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Encyclopedia > Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra

portrait of Cervantes[a], by Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar (c. 1600)
Born September 29, 1547(1547-09-29)
Alcalá de Henares, Spain
Died 23 April 1616 (aged 68)
Madrid, Spain
Occupation novelist, poet and playwright

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra[b] (IPA: [miˈɣel ðe θerˈβantes saːˈβeðra] in modern Spanish; September 29?, 1547April 23, 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. Cervantes is one of the most important and influential people in literature and his magnum opus, Don Quixote, is considered a founding classic of Western literature and regularly figures among the best novels ever written. His work is considered among the most important in all of literature.[1] He has been dubbed el Príncipe de los Ingenios (the Prince of Wits). Cervantes can refer to: Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote Francisco Cervantes de Salazar, 16th-century man of letters Ignacio Cervantes, Cuban composer Vicente (Vincente) de Cervantes (b. ... Image File history File links Cervates_jauregui. ... Juan Martínez de Jáuregui y Aguilar (November 24, 1583 - January 11, 1641), Spanish poet, was baptized at Seville. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Location Location of Alcalá Coordinates : 40º28’N , 3º22’W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Alcalá de Henares (Spanish) Spanish name Alcalá de Henares Founded Preromanian Postal code 28. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1616 (MDCXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... This article is about work. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1616 (MDCXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Cervantes, born at Alcalá de Henares, was the fourth of seven children, of Rodrigo de Cervantes, a doctor born at Alcalá de Henares in a family whose origins may have been of the minor gentry, and wife, married in 1543, Leonor de Cortinas, who died on October 19, 1593. The family moved from town to town, and little is known of Cervantes's early years. In his early life he was raped[citation needed]. By 1570 he had been enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish infantry regiment and continued his military life until 1575, when he was captured by pirates. He was ransomed by his captors and the Trinitarians and returned to his family in Madrid. Location Location of Alcalá Coordinates : 40º28’N , 3º22’W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Alcalá de Henares (Spanish) Spanish name Alcalá de Henares Founded Preromanian Postal code 28. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... The Trinitarians are an order of monks founded at Rome in 1198 by St. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


In 1585, Cervantes published a pastoral novel, La Galatea. Because of financial problems, Cervantes worked as a purveyor for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. In 1597 discrepancies in his accounts of three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville. In 1605 he was in Valladolid, just when the immediate success of the first part of his Don Quixote, published in Madrid, signaled his return to the literary world. In 1607, he settled in Madrid, where he lived and worked until his death. During the last nine years of his life, Cervantes solidified his reputation as a writer; he published the Exemplary Novels (Novelas ejemplares) in 1613, the Journey to Parnassus (Viaje del Parnaso) in 1614, and in 1615, the Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses and the second part of Don Quixote. Carlos Fuentes noted that, "Cervantes leaves open the pages of a book where the reader knows himself to be written."[2] La Galatea was Cervantes first full-length puplication, published in 1585, soon after his return from Algiers in the custody of Barbary pirates. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... A tax collector is a person who collects unpaid taxes from other people or corporations. ... For the city in Mexico, see Valladolid, Yucatán. ... Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (born November 11, 1928) is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. ...

Contents

Biography

Birth and early life

Miguel de Cervantes was born in Alcalá de Henares, a Castilian city about 20 miles from Madrid, probably on September 29 (the feast day of St. Michael) 1547. He was baptized on October 9.[1] Miguel's paternal great-grandfather was Ruy Díaz de Cervantes, a prosperous draper who was born most probably in the 1430s. He married a Catalina de Cabrera about whom nothing at all is known. Their son, Miguel's grandfather Juan, studied law at the University of Salamanca. For most of his life he served as a minor magistrate, ending his career as a specialist in fiscal law for the Spanish Inquisition and was a well-to-do man. He married Leonor Fernández de Torreblanca, who was apparently his cousin and a daughter of a Cordoban physician. Miguel's father, Ruy (Rodrigo), was a barber-surgeon who set bones, performed bloodlettings, and attended "lesser medical needs". He presented himself as a nobleman and liked to act as a gentleman, which was not easy because of his low income.[3] Little is known of Cervantes' early years and education, but it seems that he spent much of his childhood moving from town to town with his family. It seems that, much like Dickens' father, Miguel's father was embargoed for debt. The court records of the proceedings show a very poor household. While some of his biographers argue that he studied at the University of Salamanca, there is no solid evidence for supposing that he did so.[c] There has been speculation also that Cervantes studied with the Jesuits in Córdoba or Sevilla.[4] Location Location of Alcalá Coordinates : 40º28’N , 3º22’W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Alcalá de Henares (Spanish) Spanish name Alcalá de Henares Founded Preromanian Postal code 28. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Salamanca (Spanish: Universidad de Salamanca), located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid, is the second oldest university in Spain (the first one is the university of Palencia, now disappeared), and one of the oldest in Europe. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... The barber surgeon was one of the most common medical practitioners of medieval times - generally charged with looking after soldiers during or after a battle. ... The University of Salamanca (Spanish: Universidad de Salamanca), located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid, is the second oldest university in Spain (the first one is the university of Palencia, now disappeared), and one of the oldest in Europe. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... This article is about the city in Spain. ...


