential candidates. ... The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the principal organization governing the United States Democratic Party on a day to day basis. ... Motto: Proud of its Past. ...


Because of his time in the Senate, Gravel was invited to many of the Democratic presidential debates. During the initial one at South Carolina State University on April 26, 2007, he suggested a bill requiring the president to withdraw from Iraq on pain of criminal penalties. He also advocated positions such as opposing preemptive nuclear war. He stated that the Iraq War had the effect of creating more terrorists and that the "war was lost the day that George Bush invaded Iraq on a fraudulent basis." Regarding his fellow candidates, he said, "I got to tell you, after standing up with them, some of these people frighten me — they frighten me."[100] Media stories said that Gravel was responsible for much of whatever "heat" and "flashpoints" had taken place.[101][102][100] Gravel gained considerable publicity by shaking up the normally staid multiple-candidate format; The New York Times' media critic said that what Gravel had done was "steal a debate with outrageous, curmudgeonly statements."[103] The Internet was a benefit: a YouTube video of his responses in the debate was viewed more than 225,892 times, and honors such as #17 most views (for week), #7 top rated (for week), #23 top favored (for week), #25 most discussed (for week), #4 most linked (for week), #1 most viewed - news and politics (for week), and #1 top rated - news and politics (for week);[104] his name became the 15th most searched-for in the blogosphere;[105] and his website garnered more traffic than those of frontrunners Hillary Rodham Clinton, Barack Obama, or John Edwards.[11] Gravel appeared on the popular Colbert Report on television on May 2,[11] and his campaign and career were profiled in national publications such as Salon.[11] Two wordless, Warholesque campaign videos, "Rock" and "Fire", were released on YouTube in late May and became hits,[106] and eventually gained over 450,000 and 125,000 views respectively.[107][108] "Rock," in turn, was given airtime during an episode of The Daily Show with Jon Stewart. Some thirty-five years after he first achieved the national spotlight, he had found it again. South Carolina State University (also known as SCSU, State College among the older alumni members, or simply State), is a historically black university located in Orangeburg, South Carolina. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... Blogosphere is a collective term encompassing all blogs and their interconnections. ... Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is the junior United States Senator from New York, and is a candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 2008 presidential election. ... “Barack” redirects here. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician. ... Stephen Colbert, star of The Colbert Report The Colbert Report (, or possibly Colbert Réport) is a television program announced by Comedy Central that will star Stephen Colbert, currently best-known as a correspondent for The Daily Show. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of Salon. ... Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ... Stephen Colbert and Jon Stewart on the set of The Daily Show The Daily Show (currently The Daily Show with Jon Stewart, also known as TDS to fans and staffers) is a half-hour satirical fake news program produced by and run on the Comedy Central cable television network in...

Gravel's fundraising efforts for the first three quarters of 2007.
Gravel's fundraising efforts for the first three quarters of 2007.

All this did not improve his performance in the polls; a May 2007 CNN poll showed him with less than 0.5 percent support among Democrats.[109] Gravel was in the next several debates, in one case after CNN reversed a decision to exclude him.[110] Gravel, as with some of the other second-tier candidates, did not get as much time as the leaders; during the June 2, 2007, New Hampshire debate, which lasted two hours, he was asked 10 questions and allowed to speak for five minutes and 37 seconds.[111] The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ...


During the July 23, 2007, CNN-YouTube presidential debate, Gravel responded to audience applause when he had complained of a lack of airtime and said: "Thank you. Has it been fair thus far?"[112] Detractors began to liken him to "the cranky uncle who lives in the attic,"[113] or "the angry old guy that just seemed to want to become angrier."[114] In the ABC News Des Moines, Iowa, debate of August 19, 2007, moderator George Stephanopoulos noted that Gravel polled a statistical zero percent support in the state, meaning less than 0.5% support, and then directed roughly five percent of his questions to Gravel;[115] in a poll asking who did the best in the debate, Gravel placed seventh among the eight candidates.[116] National opinion polls of contenders for the Democratic nomination continued to show Gravel with one percent or zero percent numbers. By the end of the third-quarter 2007, Gravel had about $17,500 in cash on hand, had collected a total of about $380,000 so far during the 2008 election cycle,[117] and was continuing to run a threadbare campaign with minimal staff.[5] is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... “Des Moines” redirects here. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... George Robert Stephanopoulos (born February 10, 1961) is an American broadcaster and political adviser. ... Main article: Opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2008 This is a collection of scientific, nation-wide public opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the 2008 Democratic presidential candidates. ...


Beginning with the October 30, 2007, Philadelphia event, Gravel was excluded from most of the debates, with the debate sponsors or the Democratic National Committee saying Gravel's campaign had not met fund-raising, polling, or local campaign organizational thresholds.[118][119][120] For the Philadelphia exclusion, Gravel blamed corporate censorship on the part of sponsor owner and alleged military-industrial complex member General Electric for his exclusion[121][122] and mounted a counter-gathering and debate against a video screen a short distance away,[123] but he had lost his easiest publicity. In reaction, supporters organized "mass donation days" to try to help the campaign gain momentum and funds, such as on December 5, 2007, the anniversary of the Repeal of Prohibition.[124] is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the principal organization governing the United States Democratic Party on a day to day basis. ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ... “GE” redirects here. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... In 1919, the requisite number of legislatures of the States ratified The 18th Amendment to the Federal Constitution, enabling national Prohibition within one year of ratification. ...


Gravel did not compete in the initial 2008 vote, the Iowa caucuses,[125] but was still subjected to a false report from MSNBC that he had pulled out of the race afterward.[126] Gravel did focus his attention on the second 2008 vote, the New Hampshire primary. There he received about 400 votes out of some 280,000 cast, or 0.14 percent,[127] before taking time off to improve his health.[128] He resumed campaigning, but has fared no better in subsequent states. By the end of January 2008, Hillary Clinton, Barack Obama, and Gravel were the only remaining Democrats from the initial debates still running;[129] Gravel vowed to stay in the presidential campaign until November.[130][131] On March 11, 2008, Gravel continued to remain in the Democratic race but additionally endorsed a Green Party candidate for president, Jesse Johnson,[132] saying he wanted to help Johnson prevail against Green Party rivals Cynthia McKinney and Ralph Nader.[133] For the news website, see msnbc. ... The New Hampshire primary is the first of a number of statewide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years, as part of the process of the Democratic and Republican parties choosing their candidate for the presidential elections on the subsequent November. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the American political party, Green Party. ... Cynthia Ann McKinney (born March 17, 1955) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist in the areas of consumer rights, humanitarianism, environmentalism and democratic government. ...


