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Encyclopedia > Mihai Eminescu
Mihai Eminescu

Mihai Eminescu
Born: January 15, 1850
Botoşani, Romania
Died: June 15, 1889
Bucureşti, Romania
Occupation: Poet
Influences: Arthur Schopenhauer

Mihai Eminescu (pronunciation in Romanian: /mi'haj e.mi'nes.ku/) (January 15, 1850June 15, 1889), born Mihail Eminovici, was a late Romantic poet, the best-known and most influential Romanian poet celebrated in both Romania and Moldova. Famous poems include Luceafărul ("Morning Star"), Odă în metru antic (Ode in ancient meter), and the 5 Scrisori (Epistles/Satires). Eminescu was active in the Junimea literary society, and served as editor of Timpul, the official newspaper of the Conservative Party. ŞMihai Eminescu The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) Year 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... County BotoÅŸani County Status County capital Mayor Cătălin Mugurel Flutur, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Population (2002) 115,069 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The DâmboviÅ£a River in central Bucharest Along a small tributary of DâmboviÅ£a, named Colentina, several lakes stretch across the city, the most important being Lake Floreasca, Lake Tei and Lake Colentina. ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) Year 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the industrial revolution. ... Luceafăr in Romanian is the name of the morning star (the planet Venus) which in Romanian folklore is associated with demons but is also linked to the Greek Titan Hyperion. ... Junimea was a Romanian literary society founded in IaÅŸi in 1863, by the initiative of some foreign educated personalities led by Titu Maiorescu, Petre P. Carp, Vasile Pogor and Iacob Negruzzi. ... The Conservative Party (Partidul Conservator) was between 1880 and 1918 one of Romanias two most important parties, the other one being the Liberal Party. ... The Conservative Party (Partidul Conservator) was between 1880 and 1918 one of Romanias two most important parties. ...

Contents

Life

Family

His father was Gheorghe Eminovici from Călineşti, a Romanian village in Suceava county, Bucovina, which was then part of the Austrian Empire. He crossed the border into Moldavia, settling in Ipoteşti, near the town of Botoşani. He married Raluca Iurăscu, an heiress of an old aristocratic Moldavian family. County Suceava County Status County capital Mayor Ion Lungu, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Area 52 km² Population (2002) 105,865 (2002 census) 107,513 (as of July 1, 2004)[1] Density 2,032 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... County BotoÅŸani County Status County capital Mayor Cătălin Mugurel Flutur, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Population (2002) 115,069 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ...


Early years

Mihail (as he appears in baptismal records) or Mihai (the more common form that he used) was born in Botoşani, Moldavia, Romania. He spent his early childhood in Botoşani and Ipoteşti, in his parents' family home. From 1858 to 1866 he attended school in Cernăuţi. He finished 4th grade as the 5th of 82 students, after which he attended two years of gymnasium. County BotoÅŸani County Status County capital Mayor Cătălin Mugurel Flutur, National Liberal Party, since 2004 Population (2002) 115,069 Geographical coordinates , Web site http://www. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... IpoteÅŸti may refer to several places in Romania: IpoteÅŸti, a commune in Olt County IpoteÅŸti, a commune in Suceava County IpoteÅŸti, a village in Mihai Eminescu Commune, BotoÅŸani County Category: ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Chernivtsi (Ukrainian: ; Romanian: CernăuÅ£i; German: Czernowitz or Tschernowitz; Polish: Czerniowce; Hungarian: Csernovic; Yiddish: Tshernovits; Russian: , Chernovtsy) is a city in Northern Bukovina, Ukraine, capital of the Chernivtsi Oblast. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The first evidence of Eminescu as a writer is in 1866. In January of that year Romanian teacher Aron Pumnul died and his students in Cernăuţi published a pamphlet, Lăcrămioarele învăţăceilor gimnaziaşti (Tears of the Gymnasium Students) in which a poem entitled La mormântul lui Aron Pumnul (At the Grave of Aron Pumnul) appears, signed "M. Eminovici". On February 25th his poem De-aş avea (If I were to have) was published in Iosif Vulcan's literary magazine Familia in Pest. This began a steady series of published poems (and the occasional translation from German). Also, it was Iosif Vulcan, who disliked the Slavic source suffix "-ici" of the young poet's last name, that chose for him the more apparent Romanian "nom de plume" Mihai Eminescu. 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Aron Pumnul (November 27, 1818 - January 12th/24th, 1866) was a Romanian academic and revolutionary of Transylvania (then in the Habsburg Monarchy). ... Chernivtsi (Чернівці, Romanian: Cernăuţi, German: Czernowitz, Polish: Czerniowce, Hungarian: Csernovic, Yiddish: Chernovits) is a city in Northern Bukovina, Ukraine. ... Pest (in Slovak Pešť, pron. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ...