Soldier and captive

The Battle of Lepanto by Paolo Veronese (c. 1572, oil on canvas, 169 x 137 cm, Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice)
The Battle of Lepanto by Paolo Veronese (c. 1572, oil on canvas, 169 x 137 cm, Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice)

The reasons that forced Cervantes to leave Castilia remain uncertain. Whether he was the "student" of the same name, a "sword-wielding fugitive from justice", fleeing from the royal warrant of arrest for having wounded a certain Antonio de Sigura in a duel is another mystery.[5] In any event, in going to Italy, Cervantes was doing what many young Spaniards of the time did to further their careers in one way or another. Rome would reveal to the young artist its ecclesiastic pomp, ritual and majesty. In a city teeming with ruins, Cervantes could focus his attention on Renaissance art, architecture and poetry (knowledge of Italian literature is so readily discernible in his own productions), and on rediscovering antiquity; he could find in the ancients "a powerful impetus to revive the contemporary world in light of its accomplishments".[6] Thus, Cervantes' continuing desire for Italy, as revealed in his later works, was in part a desire for a return to the Renaissance.[7] Download high resolution version (706x910, 171 KB)Template:English The Battle of Lepanto by Paolo Veronese. ... Download high resolution version (706x910, 171 KB)Template:English The Battle of Lepanto by Paolo Veronese. ... The Feast in the House of Levi (1573), one of the largest canvases of the 16th century. ... The Gallerie dell’Accademia is an art gallery housed in the former monastary in Venice, Italy. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Italian literature is literature written in the Italian language, particularly by citizens of Italy. ...


By 1570, Cervantes had enlisted as a soldier in a Castilian infantry regiment stationed in Naples, then a possession of the Spanish crown. He was there for about a year before he saw active service. In September 1571, Cervantes sailed on board the Marquesa, part of the galley fleet of the Holy League (a coalition of the Pope, Spain, Venice, Republic of Genoa, Duchy of Savoy, the Knights of Malta and others under the command of John of Austria) that defeated the Ottoman fleet on October 7 in the Gulf of Lepanto near Corinth. Though taken down with fever, Cervantes refused to stay below, and begged to be allowed to take part in the battle, saying that he would rather die for his God and his king than keep under cover. He fought bravely on board a vessel, and received three gunshot wounds – two in the chest and one which rendered his left arm useless, resulting in amputation. In Journey to Parnassus, he was to say that he "had lost the movement of the left hand for the glory of the right" (he was thinking of the success of the first part of Don Quixote). Cervantes always looked back on his conduct in the battle with pride: he believed that he had taken part in an event that would shape the course of European history Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... The Holy League was formed between several Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean in 1571 in attempt to break Ottoman Turks control of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ... Pope St. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... For the earlier history of Savoy, see County of Savoy. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan De Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was the illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and a military leader whose most famous victory was at the Battle of Lepanto. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Three battles have been known as the Battle of Lepanto: Battle of Lepanto (1499) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1500) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1571) defeat of the Turkish fleet An earlier battle near modern Lepanto was called the Battle of Naupactus (429... The Gulf of Corinth or the Corinthian Gulf is a deep inlet of the Ionian Sea separating the Peloponnese from western mainland Greece. ... This article discusses the history of the continent of Europe. ...


After the battle of Lepanto Cervantes remained in hospital for around six months, before his wounds were sufficiently healed to allow his joining the colors again.[8] From 1572 to 1575, based mainly in Naples, he continued his soldier's life; he participated in expeditions to Corfu and Navarino, and saw the fall of Tunis and La Goleta to the Turks in 1574.[9] // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... This article is about the Greek geographical feature and town. ...


On September 6 or 7 1575 Cervantes set sail on the galley Sol from Naples to Barcelona, Spain, with letters of commendation to the king from the duke de Sessa and Don Juan himself.[10] On the morning of September 26, as the Sol approached the Catalan coast, it was attacked by Algerian corsairs. After significant resistance, in which the captain and many crew members were killed, the surviving passengers were taken to Algiers as captives.[11] After five years spent as a slave in Algiers, and four unsuccessful escape attempts, he was ransomed by his parents and the Trinitarians and returned to his family in Madrid. Not surprisingly, this period of Cervantes' life supplied subject matter for several of his literary works, notably the Captive's tale in Don Quixote and the two Algiers El trato de Argel (The Treaty of Algiers) and Los baños de Argel (The Baths of Algiers), as well as episodes in a number of other writings, although never in straight autobiographical form.[1] is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1575 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Sessa is a municipality in the district of Lugano, in the canton of Ticino, Switzerland. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock... The Trinitarians are an order of monks founded at Rome in 1198 by St. ...