Switch to Libertarian Party

On March 25, 2008, Gravel announced that he would leave the Democrats and join the Libertarian Party,[134][135] saying: "My libertarian views, as well as my strong stance against war, the military industrial complex and American imperialism, seem not to be tolerated by Democratic Party elites who are out of touch with the average American; elites that reject the empowerment of American citizens I offered to the Democratic Party at the beginning of this presidential campaign with the National Initiative for Democracy."[134] The following day Gravel entered the race for the 2008 Libertarian presidential nomination,[136] saying that he would have run as a third-party candidate all along except that he needed the public exposure that came from being in the earlier Democratic debates.[136] is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The Libertarian Party is an American political party founded on December 11, 1971. ...


Electoral history

(The following omits results from the ongoing Democratic presidential primaries)

Alaska's At-large congressional district, 1966 (Democratic primary):[137] Alaskas At-large congressional district comprises the entire state of Alaska. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Ralph J. Rivers (inc.) - 17,042 (52.52%)
  • Mike Gravel - 15,404 (47.48%)

Alaska United States Senate election, 1968 (Democratic primary):[138] Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Alaska United States Senate election, 1968[139] Bronze by George Anthonisen. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

1972 Democratic National Convention (Vice Presidential tally; only those with support from at least 1% of the delegates are listed))[140] Elmer E. Rasmuson (1909-2000) was an Alaskan banker and philanthropist. ... Bronze by George Anthonisen. ... A write-in candidate is a candidate in an election whose name does not appear on the ballot, but for whom voters may vote nonetheless by writing in the persons name. ... The 1972 Democratic National convention nominated Senator George McGovern for President and Senator Thomas Eagleton for vice president. ...

Alaska United States Senate election, 1974 (Democratic primary)[141] Thomas Eagleton and George McGovern on July 24, 1972 cover of Time magazine after his nomination for vice president on the Democratic ticket Thomas Eagleton on August 7, 1972 cover of Time Magazine after his withdrawal for vice president on the Democratic ticket. ... Frances Tarlton Farenthold (born 1926), also known as Sissy, is an American Democratic politician, attorney and educator, who was the first woman whose name was put into nomination for Vice President of the United States at a major partys nominating convention. ... For his grandfather, the educator, see Endicott Peabody (educator). ... Birch Evans Bayh II (born January 22, 1928) was a U.S. Senator from Indiana between 1963 and 1981. ... Peter Wallace Rodino Jr. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Mike Gravel (inc.) - 22,834 (54.31%)
  • W. Eugene Guess - 15,090 (35.89%)
  • Richard Greuel - 3,367 (8.01%)
  • Donald W. Hobbs - 756 (1.80%)

Alaska United States Senate election, 1974:[142] Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Mike Gravel (D) (inc.) - 54,361 (58.28%)
  • Clyde R. Lewis (R) - 38,914 (41.72%)

Alaska United States Senate election, 1980 (Democratic primary):[143]

  • Clark Gruening - 39,719 (54.89%)
  • Mike Gravel (inc.) - 31,504 (43.53%)
  • Michael Beasley - 1,145 (1.58%)

Clark Gruening is an American politician. ...

Writings

  • Gravel, Mike. Jobs and More Jobs. Mt. McKinley Publishers, 1968.
  • Gravel, Mike. Citizen Power: A People's Platform. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972. ISBN 0030914655.
    • revised and reissued as Citizen Power: A Mandate for Change, AuthorHouse, 2008. ISBN 1434343154.
  • Gravel, Mike and Lauria, Joe. My America. Seven Stories Press, 2008 (scheduled for May). ISBN 1583228268.