In 1867 he joined the troupe of Iorgu Caragiale as clerk and prompter; the next year he transferred to the troupe of Mihai Pascaly. Both of these were among the leading Romanian theatrical troupes of their day, the latter including Matei Millo and Fanny Tardini-Vlădicescu. He soon settled in Bucharest, where at the end of November he became a clerk and copyist for the National Theater. Through this period, he continued to write and publish poems. He also paid his rent by translating hundreds of pages of a book by Heinrich Theodor Rotscher, although this never resulted in a completed work. Also at this time he began his novel Geniu pustiu (Wasted Genius), published posthumously in 1904 in an unfinished form. Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 238 km² Population (2005) 1,924,959[1] Density 8,088 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... National Theatre I. L. Caragiale, Bucharest The National Theatre Bucharest (Romanian: ) is the national theatre of Romania, located in the capital Bucharest. ... Heinrich Theodor Rötscher (1803 – April 9, 1871) was a German theatre critic and theorist. ...


On April 1 1869 he was a co-founder of the "Orient" literary circle, whose interests included the gathering of Romanian folklore, and documents relating to Romanian literary history. On June 29, various members of the "Orient" group were commissioned to go to different provinces. Eminescu was assigned Moldova. That summer, he quite by chance ran into his brother Iorgu, a military officer, in Cişmigiu Gardens, but firmly rebuffed Iorgu's attempt to get him to renew ties to his family. April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... Categories: Stub | Bucharest ...


Still in summer 1869, he left Pascaly's troupe and traveled to Cernăuţi and Iaşi. He renewed ties to his family; his father promised him a regular allowance to pursue studies in Vienna in the fall. As always, he continued to write and publish poetry; notably, on the occasion of the death of the former ruler of Muntenia, Barbu Dimitrie Ştirbei, he published a leaflet, La moartea principelui Ştirbei. County IaÅŸi County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Map of Romania with Muntenia highlighted Muntenia or Greater Wallachia is a historical province of Romania, usually considered Wallachia-proper (Muntenia, Å¢ara Românească, and the seldomly used Valahia are synonyms in Romanian). ...


Junimea

The University's Central Library "Mihai Eminescu ", Iaşi
The University's Central Library "Mihai Eminescu ", Iaşi
Eminescu's signature.
Eminescu's signature.

From October 1869 to 1872 he studied in Vienna. He was counted as an "extraordinary auditor" at the Faculty of Philosophy and Law. He was active in student life, befriended Ioan Slavici, and came to know Vienna through Veronica Micle; he became a contributor to Convorbiri literare (Literary Conversations), edited by Junimea (from Romanian june -"young"). The leaders of this cultural organisation, Petre P. Carp, Vasile Pogor, Theodor Rosetti, Iacob Negruzzi and Titu Maiorescu, exercised their political and cultural influence over Eminescu for the rest of his life. Impressed by one of Eminescu's poems, Venere şi Madonă (Venus and Madonna), Iacob Negruzzi, the editor of Convorbiri literare, traveled to Vienna to meet him. Negruzzi would later write how he could pick Eminescu out of a crowd of young people in a Viennese café by his "romantic" appearance: long hair and gaze lost in thoughts. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 485 KB) Summary Central Universitary Library Mihai Eminescu -Iasi Photo taken by user: O mores Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1224, 485 KB) Summary Central Universitary Library Mihai Eminescu -Iasi Photo taken by user: O mores Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU... County IaÅŸi County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1224 × 1632 pixel, file size: 304 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) BCU Mihai Eminescu. Location: Iasi - Romania. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1224 × 1632 pixel, file size: 304 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) BCU Mihai Eminescu. Location: Iasi - Romania. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Ioan Slavici (18 January 1848 – 17 August 1925) was a Romanian writer from Transylvania. ... Veronica Micle Veronica Micle (born Ana Câmpeanu on 22 April 1850, Năsăud — 3 August 1889, Văratec) was a Romanian poet. ... Junimea was a Romanian literary society founded in IaÅŸi in 1863, by the initiative of some foreign educated personalities led by Titu Maiorescu, Petre P. Carp, Vasile Pogor and Iacob Negruzzi. ... Petre P. Carp (29 June 1837, Iaşi; - 19 June 1919) was a Romanian politician that served as a Prime Minister of Romania for two times (19 July 1900 - 27 February 1901 and 14 January 1911 - 10 April 1912). ... Vasile pogor (August 20, 1883, Iasi - March 20, 1906, Iasi), was a romanian writer and politician and founder member of Junimea. ... Theodor Rosetti (4 May 1837 - 17 July 1932) was a Romanian writer, journalist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Romania between 13 April 1888 and 11 April 1889. ... Titu Maiorescu Titu Maiorescu was a Romanian literary critic and a Prime Minister of Romania from 1912 to 1914. ...