"The pen is the language of the soul; as the concepts that in it are generated, such will be its writings." - Miguel de Cervantes at the National Library, Spain -
"The pen is the language of the soul; as the concepts that in it are generated, such will be its writings." - Miguel de Cervantes at the National Library, Spain -

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 710 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1421 × 1200 pixel, file size: 302 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 710 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1421 × 1200 pixel, file size: 302 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Literary pursuits

Main article: Don Quixote

In Toledo, Esquivias, on December 12, 1584, he married the much younger Catalina de Salazar y Palacios (Toledo, Esquivias – Madrid, October 31, 1626), daughter of Fernando de Salazar y Vozmediano and wife Catalina de Palacios and whose uncle Alonso de Quesada y Salazar is said to have inspired the character of Don Quixote. During the next 20 years he led a nomadic existence, working as a purchasing agent for the Spanish Armada, and as a tax collector. He suffered a bankruptcy, and was imprisoned at least twice (1597 and 1602) for irregularities in his accounts. Between the years 1596 and 1600, he lived primarily in Seville. In 1606, Cervantes settled permanently in Madrid, Spain; where he remained for the rest of his life. In 1585, Cervantes published his first major work, La Galatea, a pastoral romance, at the same time that some of his plays, now lost except for El trato de Argel (where he dealt with the life of Christian slaves in Algiers) and El cerco de Numancia, were playing on the stages of Madrid. La Galatea received little contemporary notice, and Cervantes never wrote the continuation for it, (which he repeatedly promised). Cervantes next turned his attention to the drama, hoping to derive an income from that source, but the plays which he composed failed to achieve their purpose. Aside from his plays, his most ambitious work in verse was Viaje del Parnaso (1614), an allegory which consisted largely of a rather tedious though good-natured review of contemporary poets. Cervantes himself realized that he was deficient in poetic gifts. This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... For other uses, see: 1597 (number). ... This page is about the year. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ...


If a remark which Cervantes himself makes in the prologue of Don Quixote is to be taken literally, the idea of the work, though hardly the writing of its "First Part", as some have maintained, occurred to him in prison at Argamasilla de Alba, in La Mancha. Cervantes' idea was to give a picture of real life and manners, and to express himself in clear language. The intrusion of everyday speech into a literary context was acclaimed by the reading public. The author stayed poor until 1605, when the first part of Don Quixote appeared. Although it did not make Cervantes rich, it brought him international appreciation as a man of letters. Cervantes also wrote many plays, only two of which have survived; short novels, and the vogue obtained by Cervantes's story led to the publication of a continuation of it by an unknown who masqueraded under the name of Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda. In self-defence, Cervantes produced his own continuation, or "Second Part", of Don Quixote, which made its appearance in 1615 (Nota Bene: Cervantes had already promised the publication of a second part of Don Quijote in 1613 in the forward to the Novelas Ejemplares, the year before the publication of Avellanda's book; it is therefore anachronistic to say that he produced his continuation "in self-defence"). Argamasilla de Alba is a municipality in Ciudad Real, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. ... In 1614, a sequel to Cervantes Don Quixote was published under the pseudonym Alonso Fernándo de Avellaneda. ...


For the world at large, interest in Cervantes centers particularly in Don Quixote, and this work has been regarded chiefly as a novel of purpose. It is stated again and again that he wrote it in order to satirize the romances of chivalry, and to challenge the popularity of a form of literature which for much more than a century had been a fad with the general public. As a literary genre, romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see FAD (disambiguation). ...