Holt, Rinehart and Winston, somethimes abbreviated as HRW or referred to as Holt, is an Austin, Texas based publishing company, that specializes in textbooks for use in secondary schools. ... AuthorHouse, formerly known as 1stBooks, is a print on demand publisher that provides aspiring authors self-publishing services. ... Seven Stories Press is an independent publishing company located in New York City, USA that concentrates on fiction and timely, informative nonfiction. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Mike Gravel's Unitarian Universalism, by Doug Muder, UUWorld, December 10, 2007. Accessed December 19, 2007.
  2. ^ Battle, Robert. The Ancestors of Mike Gravel. WARGS.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  3. ^ a b "No Shortcuts to the Top (2)", World Voice News, April 30, 2007. Accessed July 20, 2007.
  4. ^ a b Jo-Ann Moriarty, "Springfield native has sights set on top job", The Republican, February 19, 2007. Accessed July 7, 2007.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Michael Leahy. "Last", The Washington Post, 2007-09-09. Retrieved on 2007-12-20. 
  6. ^ Democracy Now, broadcast of forum on "How the Pentagon Papers Came to be Published...", July 2, 2007 [1]
  7. ^ James Stuart Olson, Dictionary of the Vietnam War, Greenwood Press, 1988, p. 174 ff. ISBN 0313249431.
  8. ^ Mike Gravel and the Draft. Mike Gravel for President. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Martin Tolchin (1976-02-27). Senators From Hinterlands Recall Early Years in City; U.S. Senators Recall Their Early Years in City (fee required). The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-12-11.
  10. ^ a b Stephen Haycox, Gravel entry in American Legislative Leaders in the West, 1911-1994, Greenwood Press, 1997. ISBN 031330212X. p. 126.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Alex Koppelman, "Don't worry, be Mike Gravel", Salon.com, May 7, 2007. Accessed July 4, 2007.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Warren Weaver, Jr.. "Impetuous Senator: Maurice Robert Gravel" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-07-02. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  13. ^ Democracy in Action. "Interview with Former U.S. Sen. Mike Gravel", National Press Club, April 17, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-04-29. 
  14. ^ a b c Current Biography Yearbook 1972, H.W. Wilson Co., published in collection 1986, p. 184.
  15. ^ Ron Faucheux. "Great slogans: reading between the lines of America's best political rhymes and mottos" (fee required), Campaigns & Elections, June 1993. Retrieved on 2008-02-02. 
  16. ^ a b Robert KC Johnson, "Not Many Senators Have Found Themselves in Joe Lieberman's Predicament", History News Network, August 7, 2006. Accessed July 7, 2007.
  17. ^ Chinn, Ronald E. (September 1969). "The 1968 Election in Alaska". The Western Political Quarterly 22 (3): 456-461. Retrieved on 2007-11-25. 
  18. ^ Senator Mike Gravel. National Initiative for Democracy. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l David E. Rosenbaum. "Fame Travels With Senator Gravel, the Man Who Read Pentagon Papers Into the Record" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-10-26. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  20. ^ David Westphal. "Gravel the Firebrand", The Miami Herald, 2008-01-13. Retrieved on 2008-01-16. 
  21. ^ "Risks in Alaska Tests" (fee required), Letters to the Editor, The New York Times, 1969-07-31. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  22. ^ a b Richard D. Lyons. "Underground A-Test Is Still Set For Aleutians but Is Not Final" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-08-23. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  23. ^ "Witnesses Oppose Aleutian H-Blast" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-05-30. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  24. ^ a b The Amchitka Bomb Goes Off. Time (1971-11-15). Retrieved on 2006-10-09.
  25. ^ Gravel claimed during his 2008 presidential campaign that "the Pentagon was performing five calibration tests ... [Gravel] succeeded in halting the program after the second test, limiting the expansion of this threat to the marine environment of the North Pacific." See "Mike Gravel's Legislative Accomplishments", Mike Gravel for President 2008. Retrieved on 2007-12-30.  In actuality, the Milrow and Cannikin tests were the only ones planned and both took place. See Round 2 at Amchitka. Time (1971-07-17). Retrieved on 2007-12-30.
  26. ^ a b c Anthony Ripley. "Atomic Power: A Bitter Controversy; Atomic Power: A Bitter and Growing Controversy" (fee required), The New York Times, 1970-07-16. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. 
  27. ^ "Senator Seeks to Block Atom Plants" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-02-17. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. 
  28. ^ Gladwin Hill. "Nuclear Power Development Encounters Rising Resistance With Curbs Sought in a Number of States" (fee required), The New York Times, 1975-07-29. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. 
  29. ^ "Nuclear Neighbor" (fee required), Cedar Rapids Gazette, 1974-01-20. 
  30. ^ "Sen. Gravel Urges U.S. to Back Taiwan-Red China Unity Talks" (fee required), The Washington Post, 1971-01-29. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. 
  31. ^ Terence Smith. "5 SENATORS BACK PEKING SEAT IN U.N.; 4 Urge Admission Even at Cost of Ousting Taiwan" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-06-24. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. 
  32. ^ a b Thomas W. Evans (Summer 1993). The All-Volunteer Army After Twenty Years: Recruiting in the Modern Era. Sam Houston State University. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  33. ^ Ambrose, Stephen (1989). Nixon, Volume Two: The Triumph of a Politician. Simon & Schuster.  pp. 264–266.
  34. ^ Griffith, Robert K.; Robert K. Griffith, Jr., John Wyndham Mountcastle (1997). U.S. Army's Transition to the All-volunteer Force, 1868-1974. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 0788178644.  pp. 40–41.
  35. ^ a b c d e David E. Rosenbaum. "Senators Reject Limits on Draft; 2-Year Plan Gains" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-06-05. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  36. ^ a b David E. Rosenbaum. "Stennis Favors 4-Year Draft Extension, but Laird Asks 2 Years" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-02-03. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  37. ^ Robert C. Maynard. "Laird Briefs Hill On Volunteer Army" (fee required), The Washington Post, 1971-02-03. Retrieved on 2008-02-09. 
  38. ^ Griffith et. al., U.S. Army's Transition to the All-volunteer Force, p. 51.
  39. ^ John W. Finney. "Congress vs. President" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-05-09. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. 