In 1870 Eminescu wrote three articles under the pseudonym "Varro" in Federaţiunea in Pest, on the situation of Romanians and other minorities in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. He then became a journalist for the newspaper Albina (The Bee) in Pest. From 1872 to 1874 he continued as a student in Berlin, thanks to a stipend offered by Junimea. Pest (pronounced pesht) is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, comprising about two thirds of the capitals territory. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... Junimea was a Romanian literary society founded in IaÅŸi in 1863, by the initiative of some foreign educated personalities led by Titu Maiorescu, Petre P. Carp, Vasile Pogor and Iacob Negruzzi. ...


From 1874 to 1877 he worked as director of the Central Library in Iaşi, substitute teacher, school inspector for the counties of Iaşi and Vaslui, and editor of the newspaper Curierul de Iaşi (The Courier of Iaşi), all thanks to his friendship with Titu Maiorescu, the leader of Junimea and rector of the University of Iaşi. He continued to publish in Convorbiri literare. He became a good friend of Ion Creangă, whom he convinced to become a writer and introduced to the Junimea literary club. Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... County IaÅŸi County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... County IaÅŸi County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Vaslui (population: 70,000) is a city in Vaslui county, Romania. ... Titu Maiorescu Titu Maiorescu was a Romanian literary critic and a Prime Minister of Romania from 1912 to 1914. ... Junimea was a Romanian literary society founded in IaÅŸi in 1863, by the initiative of some foreign educated personalities led by Titu Maiorescu, Petre P. Carp, Vasile Pogor and Iacob Negruzzi. ... County IaÅŸi County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Ion Creangă Ion Creangă (March 1 or June 10, 1837—1889) was a Romanian childrens writer and memoirist. ... Junimea was a Romanian literary society founded in IaÅŸi in 1863, by the initiative of some foreign educated personalities led by Titu Maiorescu, Petre P. Carp, Vasile Pogor and Iacob Negruzzi. ...


In 1877 he moved to Bucharest, where until 1883 he was first editor, then (1880) editor-in-chief of the newspaper Timpul (The Time). During this time he wrote Scrisorile, Luceafărul, Odă în metru antic etc. Most of his famous editorial pieces belong to this period, when Romania was fighting the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 and throughout the diplomatic race that eventually brought about the international recognition of Romanian independence, but under the condition of bestowing Romanian citizenship to all subjects of Jewish faith. Eminescu opposed this and another clause of the Treaty of Berlin: Romania's having to give southern Bessarabia to Russia in exchange for Dobrudja, a former Ottoman province on the Black Sea. 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 238 km² Population (2005) 1,924,959[1] Density 8,088 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Conservative Party (Partidul Conservator) was between 1880 and 1918 one of Romanias two most important parties, the other one being the Liberal Party. ... Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod. ... The separate Bulgaria after The Treatry of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


In June 1883, the poet fell seriously ill, and was interned in the hospital of Dr. Şuţu. In December 1883, his volume Poesii appeared, with selection of poems and with a preface by Titu Maiorescu. 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Titu Maiorescu Titu Maiorescu was a Romanian literary critic and a Prime Minister of Romania from 1912 to 1914. ...


Years of illness

In his last years, he suffered from manic-depressive psychosis. In 1883, in Romania, he was also diagnosed with syphilis. George Călinescu wrote in the poet's biography that he had the illness since he was 20; however, a different diagnosis, done in Vienna, also in1883, mentioned his depression but didn't mention syphilis. In 1884, he returned to Romania and looked generally healthy. From 1886, he was given mercury injections, the traditional treatment for syphilis at the time. For other uses, see Bipolar. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... George Călinescu (1899 - 1965) was a Romanian novelist, poet, playwright, literary critic, and essayist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ...


Eminescu died in hospital on June 15, 1889. His autopsy was poorly conducted, so the real cause of his death remains a mystery. He is buried in Bucharest at Bellu cemetery. June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bellu is the most famous cemetery in Romania. ...