Don Quixote certainly reveals much narrative power, considerable humor, a mastery of dialogue, and a forcible style. Of the two parts written by Cervantes, the first is the more popular with the general public - containing the famous episodes of the tilting at windmills, the attack on the flock of sheep, the vigil in the courtyard of the inn, and the episode with the barber and the shaving basin. The second part is inferior to it in humorous effect; but, nevertheless, the second part shows more constructive insight, better delineation of character, an improved style, and more realism and probability in its action. In 1613, he published a collection of tales, the Exemplary Novels, some of which had been written earlier. On the whole, the Exemplary Novels are worthy of the fame of Cervantes; they bear the same stamp of genius as Don Quixote. The picaroon strain, already made familiar in Spain by the Lazarillo de Tormes and his successors, appears in one or another of them, especially in the Rinconete y Cortadillo, which is the best of all. He also published the Viaje del Parnaso in 1614, and in 1615, the Eight Comedies and Eight New Interludes. At the same time, Cervantes continued working on Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, a novel of adventurous travel completed just before his death, and which appeared posthumously in January, 1617. Title page of the 1554 edition The Life of Lazarillo de Tormes and of His Fortunes and Adversities is a Spanish novel, published anonymously, 1554, in Alcalá de Henares in Spain, and, in 1557, in Antwerp, Flanders, then under Spanish rule. ... Under the Comnenian dynasty, Byzantine writers of twelfth century Constantinople reintroduced the ancient Greek romance novel, imitating its form and time period but Christianizing its content. ...


Death

Cervantes died in Madrid on April 23, 1616; coincidentally William Shakespeare also died on that date, but not on the same day; Britain was still using the Julian calendar, whereas Spain had already adopted the Gregorian calendar.[12] In honour of this coincidence UNESCO established April 23 as the International Day of the Book.[13] It is worth mentioning that the Encyclopedia Hispanica claims the date widely quoted as Cervantes' date of death, namely April 23, is the date on his tombstone which in accordance of the traditions at the time would be his date of burial rather than date of death. If this is true, according to Hispanica, then it means that Cervantes probably died on April 22 and was buried on April 23. Of his burial-place nothing is known except that he was buried, in accordance with his will, in the neighbouring convent of Trinitarian nuns, of which it is supposed his daughter, Isabel de Saavedra, was a member, and that a few years afterwards the nuns removed to another convent, carrying their dead with them. But whether the remains of Cervantes were included in the removal or not no one knows, and the clue to their resting-place is now lost beyond all hope. is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1616 (MDCXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... World Book and Copyright Day (also known as International Day of the Book or World Book Day) is a yearly event organised by UNESCO to promote reading, publishing and the protection of intellectual property through copyright. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tombstone most commonly means a headstone marking the grave of a deceased person. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The statue of Miguel de Cervantes at the harbor of Nafpactos
The statue of Miguel de Cervantes at the harbor of Nafpactos

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Works

Novels

Cervantes's novels, listed chronologically, are as follows:

  • La Galatea (1585), a pastoral romance in prose and verse based upon the genre introduced into Spain by Jorge de Montemayor's Diana (1559). Its theme is the fortunes and misfortunes in love of a numbepherdesses, who spend their life singing and playing musical instruments.
  • El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha (1605)
  • Novelas ejemplares (1613), a collection of twelve short stories of varied types about the social, political, and historical problems of Cervantes' Spain:
  1. La gitanilla (The Gypsy Girl)
  2. El amante liberal (The Generous Lover)
  3. Rinconete y Cortadillo
  4. La española inglesa (The English Spanish Lady)
  5. El licenciado Vidriera (Vidriera, the Lawyer)
  6. La fuerza de la sangre (The Power of Blood)
  7. El celoso extremeño (The Jealous Old Man From Extremadura)
  8. La ilustre fregona (The Illustrious Kitchen-Maid)
  9. Novela de las dos doncellas (The Two Damsels)
  10. Novela de la señora Cornelia (Lady Cornelia)
  11. Novela del casamiento engañoso (The Deceitful Marriage)
  12. El coloquio de los perros (The Dialogue of the Dogs)
  • Segunda parte del ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha (1615)
  • Los trabajos de Persiles y Segismunda (1617).
Los trabajos is the best evidence not only of the survival of Byzantine novel themes but also of the survival of forms and ideas of the Spanish novel of the second Renaissance. In this work, published after the author's death, Cervantes relates the ideal love and unbelievable vicissitudes of a couple who, starting from the Arctic regions, arrive in Rome, where they find a happy ending for their complicated adventures.

La Galatea was Cervantes first full-length puplication, published in 1585, soon after his return from Algiers in the custody of Barbary pirates. ... For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... Jorge de Montemayor (or Montemor) (1520? - February 26, 1561), Spanish novelist and poet, of Portuguese descent, was born at Montemor o Velho (near Coimbra), whence he derived his name, the Spanish form of which is Montemayor. ... Under the Comnenian dynasty, Byzantine writers of twelfth century Constantinople reintroduced the ancient Greek romance novel, imitating its form and time period but Christianizing its content. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...