  40. ^ a b Mike Gravel. "Filibustering the Draft" (fee required), Letters to the Editor, The New York Times, 1971-06-22. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  41. ^ David E. Rosenbaum. "Senate Votes Closure in Draft Debate, 65 to 27" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-06-24. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  42. ^ a b David E. Rosenbaum. "Senate Approves Draft Bill, 55-30; President to Sign" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-09-22. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  43. ^ "'72 Draft Lottery Assigns No. 1 to Those Born Dec. 4" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-08-06. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  44. ^ During Gravel's 2008 presidential campaign, he would claim that, "In 1971, Senator Mike Gravel (D-Alaska), by waging a lone five month filibuster, singlehandedly ended the draft in The United States thereby saving thousands of lives." See Mike Gravel and the Draft. Mike Gravel for President 2008. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. A 2006 article in The Nation stated that "It was Gravel who in 1971, against the advice of Democratic leaders in the Senate, launched a one-man filibuster to end the peacetime military draft, forcing the administration to cut a deal that allowed the draft to expire in 1973." See John Nichols. "Pentagon Papers Figure Bids for Presidency", The Nation, 2006-04-15. Retrieved on 2007-12-20.  Neither of these assessments is correct. From the beginning of the draft review process in February 1971, the Nixon administration wanted a two-year extension to June 1973, followed by a shift to an all-volunteer force — see David E. Rosenbaum. "Stennis Favors 4-Year Draft Extension, but Laird Asks 2 Years" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-02-03. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. ; for confirmation, see "Once More, "Greetings"", Time, 1971-10-04. Retrieved on 2008-02-02.  — and this is what is what the September 1971 Senate vote gave them. Gravel's goal had been to block the renewal of the draft completely, thereby ending conscription past June 1971. See Mike Gravel. "Filibustering the Draft" (fee required), Letters to the Editor, The New York Times, 1971-06-22. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  45. ^ Neil Sheehan. "Vietnam Archive: Pentagon Study Traces 3 Decades of Growing U. S. Involvement" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-06-13. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  46. ^ a b c d e Timeline. Top Secret: The Battle for the Pentagon Papers. Annenberg Center for Communication at University of Southern California. Retrieved on 2007-12-30.
  47. ^ Rudenstine, David (1996). The Day the Presses Stopped: A History of the Pentagon Papers Case. University of California Press. ISBN 0520213823.  pp. 46, 391.
  48. ^ a b c d Beacon Press & the Pentagon Papers: History. Beacon Press (2006-10-22). Retrieved on 2007-12-30.
  49. ^ a b c Warren R. Ross. "A courageous press confronts a deceptive government", UU World, September/October 2001. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  50. ^ a b David E. Rosenbaum. "Gravel Speaks 3 Hours; Senator Reading Study to Press" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-06-30. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  51. ^ a b c John W. Finney. "Action by Gravel Vexes Many Senators" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-07-01. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  52. ^ a b c "Church Plans 4-Book Version of Pentagon Study" (fee required), The New York Times, 1971-08-18. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  53. ^ Letter from Gravel to Beacon Press. Beacon Press (1971-08-04). Retrieved on 2007-12-30.
  54. ^ Kahn, George McT. (June 1975). "The Pentagon Papers: A Critical Evaluation". American Political Science Review 69 (2): 675–684. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  55. ^ a b Resources. Top Secret: The Battle for the Pentagon Papers. Annenberg Center for Communication at University of Southern California. Retrieved on 2007-12-30.
  56. ^ Gravel v. United States. Jrank.org. Retrieved on 2007-12-30.
  57. ^ "More Muskie Support" (fee required), The New York Times, 1972-01-15. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  58. ^ a b Oudes, Bruce (1989). From the President: Richard Nixon's Secret Files. Harper & Row. ISBN 0060916214.  p. 428.
  59. ^ "Senator Gravel to Seek Vice-Presidential Spot" (fee required), Associated Press for The New York Times, 1972-06-03. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. 
  60. ^ Steven V. Roberts. "Uncommitted Delegate in the Spotlight" (fee required), The New York Times, 1972-06-28. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. 
  61. ^ a b James M. Naughton. "The Air Went Out Of the Whoopee Cushions" (fee required), The New York Times, 1972-07-09. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. 
  62. ^ a b Max Frankel. "Impassioned Plea: Dakotan Urges Party to Lead the Nation in Healing Itself McGovern Names Eagleton Running Mate; Calls Nixon 'Fundamental Issue'" (fee required), The New York Times, 1972-07-14. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. 
  63. ^ a b "The Foregone Convention", The Nation, July 24, 1972. 
  64. ^ (1972) in Sheila Hixson, Ruth Rose (eds.): The Official Proceedings of the Democratic National Convention, 1972. Democratic National Committee.  p. 8.
  65. ^ a b David S. Broder. "Filling Nostalgia Gap with Democratic Stars of the Past 20 Years", The Washington Post, 1987-09-06. Retrieved on 2008-02-02. 
  66. ^ Ken Rudin (2004-09-27). The Worst Acceptance Speech?. Political Junkie. NPR. Retrieved on 2007-11-19.
  67. ^ Mailer, Norman (1983). St. George and the Godfather. Arbor House. ISBN 0877955638. 
  68. ^ a b c Thompson, Hunter S. (1973). Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail '72. New York: Popular Library.  pp. 319–320.
  69. ^ Wallace Turner. "Alaska Governor's Contest in Doubt" (fee required), The New York Times, 1974-11-07. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. 
  70. ^ "John Birch Official Seeks to Replace Gravel in Alaska" (fee required), United Press International for The New York Times, 1974-01-11. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. 
  71. ^ "Senator Supports Pipeline; Would Make Operator Liable" (fee required), United Press International for The New York Times, 1971-02-18. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  72. ^ a b c Edward Cowan. "Senate, 61-29, Blocks Bid to Delay Alaska Pipeline" (fee required), The New York Times, 1973-07-14. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  73. ^ "U.S. Court Blocks Permits to Build Alaskan Pipeline" (fee required), Reuters for The New York Times, 1973-02-10. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  74. ^ "Morton Hints Congress Bid To Clear Alaskan Pipeline" (fee required), United Press International for The New York Times, 1973-02-16. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  75. ^ a b c Edward Cowan. "Senate, 77-20, Votes For Alaska Pipeline; Court Test Barred, With 49-to-49 Tie Broken by Agnew" (fee required), The New York Times, 1973-07-18. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. 
  76. ^ a b David Binder. "Senate Approves a 200-Mile Limit on Fishing Rights" (fee required), The New York Times, 1976-01-29. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. 
  77. ^ Eben Hopson (1976-10-22). Speech Before the Alaska Federation of Natives Convention. ebenhopson.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  78. ^ "Pique over the Continent's Tallest Peak", Time, 1977-11-07. Retrieved on 2008-02-02. 
  79. ^ Joel Connelly. "In Alaska, Big Schemes Often Yield Empty Dreams" (fee required), Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 2002-09-13. Retrieved on 2008-02-02. 
  80. ^ a b c d e Wallace Turner. "Polls Indicate Gravel Is in Trouble In Alaska's Senate Primary Today" (fee required), The New York Times, 1980-08-26. Retrieved on 2007-12-11. 
  81. ^ "Birth and Death In the Night", Time, 1978-10-30. Retrieved on 2008-02-02. 
  82. ^ a b c d "Ah, Wilderness! Ah, Development!", Time, 1980-11-24. Retrieved on 2002-02-02. 
  83. ^ a b c d e f Wallace Turner. "Gravel Loses a Bitter Fight In Senate Primary in Alaska" (fee required), The New York Times, 1980-08-28. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. 