Recent sources, for instance [1], claim that the Romanian and Austrian authorities of the time staged the "illness" of Eminescu in order to marginalize a powerful political adversary of the Romanian-Austrian treaty that was signed at that time. The secret treaty required Romania to cease its support to Transylvanian Romanians (then under Austrian rule). It did so (for a time), which caused certain Transylvanian-born Romanians to leave Bucharest. Eminescu, too, was under constant surveillance, and the only (unconfirmed) syphillis diagnosis was given by Romanian doctors.


Works

Nicolae Iorga, the Romanian historian, considers Eminescu the godfather of the modern Romanian language. He is unanimously celebrated as the greatest and most representative Romanian poet. portrait of Nicolae Iorga Nicolae Iorga (a. ...


The poet

His poems span a large range of themes, from nature and love to history and social commentary. His childhood years were evoked in his later poetry with deep nostalgia.


Eminescu was influenced by the work of Arthur Schopenhauer, and some have suggested that his most famous poem, "Luceafărul", includes elements of Vedic cosmogony. Eminescu's poems have been translated in over 60 languages. His life, work and poetry strongly influenced the Romanian culture and studying his poems is a requirement in Romanian public schools and often memorization and analysis of "Luceafarul" is mandatory for high school graduation exams. Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ... Vedic may refer to: Ancient India the Vedic civilization the Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts Vedic Sanskrit, their language (see also Vedic meter, Vedic accent, Vedic chant and Shrauta) the historical Vedic religion traditional Hindu culture: Vedic astrology the Ayurveda (Vedic medicine) Ancient Vedic weights and measures modern... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Romanias culture is very similar to other European culture, including that of Western Europe and Central Europe. ...


His most important poems are:

  • Doina (the name is a traditional type of Romanian song)
  • Lacul (The Lake)
  • Luceafărul (The Morning Star)
  • Floare albastră (Blue Flower)
  • Dorinţa (Desire)
  • Sara pe deal (Evening on the Hill)
  • O, rămii (Oh, Linger On)
  • Epigonii (Epigones)
  • Scrisori (Letters or "Epistles-Satires")
  • Si dacă (And if...)
  • Odă (în metru antic) (Ode (in Ancient Meter))
  • Mai am un singur dor (I Have Yet One Desire)

The Doina is a Southeastern European musical tune style, having its roots in the music of Romanian (Vlach) shepherds. ...

The storyteller

Prose:

  • Făt-Frumos din lacrimă (Prince Charming, The Tear-Begotten)
  • Geniu pustiu (Empty Genius)
  • Sărmanul Dionis (Poor Dionis)
  • Cezara (a proper name)

Collected edition: The letter F is the sixth (6th) letter in the Latin alphabet. ...

  • Poems and Prose of Mihai Eminescu (editor: Kurt W. Treptow, publisher: The Center for Romanian Studies, Iaşi, Oxford, and Portland, 2000, ISBN 973-9432-10-7) contains a selection of English-language renditions Eminescu's poems and prose.

Eminescu within the Romanian culture

The genius

Eminescu was only 20 when Titu Maiorescu, the top literary critic in 1870 Romania dubbed him "a real poet", in an essay where only a handful of the Romanian poets of the time were spared Maiorescu's harsh criticism. In the following decade, Eminescu's fame as a poet grew continually thanks to (1) the way he managed to enrich the literary language with words and phrases from all Romanian regions, from old texts, and with new words that he coined from his wide philosophical readings; (2) the use of bold metaphors, much too rare in earlier Romanian poetry; (3) last but not least, he was arguably the first Romanian writer who published in all Romanian provinces and was constantly interested in the problems of Romanians everywhere. He defined himself as a Romantic, in a poem addressed To My Critics (Criticilor mei), and this designation, his untimely death as well as his bohemian lifestyle (he never pursued a degree, a position, a wife or fortune) had him associated with the Romantic figure of the genius. As early as the late 1880s, Eminescu had a group of faithful followers. His 1883 poem Luceafărul was so famous that a new literary review took its name after it. Titu Maiorescu Titu Maiorescu was a Romanian literary critic and a Prime Minister of Romania from 1912 to 1914. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the industrial revolution. ... A genius is a person of great intelligence. ...


The national poet

He was soon proclaimed Romania's national poet, not because he wrote in an age of national revival, but rather because he was received as an author of paramount significance by Romanians in all provinces. Even today, he is considered the national poet of Romania, Moldova, and of the Romanians who live in the Ukrainian part of Bucovina. Many nations have adopted a poet who is perceived to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of their culture. ... Bukovina (Bucovina in Romanian; Буковина, Bukovyna in Polish), on the slopes of the Carpathian mountains, comprises an historic province now split between Ukraine. ...