La Galatea

La Galatea, the pastoral romance, which Cervantes wrote in his youth, is an imitation of the Diana of Jorge de Montemayor, and bears an even closer resemblance to Gil Polo's continuation of that romance. Next to Don Quixote and the Novelas ejemplares, it is particularly worthy of attention, as it manifests in a striking way the poetic direction in which the genius of Cervantes moved even at an early period of life. La Galatea was Cervantes first full-length puplication, published in 1585, soon after his return from Algiers in the custody of Barbary pirates. ... For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ... Jorge de Montemayor (or Montemor) (1520? - February 26, 1561), Spanish novelist and poet, of Portuguese descent, was born at Montemor o Velho (near Coimbra), whence he derived his name, the Spanish form of which is Montemayor. ...


Don Quixote

Main article: Don Quixote
Statues of Don Quixote (left) and Sancho Panza (right)
Statues of Don Quixote (left) and Sancho Panza (right)

Don Quixote (sometimes spelled "Quijote") is actually two separate books that cover the adventures of Don Quixote, also known as the knight or man of La Mancha, a hero who carries his enthusiasm and self-deception to unintentional and comic ends. On one level, Don Quixote works as a satire of the romances of chivalry which ruled the literary environment of Cervantes' time. However, the novel also allows Cervantes to illuminate various aspects of human nature by using the ridiculous example of the delusional Quixote. This article is about the fictional character and novel. ... Download high resolution version (736x1152, 160 KB)Taken by User:Raul654 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (736x1152, 160 KB)Taken by User:Raul654 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Thanks to Miguel de Cervantes, La Mancha is famous for its windmills. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ...


Because the novel - particularly the first part - was written in individually published sections, the composition includes several incongruities. In the preface to the second part, Cervantes himself pointed out some of these errors, but he disdained to correct them, because he conceived that they had been too severely condemned by his critics.


Cervantes felt a passion for the vivid painting of character, as his successful works prove. Under the influence of this feeling, he drew the natural and striking portrait of his heroic Don Quixote, so truly noble-minded, and so enthusiastic an admirer of everything good and great, yet having all those fine qualities, accidentally blended with a relative kind of madness; and he likewise portrayed with no less fidelity, the opposite character of Sancho Panza, a compound of grossness and simplicity, whose low self-esteem leads him to place blind confidence in all the extravagant hopes and promises of his master. The subordinate characters of the novel exhibit equal truth and decision. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The essential connection of these episodes with the whole has sometimes escaped the observation of critics, who have regarded as merely parenthetical those parts in which Cervantes has most decidedly manifested the poetic spirit of his work. The novel of El curioso impertinente cannot indeed be ranked among the number of these essential episodes, but the charming story of the shepherdess Marcela, the history of Dorothea, and the history of the rich Camacho and the poor Basilio, are unquestionably connected with the interest of the whole.

IV centenary of Don Quixote of La Mancha (1605-2005)
IV centenary of Don Quixote of La Mancha (1605-2005)

These serious romantic parts, which are not, it is true, essential to the narrative connection, but strictly belong to the characteristic dignity of the whole picture[citation needed], also prove how far Cervantes was from the idea usually attributed to him of writing a book merely to entice laughter. The passages, which common readers feel inclined to pass over[citation needed], are, in general, precisely those in which Cervantes is most decidedly a poet, and for which he has manifested an evident predilection. On such occasions, he also introduces among his prose, episodical verses, for the most part excellent in their kind and no translator can omit them without doing violence to the spirit of the original. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2256 KB) Description: Part of a monument to Don Quijote de la Mancha Subject: IV centenary of Don Quitote de la Mancha (1605-2005) Place : Calle Mayor City : Alcalá de Henares Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2256 KB) Description: Part of a monument to Don Quijote de la Mancha Subject: IV centenary of Don Quitote de la Mancha (1605-2005) Place : Calle Mayor City : Alcalá de Henares Country : Spain Photographer: © Manuel González Olaechea y Franco...