  84. ^ a b Important Dates in the History of Binary Economics. Kelso Institute (2000). Retrieved on 2007-12-31.
  85. ^ a b Gauche, Jerry N. (2000). "Binary Economic Modes for the Privatization of Public Assets". Journal of Socio-Economics 27 (3): 445–459. Retrieved on 2007-12-31. 
  86. ^ a b Wallace Turner, "Side Issues Figure in Tricky Alaska Primary", The New York Times, July 6, 1982. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
  87. ^ Politics1, "P2008: An Interview With Presidential Candidate Mike Gravel" by Ron Gunzburger, April 17, 2006.
  88. ^ Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, Mike Gravel profile
  89. ^ Kerry Eleveld, "Mike Gravel's big splash?", The Advocate, July 3, 2007. Accessed July 7, 2007.
  90. ^ "First Democrat to Announce Candidacy for President on Monday", Joe Lauria, CommonDreams New Centre, Published April 13, 2006.
  91. ^ Mike Gravel Biography. Mike Gravel for President 2008. Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  92. ^ Alex Grobman, Rafael Medoff. Holocaust Denial: A Global Survey - 2003. David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies. Retrieved on 2009-12-29.
  93. ^ a b c Alan Tuttle. "Interview with Senator Mike Gravel", Philadelphia Jewish Voice, August 2007. Retrieved on 2008-01-01. 
  94. ^ a b Ron Gunzburger. "An Interview with Presidential Candidate Mike Gravel", Politics1.com, 2006-04-17. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  95. ^ a b c d e How Mike Stands on the Issues. Mike Gravel for President 2008. Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  96. ^ "Fmr. Sen. Mike Gravel: Unfiltered", Iowa Independent, 2007-05-14. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  97. ^ "Washington: A 'Maverick' For President", The New York Times, 2006-04-18. Retrieved on 2007-12-24. 
  98. ^ Philip Elliot, "Ex-Alaska Sen. Gravel Runs for President", Associated Press, April 17, 2006. Accessed March 10, 2007.
  99. ^ FEC Form 3P for Mike Gravel. Federal Election Commission (2007-04-15). Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  100. ^ a b No Breakout Candidate at Democratic Debate, ABC News, Apr. 26, 2007
  101. ^ "Clinton edges ahead after first Democratic debate", The Times, April 27, 2007.
  102. ^ Hillary Clinton shines in Democratic candidates' debate, Ewen MacAskill, The Guardian, April 27, 2007.
  103. ^ Alessandra Stanley. "A Show Where Candidates Are More Prop Than Player", The New York Times, 2007-05-04. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. 
  104. ^ p. Mike Gravel at the Democratic Debate. This video has been removed due to terms of use violation. YouTube. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  105. ^ Mark Memmott, Jill Lawrence. "Mike Gravel, soon to be a household name", USA Today, 2007-04-30. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. 
  106. ^ Lisa Tozzi. "Mike Gravel: Behind the Music", The New York Times, 2007-06-18. Retrieved on 2008-02-15. 
  107. ^ (2007-05-27). Mike Gravel - Rock. YouTube. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
  108. ^ (2007-05-28). Mike Gravel - Fire. YouTube. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
  109. ^ Bill Schneider. "Poll: Liberals moving toward Clinton; GOP race tightens", CNN.com, 2007-05-07. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  110. ^ Mike Gravel for President 2008 (2007-03-19). "Gravel Dismisses CNN, WMUR-TV And Union Leader Statement". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  111. ^ Mike Gravel for President 2008 (2007-06-05). ""The Mainstream Media Has Gone Underground..."". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  112. ^ "Part I: CNN/YouTube Democratic presidential debate transcript", CNN.com, 2007-07-24. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. 
  113. ^ Rick Pearson. "Mike Gravel to teens: Say 'yes' to drugs", Baltimore Sun, 2008-01-07. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. 
  114. ^ Dan Harrie. "Democratic hopeful Gravel visits Park City", The Salt Lake Tribune, 2008-01-22. Retrieved on 2008-02-01. 
  115. ^ "Statistical Analysis Shows ABC News Unfair in Democrat Debate", NewsBusters, 2007-08-24. Retrieved on 2007-12-28. 
  116. ^ "ABC News Poll" August 19, 2007, ABC News
  117. ^ Report for Mike Gravel for President 2008. Federal Election Commission (2007-10-17). Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  118. ^ Alex Johnson. "Democratic rivals target Clinton’s vote on Iran", MSNBC.com, 2007-10-31. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  119. ^ "CNN keeps Gravel out of Democratic debate in Las Vegas", Associated Press for Las Vegas Sun, 2007-11-07. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  120. ^ "Kucinich booted from Iowa debate", The Hill, December 12, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-12-14. 
  121. ^ Mike Gravel (2007-10-30). Corporate Censorship!. Mike Gravel for President 2008. Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  122. ^ Sarah Wheaton. "Gravel vs. MSNBC", 2007-10-30. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  123. ^ Larry Eichel. "The debate is on. Here. Tonight.", philly.com, 2007-10-30. Retrieved on 2007-12-29. 
  124. ^ December 5 Is "Mass Donation Day" For Mike Gravel. The Presidential Candidates (2007-12-04). Retrieved on 2008-01-04.
  125. ^ "Second-Tier Dems Hope for Caucus Boost", WHO-TV, 2008-01-03. Retrieved on 2008-01-04. 
  126. ^ J. Skyler McKinley. "We're Still in the Race!", Mike Gravel for President 2008, 2008-01-04. Retrieved on 2008-01-04. 
  127. ^ "Election Center 2008: Primary Results for New Hampshire", CNN, 2008-01-09. Retrieved on 2008-01-09. 
  128. ^ "Mike Gravel to campaign on", Associated Press, 2008-01-08. Retrieved on 2008-01-08. 
  129. ^ Sarah Morrison. "Candidate Speaks to Political Science Class", The Daily Californian, 2008-02-07. Retrieved on 2008-02-07. 
  130. ^ Isaac Arnsdorf. "Gravel urges direct democracy at YPU", Yale Daily News, 2008-02-13. Retrieved on 2008-02-15. 
  131. ^ Joel Stein. "The Third Democrat in the Race", Time, 2008-03-04. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. 
  132. ^ "Mike Gravel endorses Jesse Johnson (Green Party) for President", Third Party Watch, 2008-03-11. Retrieved on 2008-03-12. 
  133. ^ David Weigel. "Several Minutes with Mike Gravel", Reason, 2008-03-18. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. 
  134. ^ a b Former U.S. Senator Mike Gravel joins Libertarian Party ranks. Libertarian Party (2008-03-25). Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  135. ^ Mike Gravel (2008-03-26). A Personal Message from Mike. Mike Gravel for President 2008. Retrieved on 2008-03-26.
  136. ^ a b Sarah Elkins. "Maverick Mike", Newsweek, 2008-03-31. Retrieved on 2008-04-01. 
  137. ^ AK At-Large - D Primary - Aug 23, 1966. Our Campaigns. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
  138. ^ AK US Senate - D Primary - Aug 27, 1968. Our Campaigns. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
  139. ^ AK US Senate - Nov 05, 1968. Our Campaigns. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
  140. ^ US Vice President - D Convention - Jul 10, 1972. Our Campaigns. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
  141. ^ AK US Senate - D Primary - Aug 27, 1974. Our Campaigns. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
  142. ^ AK US Senate - Nov 03, 1974. Our Campaigns. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
  143. ^ AK US Senate - D Primary - Aug 26, 1980. Our Campaigns. Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
  • The Pentagon Papers Senator Gravel Edition. Vol. Five. Critical Essays. Boston. Beacon Press, 1972. 341p. plus 72p. of Index to Vol. I–IV of the Papers, Noam Chomsky, Howard Zinn, editors.