Romanian icon

former 1000 lei bill
former 1000 lei bill
500 lei bill
500 lei bill

Eminescu is omnipresent in present-day Romania. His statues are everywhere; his face was on the 1000-lei bill issued in 1998 and is on the new 500-lei bill issued in 2005 as the highest-denominated Romanian bill (see Romanian leu); many schools and other institutions are named after him. The anniversaries of his birth and death are celebrated each year in many Romanian cities, and they became national celebrations in 1989 (the centennial of his death) and 2000 (150 years after his birth, proclaimed Eminescu's Year in Romania). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (806x342, 95 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mihai Eminescu Romanian leu ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (806x342, 95 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mihai Eminescu Romanian leu ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1805x965, 860 KB) Romanian banknote The image above depicts a unit of currency issued by Romania. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1805x965, 860 KB) Romanian banknote The image above depicts a unit of currency issued by Romania. ... For the Moldovan currency, see Moldovan leu. ...


Several young Romanian writers provoked a huge scandal when they wrote about their demystified idea of Eminescu and went so far as to reject the "official" interpretation of his work. [2]


Political views

Due to his conservative nationalistic views, Eminescu was easily adopted as an icon by the Romanian right. A major obstacle to their fully embracing him was the fact he never identified himself as a Christian and his poetry rather indiscriminately uses Buddhist, Christian, agnostic, and atheist themes.


After a decade when Eminescu's works were criticized as "mystic" and "bourgeois", Romanian Communists ended up adopting Eminescu as the major Romanian poet. What opened the door for this thaw was the poem Împărat şi proletar (Emperor and proletarian) that Eminescu wrote under the influence of the 1870-1871 events in France, and which ended in a Schopenhauerian critique of human life. An expurgated version only showed the stanzas that could present Eminescu as a poet interested in the fate of proletarians.


References

  • George Călinescu, La vie d'Eminescu, Bucarest: Univers, 1989, 439 p.
  • Marin Bucur (ed.), Caietele Mihai Eminescu, Bucureşti, Editura Eminescu, 1972

George Călinescu (1899 - 1965) was a Romanian novelist, poet, playwright, literary critic, and essayist. ...

See also

Romanian literature is literature written by Romanian authors, although the term may also be used to refer to all literature written in the Romanian language. ...

External links

Wikisource
Romanian Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Mihai Eminescu (original works in Romanian)
  • Mihai Eminescu - Poetry/Poezii
  • Mihai Eminescu Poesii (bilingual pages English Romanian)
  • Mihai Eminescu poetry (with English translations of some of his poems)
  • MoldData Literature
  • Year 2000: "Mihai Eminescu Year" (includes bio, poems, critiques, etc.)
  • Web site about Mihai Eminescu, maintained by the far-right extremist group Noua Dreapta
  • The Mihai Eminescu Trust
  • The Nation's Poet: A recent collection sparks debate over Romania's "national poet" by Emilia Stere
  • Eminescu - a political victim : An interview with Nicolae Georgescu in Jurnalul National (in Romanian)
  • Mihai Eminescu: Complete works (in Romanian)
  • Mihai Eminescu: Poems (in English)
Persondata
NAME Eminescu, Mihai
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Eminovici, Mihail
SHORT DESCRIPTION Romanian poet
DATE OF BIRTH January 15, 1850
PLACE OF BIRTH Botoşani, Romania
DATE OF DEATH June 15, 1889
PLACE OF DEATH Bucureşti, Romania

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mihai Eminescu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1787 words)
Mihai Eminescu (pronunciation in Romanian: /mi'haj e.mi'nes.ku/) (January 15, 1850 – June 15, 1889), born Mihail Eminovici, was a late Romantic poet, the best-known and most influential Romanian poet celebrated in both Romania and Moldova.
Eminescu was active in the Junimea literary society, and served as editor of Timpul, the official newspaper of the Conservative Party.
Eminescu was influenced by the work of Arthur Schopenhauer, and some have suggested that his most famous poem, "Luceafarul" was based upon an older German work or the Katha Upanishad.
Biography / Romania / Mihai Eminescu (902 words)
Mihai Eminescu, also known as Mihail Eminescu (January 15, 1850 - June 15, 1889), late Romantic poet, probably the single best-known Romanian poet.
Eminescu was active in the Junimea literary society, and was a prominent member of the Conservative Party and a journalist at Timpul.
Eminescu was the son of tax collector Gheorghe Eminovici and his wife Raluca Eminovici (maiden name Iurăscu).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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