Were it not for the creative spirit with which Cervantes has contrived to preserve an intermediate tone between pure poetry and prose, Don Quixote would not deserve to be cited as the first classic model of the modern romance or novel. It is, however, fully entitled to that distinction. Cervantes was the first writer who formed the genuine romance of modern times on the model of the original chivalrous romance of the Middle Ages. The result has proved that modern literary style, however readily it may in other respects conform to the rules of the antique, nevertheless requires, in the narration of fictitious events, a certain union of poetry with prose, which was unknown to the Greeks and Romans at their height of creativity[citation needed]. It was only necessary to seize on the right tone, but that was a point of delicacy, which the inventors of romances of chivalry were not able to comprehend. The anonymous author of Lazarillo de Tormes, departed too far from poetry. Cervantes, in his Don Quixote restored to the poetic art the place it was entitled to hold in this class of writing; and he must not be blamed if cultivated nations have subsequently mistaken the true spirit of this work, because their own novelists had led them to regard common prose as the style peculiarly suited to romance composition. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Don Quixote is, moreover, the undoubted prototype of the comic novel. The humorous situations are, it is true, almost all burlesque, which was certainly not necessary, but the satire is frequently so delicate, that it escapes rather than obtrudes on unpracticed attention; as for example, in the whole picture of the administration of Sancho Panza in his imaginary island. The language, even in the description of the most burlesque situations, never degenerates into vulgarity; it is on the contrary, throughout the whole work, so noble, correct and highly polished, that it would not disgrace even an ancient classic of the first rank[citation needed]. This explanation of a part of the merits of a work, which has been so often wrongly judged, may perhaps seem to belong rather to the eulogist than the calm and impartial historian. Let those who may be inclined to form this opinion study Don Quixote in the original language, and study it rightly, for it is not a book to be judged by a superficial perusal[citation needed]. But care must be taken lest the intervention of many subordinate traits, which were intended to have only a transient national interest, should produce an error in the estimate of the whole. By the 20th century it became clear that Don Quixote was the first true modern novel, a systemical and structural masterpiece. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Don Quixote is one of the Encyclopedia Britannica's "Great Books of the Western World" and the Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky called it "the ultimate and most sublime word of human thinking". The Great Books Great Books of the Western World is a series of books originally published in the United States in 1952 by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ...


Novelas ejemplares

It would be scarcely possible to arrange the other works of Cervantes according to a critical judgment of their importance; for the merits of some consist in the admirable finish of the whole, while others exhibit the impress of genius in the invention, or some other individual feature.


A distinguished place must, however, be assigned to the Novelas ejemplares[14] ("Moral or Instructive Tales"). They are unequal in merit as well as in character. Cervantes doubtless intended that they should be to the Spaniards nearly what the novellas of Boccaccio were to the Italians, some are mere anecdotes, some are romances in miniature, some are serious, some comic, and all are written in a light, smooth, conversational style. A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... Giovanni Boccaccio (June 16, 1313 – December 21, 1375) was an Italian author and poet, a friend and correspondent of Petrarch, an important Renaissance humanist in his own right and author of a number of notable works including On Famous Women, the Decameron and his poetry in the vernacular. ...


Four of them are perhaps of less interest than the rest: El amante liberal, La señora Cornelia, Las dos doncellas and La española inglesa. The theme common to these is basically the traditional one of the Byzantine novel: pairs of lovers separated by lamentable and complicated happenings are finally reunited and find the happiness they have longed for. The heroines are all of most perfect beauty and of sublime morality; they and their lovers are capable of the highest sacrifices, and they exert their souls in the effort to elevate themselves to the ideal of moral and aristocratic distinction which illuminates their lives. Under the Comnenian dynasty, Byzantine writers of twelfth century Constantinople reintroduced the ancient Greek romance novel, imitating its form and time period but Christianizing its content. ...


In El amante liberal, to cite an example, the beautiful Leonisa and her lover Ricardo are carried off by Turkish pirates; both fight against serious material and moral dangers; Ricardo conquers all obstacles, returns to his homeland with Leonisa, and is ready to renounce his passion and to hand Leonisa over to her former lover in an outburst of generosity; but Leonisa's preference naturally settles on Ricardo in the end.


Another group of "exemplary" novels is formed by La fuerza de la sangre, La ilustre fregona, La gitanilla, and El celoso extremeño. The first three offer examples of love and adventure happily resolved, while the last unravels itself tragically. Its plot deals with the old Felipe Carrizales, who, after traveling widely and becoming rich in America, decides to marry, taking all the precautions necessary to forestall being deceived. He weds a very young girl and isolates her from the world by having her live in a house with no windows facing the street; but in spite of his defensive measures, a bold youth succeeds in penetrating the fortress of conjugal honor, and one day Carrizales surprises his wife in the arms of her seducer. Surprisingly enough he pardons the adulterers, recognizing that he is more to blame than they, and dies of sorrow over the grievous error he has committed. Cervantes here deviated from literary tradition, which demanded the death of the adulterers, but he transformed the punishment inspired by the social ideal of honour into a criticism of the responsibility of the individual. For other uses, see Honour (disambiguation). ...