is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republican is a newspaper that serves the Springfield, Massachusetts regional area. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Greenwood Press, based in Connecticut, is an imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group and owned by Reed Elsevier. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Salon. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Press Club is an association of journalists based in Washington, D.C. It is well-known for its gatherings with invited speakers, including many presidential candidates and other influential public figuress. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Current Biography is an American monthly publication issued by the H. W. Wilson Company of The Bronx, New York, a publisher of reference books, that appears every month except December. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... History News Network is a project of the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by The McClatchy Company. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gazette is a daily newspaper published in the American city of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sam Houston State University, (known as SHSU and Sam, for short) founded in 1879, is a public university located in Huntsville, Texas. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premiere of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American historian and biographer of U.S. Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and Richard M. Nixon. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cornelius Mahoney Neil Sheehan (born October 27, 1936) is an American journalist. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Annenberg Center for Communication (ACC) at the University of Southern California promotes interdisciplinary research in communications between the USC School of Cinema-Television, Viterbi School of Engineering, and the separate Annenberg School for Communication at USC, also funded by Walter Annenberg. ... The Trojan Shrine, better known as Tommy Trojan located in the center of University of Southern California campus. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... Beacon Press, founded in 1854 and a department of the Unitarian Universalist Association, operates as a book publisher in the United States of America. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Beacon Press, founded in 1854 and a department of the Unitarian Universalist Association, operates as a book publisher in the United States of America. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Political Science Review, or APSR as its often referred to, is the flagship publication of the American Political Science Association and one of the most prestigious journals in the field of contemporary political science. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Annenberg Center for Communication (ACC) at the University of Southern California promotes interdisciplinary research in communications between the USC School of Cinema-Television, Viterbi School of Engineering, and the separate Annenberg School for Communication at USC, also funded by Walter Annenberg. ... The Trojan Shrine, better known as Tommy Trojan located in the center of University of Southern California campus. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Harper & Row is an imprint of HarperCollins. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Max Frankel is a journalist. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Democratic National Committee (DNC) is the principal organization governing the United States Democratic Party on a day to day basis. ... David S. Broder (born September 11, 1929) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, author, television talk show pundit, and university professor. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Norman Kingsley Mailer (January 31, 1923 – November 10, 2007) was an American novelist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter, and film director. ... Arbor House, formerly known as Adelia Cheever House, is part of the University of Michigans long and prestigious line of housing facilities. ... Hunter Stockton Thompson (July 18, 1937 – February 20, 2005) was an American journalist and author. ... Fear and Loathing: On the Campaign Trail 72 is a collection of articles covering the 1972 presidential campaign written by gonzo journalist Hunter S Thompson and illustrated by Ralph Steadman. ... Popular Library was a paperback book company established by Ned Pines in 1942, who at the time was a major pulp magazine publisher. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. “UPI” redirects here. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. “UPI” redirects here. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. “UPI” redirects here. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The daily Seattle Post-Intelligencer is the second leading newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a biographical dictionary of all members of both houses of the United States Congress, past and present. ... The Advocate (ISSN 0001-8996) is a US-based LGBT-related biweekly news magazine. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Philadelphia Jewish Voice is a monthly online journal that addresses the critical social and political issues facing the Jewish community of the metropolitan Philadelphia area and beyond. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The Federal Election Commission (or FEC) is an independent regulatory agency that was founded in 1975 by the United States Congress to regulate the campaign finance legislation in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bill Schneider William (Bill) Schneider, is a leading American political commentator, and is CNNs senior political analyst. ... CNN.com is the news website maintained by CNN. The website debuted on August 30, 1995, and it describes itself as the first major news and information website on the Internet. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CNN.com is the news website maintained by CNN. The website debuted on August 30, 1995, and it describes itself as the first major news and information website on the Internet. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Baltimore Sun is the major newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of about 430,000 copies, and a Sunday run of 540,000 copies. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marquis of the Salt Lake Tribune on the Tribune Building in Downtown Salt Lake City The Salt Lake Tribune (ISSN 0746-3502) is Salt Lake City, Utahs largest-circulated local daily newspaper. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Federal Election Commission (or FEC) is an independent regulatory agency that was founded in 1975 by the United States Congress to regulate the campaign finance legislation in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MSNBC logo MSNBC (Microsoft & National Broadcasting Company) is a 24-hour news channel in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The Las Vegas Sun was one of Las Vegas, Nevadas two daily newspapers. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hill is a non-partisan, non-ideological newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It is written for and about the U.S. Congress. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... WHO-TV is a television station that broadcasts on channel 13 in Des Moines, Iowa. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Daily Californian (or Daily Cal) is an independent, student-run newspaper that serves the University of California, Berkeley campus and its surrounding community. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A front page of the Yale Daily News. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joel Stein at Beverly Hills High School for Career Day, May 16, 2006. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The libertarian Reason Magazine dedicated an issue to Ayn Rands influence one hundred years after her birth. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Libertarian Party is an American political party founded on December 11, 1971. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mike Gravel
Wikinews has related news:
Mike Gravel