Rinconete y Cortadillo, El casamiento engañoso, El licenciado Vidriera and El coloquio de los perros, four works of art which are concerned more with the personalities of the characters who figure in them than with the subject matter, form the final group of these stories. The protagonists are two young vagabonds, Rincón and Cortado; Lieutenant Campuzano; a student, Tomás Rodaja, who goes mad and believes himself to have been changed into a witty man of glass, offering Cervantes the opportunity to chain witty jokes; and finally two dogs, Cipión and Berganza, whose wandering existence serves as a mirror for the most varied aspects of Spanish life. Rinconete y Cortadillo is one of the most delightful of Cervantes' works. Its two young vagabonds come to Seville attracted by the riches and disorder that the sixteenth-century commerce with the Americas had brought to that metropolis. There they come into contact with a brotherhood of thieves led by the unforgettable Monipodio, whose house is the headquarters of the Sevillian underworld. Under the bright Andalusian sky, people and objects take form with the brilliance and subtle drama of a Velazquez, and a distant and discreet irony endows the figures, insignificant in themselves, as they move within a ritual pomp that is in sharp contrast with their morally deflated lives. When Monipodio appears, serious and solemn among his silent subordinates, "all who were looking at him performed a deep, protracted bow." Rincón and Cortado had initiated their mutual friendship beforehand "with saintly and praiseworthy ceremonies." The solemn ritual of this band of ruffians is all the more comic for being concealed in Cervantes' drily humorous style. For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Las Meninas, painted in 1656. ...


Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda

Frontispiece of Persiles and Segismunda.
Frontispiece of Persiles and Segismunda.

The romance of Persiles and Sigismunda, which Cervantes finished shortly before his death, must be regarded as an interesting appendix to his other works. The language and the whole composition of the story exhibit the purest simplicity, combined with singular precision and polish. The idea of this romance was not new, and scarcely deserved to be reproduced in a new manner. But it appears that Cervantes, at the close of his glorious career, took a fancy to imitate Heliodorus. He has maintained the interest of the situations, but the whole work is merely a romantic description of travels, rich enough in fearful adventures, both by sea and land. Real and fabulous geography and history are mixed together in an absurd and monstrous manner; and the second half of the romance, in which the scene is transferred to Spain and Italy, does not exactly harmonize with the spirit of the first half. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Several persons named Heliodorus are known to us from ancient times, the best known of which is Heliodorus of Emesa, author of the novel Aethiopica. ...


Poetry

Some of his poems are found in La Galatea. He also wrote Dos canciones a la armada invencible. His best work, however, is found in the sonnets, particularly Al túmulo del rey Felipe en Sevilla. Among his most important poems, Canto de Calíope, Epístola a Mateo Vázquez, and the Viaje del Parnaso (Journey to Parnassus), (1614) stand out. The latter is his most ambitious work in verse, an allegory which consists largely of reviews of contemporary poets. La Galatea was Cervantes first full-length puplication, published in 1585, soon after his return from Algiers in the custody of Barbary pirates. ... This article is about the sonnet form of poetry. ... Frontispiece of the 1614 edition. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...


Compared to his ability as a novelist, Cervantes is often considered an mediocre poet, although he himself always harbored a hope that he would be recognized for having poetic gifts.


Viaje del Parnaso

Frontispiece of the Viaje (1614).
Frontispiece of the Viaje (1614).

The prose of the Galatea, which is in other respects so beautiful, is occasionally overloaded with epithet. Cervantes displays a totally different kind of poetic talent in the Viaje del Parnaso, a work which cannot properly be ranked in any particular class of literary composition, but which, next to Don Quixote, is considered by a few the most exquisite production of its author. Many critics, however, would argue with that, citing the Novelas ejemplares and the Entemeses as the finest examples of his work next to Don Quixote. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 377 × 599 pixels Full resolution (463 × 736 pixel, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Miguel de Cervantes Viaje del... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 377 × 599 pixels Full resolution (463 × 736 pixel, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Miguel de Cervantes Viaje del... Frontispiece of the 1614 edition. ...


Plays

Comparisons have also diminished the reputation of his plays, but two of them, El trato de Argel and La Numancia, (1582), made a big impact and were not surpassed until Lope de Vega appeared. La numancia is a play by Miguel de Cervantes ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... Lope de Vega Lope de Vega (also Félix Lope de Vega Carpio or Lope Félix de Vega Carpio) (25 November 1562 – 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright and poet. ...


The first of these is written in five acts; based on his experiences as a Moorish captive, Cervantes dealt with the life of Christian slaves in Algiers. The other play, Numancia is a description of the siege of Numantia by the Romans stuffed with horrors and described as utterly devoid of the requisites of dramatic art. For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ...


Cervantes's later production consists of 16 dramatic works, among which are eight full-length plays:


El gallardo español, Los baños de Argel, La gran sultana, Doña Catalina de Oviedo, La casa de los celos, El laberinto de amor, the cloak and dagger play La Entretenida, El rufián dichoso, and finally, Pedro de Urdemalas, a sensitive play about a picaro who joins a group of Gypsies for love of a girl.


He also wrote eight short farces (entremeses) : El juez de los divorcios, El rufián viudo llamado Trampagos, La elección de los alcaldes de Daganzo, La guarda cuidadosa (The Vigilant Sentinel), El vizcaíno fingido, El retablo de las maravillas, La cueva de Salamanca, and El viejo celoso (The Jealous Old Man).