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

Official Web sites

  • Gravel for President
  • Gravel2008 Youtube Channel
  • Gravel Blogspot
  • Official Myspace
  • National Initiative for Democracy (Founded by Mike Gravel)

Biographical

  • Congressional Biography
  • Biographical entry at The Democracy Foundation
  • Genealogy of Mike Gravel

Pentagon Papers

  • Gravel edition of the Pentagon Papers Complete text, with supporting documents
  • Unedited footage of Senator Gravel reading the Pentagon Papers in the Senate in 1971 Streaming and download links at archive.org
  • Democracy Now! Special: "How the Pentagon Papers Came to Be Published by the Beacon Press": Mike Gravel and Daniel Ellsberg (audio/video and transcript)
Political offices
Preceded by
Bruce Biers Kendall
Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives
1965 – 1966
Succeeded by
William K. Boardman
United States Senate
Preceded by
Ernest Gruening
United States Senator (Class 3) from Alaska
1969 – 1981
Served alongside: Ted Stevens
Succeeded by
Frank Murkowski
Party political offices
Preceded by
Ernest Gruening
Democratic Party nominee for Senator from Alaska
(Class 3)

1968 (won), 1974 (won)
Succeeded by
Clark Gruening
Persondata
NAME Gravel, Mike
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Gravel, Maurice Robert
SHORT DESCRIPTION U.S. Senator
DATE OF BIRTH 13 May 1930
PLACE OF BIRTH Springfield, Massachusetts
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
Democracy Now! logo. ... Daniel and Patricia Marx Ellsberg - 2006 Jacob Appelbaum Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national uproar in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, the U.S. militarys account of activities during the Vietnam War... Bruce Biers Kendall (born 1919) is a retried American republican politician from Alaska. ... Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives is a presiding officer of this body: This is incomplete list - please expand it. ... William Knight Broadman (born 1915) is a United States politician, a Republican from Alaska, best know aa a Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Bronze by George Anthonisen. ... Alaska was admitted to the Union on January 3, 1959. ... This article is about the senator. ... Francis Hughes Murkowski (born March 28, 1933) is an American politician and a member of the Republican Party. ... Bronze by George Anthonisen. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Alaska was admitted to the Union on January 3, 1959. ...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The U.S. Senate election, 1968 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with the 1968 presidential election. ...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The U.S. Senate election, 1974 was an election for the United States Senate held in the wake of the Watergate scandal, Richard M. Nixons resignation from the presidency, and Gerald Fords subsequent pardon of Nixon. ... Clark Gruening is an American politician. ... Alaska was admitted to the Union on January 3, 1959. ... Bronze by Felix W. de Weldon. ... This article is about the senator. ... Bronze by George Anthonisen. ... Francis Hughes Murkowski (born March 28, 1933) is an American politician and a member of the Republican Party. ... Lisa Ann Murkowski (born May 22, 1957) is an American politician. ... Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives is a presiding officer of this body: This is incomplete list - please expand it. ... Warren Arthur Taylor (born 1891 - ?) was an important American politician from Alaska during both territorial period and first years of statehood. ... Bruce Biers Kendall (born 1919) is a retried American republican politician from Alaska. ... William Knight Broadman (born 1915) is a United States politician, a Republican from Alaska, best know aa a Speaker of the Alaska House of Representatives. ... Tom Fink (born 1928) is a semi-retired Republican politician in Alaska. ... Jim Duncan (August 3, 1946 - October 21, 1972), was a former professional American Football defensive back. ... Joe Hayes (January 20, 1936 - February 4, 1999) was an English footballer who played as a striker for Manchester City F.C. and scored the opening goal in the 1956 FA Cup Final. ... Peter Pete Kott (b. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Alaska. ... The United States presidential election of 2008, scheduled to be held on November 4, 2008, will be the 55th consecutive quadrennial president and vice president of the United States. ... Main article: United States presidential election, 2008 The following sections collect local-event-based public straw polls, representative of the American voter base, among Democratic, Republican, and other appropriate candidates for the 2008 presidential election. ... Main article: United States presidential election, 2008 This is a collection of scientific, nation-wide public opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the U.S. presidential election, 2008. ... The first intra-party debates between candidates for the 2008 Presidential election. ... This article lists the endorsements made by members of the 110th United States Congress for candidates for their partys nominations in the 2008 United States presidential election. ... Fundraising for United States presidential election of 2008 is a key factor in determining the viability of candidates for the United States presidential election, 2008, along with opinion polling. ... The following is a timeline of events leading up to the upcoming 2008 U.S. presidential election: // October 7 - Maureen Dowd writes article in New York Times entitled Can Hillary Upgrade? which claims that Hillary Clinton, serving as the junior Senator from New York, has mollified her criticism of the... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Main article: Opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2008 This is a collection of scientific, nation-wide public opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the 2008 Democratic presidential candidates. ... The 2008 Democratic Presidential Debates are political debates prior to the 2008 Democratic Primaries. ... The 2008 Democratic primaries will be the selection process by which the Democrats choose their candidates in the 2008 election for President and Vice President of the United States through a series of primaries and caucuses culminating in the 2008 Democratic National Convention, to be held from Monday, August 25... The 2008 Democratic National Convention will be held from August 25 to August 28 in Denver, Colorado. ... Superdelegate is an informal term for some of the delegates to the Democratic National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the United States Democratic Party. ... // These have filed (or announced plans to file) with the Federal Elections Commission (FEC). ... Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is the junior United States Senator from New York, and is a candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 2008 presidential election. ... New York Senator and former First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton had expressed interest in the 2008 United States presidential race[1] since at least October 2002, drawing media speculation on whether or not she would become a candidate. ... “Barack” redirects here. ... Barack Obama, the junior United States Senator from Illinois, announced his candidacy for the presidency of the United States in Springfield, Illinois, on February 10, 2007. ... Birch Evans Bayh III (commonly known as Evan Bayh) (pronounced like bye; IPA pronunciation: ) (born December 26, 1955) is an American politician who has served as the junior U.S. Senator from Indiana since 1999 and a former Governor of Indiana. ... Biden redirects here. ... United States Democratic Senator Joe Biden of Delaware, announced his candidacy for president of the United States on the January 7, 2007 edition of Meet the Press. ... Christopher John Dodd (born May 27, 1944) is an American lawyer and politician from Willimantic, Connecticut. ... Senior Senator Chris Dodd (D-CT) has sought the nomination of the Democratic Party for President of the United States since entering the race early in January 2007. ... This article is about the American attorney and politician. ... John Edwards campaigning in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on Labor day in 2007. ... Dennis John Kucinich (IPA: ) (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic party and a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in both 2004 and 2008. ... Dennis Kucinich announced on December 26, 2006 that he would persue the nomination for the Democratic President of the United States. ... Dal LaMagna is a progressive political activist in Washington state. ... For other persons named William Richardson, see William Richardson (disambiguation). ... Thomas James Vilsack (born December 13, 1950) is an American politician, a member of the Democratic Party, and served as the 40th Governor of the state of Iowa. ... GOP redirects here. ... Main article: Opinion polling for the United States presidential election, 2008 This is a collection of scientific, nation-wide public opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the 2008 Republican presidential candidates. ... The 2008 Republican Presidential Debates are political debates before the 2008 Republican Primaries. ... The 2008 Republican primaries will be the selection process by which the Republicans elect delegates who will then elect the GOP candidate in the 2008 election for President and Vice President of the United States. ... The 2008 Republican National Convention will take place at the Xcel Energy Center in Saint Paul, Minnesota from September 1 until September 4, 2008. ... This article lists both declared and potential Republican candidates for the President of the United States in the 2008 election. ... McCain redirects here. ... John McCain, the senior United States Senator from Arizona, announced his formal candidacy for the presidency of the United States and in turn, his intention to seek the nomination of the Republican Party for the 2008 presidential election in Prescott Park on the waterfront of Portsmouth, New Hampshire on Wednesday... Alan Keyes (born August 7, 1950) is an American political activist, author and former diplomat. ... Ronald Ernest Ron Paul (b. ... Ron Paul is a 10th-term Congressman, a physician (M.D.), and a 2008 presidential candidate from the state of Texas, seeking the nomination of the Republican Party. ... Samuel Dale Brownback (b. ... Dr. Hugh Cort III is a candidate for U.S. president in the Republican primary and a psychiatrist from Alabama. ... John Cox redirects here. ... Daniel Ayers Gilbert, Dan Gilbert, (b. ... James Stuart Jim Gilmore III (born October 6, 1949) is a Republican politician who was Governor of Virginia from 1998 to 2002. ... Rudolph William Louis Giuliani III, (born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, prosecutor, businessman, and Republican politician from the state of New York. ... Former Mayor of New York City Rudy Giuliani’s 2008 presidential campaign began in October 2005 when the “Draft Rudy Giuliani for President, Inc” was formed. ... Huckabee redirects here. ... Mike Huckabee, former Governor of Arkansas, officially announced on January 28, 2007 his candidacy for the Republican Party nomination for the 2008 presidential election in the United States. ... Duncan Lee Hunter (born May 31, 1948) is an American politician who has been a Republican member of the House of Representatives since 1981 from Californias 52nd congressional district in northern and eastern San Diego. ... Fourteen-term Congressman and Vietnam War veteran Duncan Hunter of California has announced his intentions to run for the 2008 Republican nomination for President of the United States. ... Raymond L. McKinney (b. ... Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) was the 70th Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. ... Mitt Romney is a Republican Party primary candidate to represent his party in the 2008 United States presidential election. ... Thomas Gerard Tancredo (born December 20, 1945) is an American politician and member of the Republican Party. ... The Tom Tancredo presidential campaign, 2008 for President of the United States began with the announcement of candidacy by the Colorado Congressman on April 2, 2007. ... This article is about the actor/politician. ... Fred Thompson is an unannounced Republican Party primary candidate to represent his party in the 2008 United States presidential election. ... For other people with similar names, see Thomas Thompson. ... The Constitution Party is a conservative United States political party. ... Constitution Party National Convention is held every 2-4 years. ... This article is about the American political party, Green Party. ... Cynthia Ann McKinney (born March 17, 1955) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Kent Mesplay is a scientist and political activist from San Diego, California. ... Kat Swift is an American political activist, and co-chair of the Green Party of Texas. ... The Libertarian Party is an American political party founded on December 11, 1971. ... On December 21, 2006, the United States Libertarian Party announced that the 2008 Libertarian National Convention will be held between May 23 and May 26 at the Adam’s Mark Hotel in Denver, Colorado. ... Robert L. (Bob) Barr, Jr. ...   Mike Gravel, a former United States Senator from Alaska, on April 17, 2006 became a declared candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in the 2008 election,[1] announcing his run in a speech to the National Press Club. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Steven Steve Wynn Kubby (born December 28, 1946) is a Libertarian Party activist who played a key role in the drafting and passage of California Proposition 215. ... George Phillies (born 23 July 1947) is a Libertarian Party activist and professor of physics at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. ... Wayne Root (more commonly known as Wayne Allyn Root) is a business mogul, television celebrity, TV producer, best-selling author, professional sports handicapper, and aspiring politician based in Las Vegas, Nevada. ... Mary J. Ruwart (born 16 October 1949) is a libertarian speaker, writer, and activist, the author of the bestselling 1992 book Healing Our World: The Other Piece of the Puzzle. ... Douglas Gene Stanhope (born March 25, 1967) is an American stand-up comedian. ... The Socialist Party USA (SP USA) is one of the heirs to the Socialist Party of America of Eugene V. Debs and Norman Thomas. ... Brian Moore Brian Moore is an independent candidate running on an anti-war campaign for Democratic incumbent Bill Nelsons Senate seat in Floridas 2006 Senate election. ... John Taylor Bowles (born in 1957 in Maryland) is an American neo-nazi and is the NSMs candidate for the United States presidential election, 2008. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist in the areas of consumer rights, humanitarianism, environmentalism and democratic government. ... Jonathon The Impaler Sharkey (born April 2, 1964 in Elizabeth, New Jersey) is a self proclaimed satanist and vampire (or sanguinary vampyre in his own words) running in the 2006 gubernatorial election in the state of Minnesota. ... Political drafts are used to encourage or compel a certain person to enter a political race, by demonstrating a significant groundswell of support for the candidate. ... A variation of a campaign button being put out by Americans For Rice. ... Elections for the United States House of Representatives will be held on November 4, 2008, with all of the 435 seats in the House being contested. ... Senate Seats up for election:  Two Republican incumbents Republican incumbent Retiring Republican Democratic incumbent No election Elections for the United States Senate will be held on November 4, 2008, with 35 of the 100 seats in the Senate being contested. ... Seats up for election. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampden Settled 1636 Incorporated 1852 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Charles Ryan (D) Area  - Total 33. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wonkette: The D.C. Gossip (740 words)
Because Mike Gravel and his little organization want to put you, the people, the stupid, stupid people, in charge.
Gravel sorta looks like Phil Jackson, which is a helluva lot better than looking like a crazed old squirrel with a mouth full of walnuts.
Mike Gravel, former Democratic senator from Alaska, officially announces bid for ‘08 presidential nomination.
Mike Gravel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (607 words)
Gravel served in the Alaska House of Representatives from 1962 to 1966.
Gravel was himself defeated in the primary after Jerry Falwell mustered the Christian Right in support of Gruening, who would go on to lose in the general election to Republican Frank Murkowski.
Gravel has said that, in addition to his stance on direct democracy (the National Initiative), he will also be emphasizing his support for the FairTax plan and withdrawal from the war in Iraq during his campaign.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m