These plays and entremeses made up Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses nuevos, nunca representados (Eight Comedies and Eight New Interludes, Never Before Acted) , which appeared in 1615. Cervantes's entremeses, whose dates and order of composition are not known, must not have been performed in their time. Faithful to the spirit of Lope de Rueda, Cervantes endowed them with novelistic elements such as simplified plot, the type of description normally associated with the novel, and character development. The dialogue is sensitive and agile. Events June 2 - First Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, from Rouen, France. ...


Cervantes includes some of his dramas among those productions with which he was himself most satisfied; and he seems to have regarded them with self-complacency in proportion to their neglect by the public. This conduct has sometimes been attributed to a spirit of contradiction, and sometimes to vanity. That the penetrating and profound Cervantes should have so mistaken the limits of his dramatic talent, would not be sufficiently accounted for, had he not unquestionably proved by his tragedy of Numantia how pardonable was the self-deception of which he could not divest himself.


Cervantes was entitled to consider himself endowed with a genius for dramatic poetry; but he could not preserve his independence in the conflict he had to maintain with the conditions required by the Spanish public in dramatic composition; and when he sacrificed his independence, and submitted to rules imposed by others, his invention and language were reduced to the level of a poet of inferior talent. The intrigues, adventures and surprises, which in that age characterized the Spanish drama, were ill suited to the genius of Cervantes. His natural style was too profound and precise to be reconciled to fantastical ideas, expressed in irregular verse. But he was Spaniard enough to be gratified with dramas, which, as a poet, he could not imitate; and he imagined himself capable of imitating them, because he would have shone in another species of dramatic composition, had the public taste accommodated itself to his genius.


La Numancia

Main article: La Numancia

This play is a dramatization of the long and brutal siege of the Celtiberian town Numantia, Hispania, by the Roman forces of Scipio Africanus. La numancia is a play by Miguel de Cervantes ... Main language areas in Iberia circa 200 BC. The Celtiberians (or Celt-Iberians)[1] were a Celtic people of late La Tène culture living in the Iberian Peninsula, chiefly in what is now north central Spain and northern Portugal, before and during the Roman Empire. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (235–183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ...


Cervantes invented along with the subject of his piece a peculiar style of tragic composition, and in doing so, he did not pay much regard to the theory of Aristotle. His object was to produce a piece full of tragic situations, combined with the charm of the marvellous. In order to accomplish this goal, Cervantes relied heavily on allegory and on mythological elements.


The tragedy is written in conformity with no rules save those which the author prescribed to himself; for he felt no inclination to imitate the Greek forms. The play is divided into four acts, (jornadas) and no chorus is introduced. The dialogue is sometimes in tercets and sometimes in redondillas, and for the most part in octaves without any regard to rule, except that he loved weenerz.


Cervantes' historical importance and influence

Cervantes: Image from a 19th century German book on the history of literature
Cervantes: Image from a 19th century German book on the history of literature

Cervantes' novel Don Quixote has had a tremendous influence on the development of prose fiction; it has been translated into all major languages and has appeared in 700 editions. The first translation was in English, made by Thomas Shelton in 1608, but not published until 1612. Shakespeare had evidently read Don Quixote, but it is most unlikely that Cervantes had ever heard of Shakespeare. Carlos Fuentes raised the possibility that Cervantes and Shakespeare were the same person (see Shakespearean authorship question). Francis Carr has suggested that Francis Bacon wrote Shakespeare's plays and Don Quixote.[15] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1368 × 1710 pixel, file size: 572 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Portrait of Miguel Cervantes de Saavedra Image from Book: Otto von Leixner Geschichte der fremden Literaturen - zweiter Teil (History of foreign literatures - second Part), Publisher Otto... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1368 × 1710 pixel, file size: 572 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Portrait of Miguel Cervantes de Saavedra Image from Book: Otto von Leixner Geschichte der fremden Literaturen - zweiter Teil (History of foreign literatures - second Part), Publisher Otto... Thomas Shelton (fl. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (born November 11, 1928) is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. ... The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays. ... Francis Carr (December 6, 1751 - October 6, 1821) was a U.S. Representative from Massachusetts, father of James Carr. ... For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ...


Don Quixote has been the subject of a variety of works in other fields of art, including operas by the Italian composer Giovanni Paisiello, the French Jules Massenet, and the Spanish Manuel de Falla; a Russian ballet by the Russian-German composer Ludwig Minkus; a tone poem by the German composer Richard Strauss; a German film (1933) directed by G. W. Pabst; a Soviet film (1957) directed by Grigori Kozintsev; a ballet (1965) with choreography by George Balanchine - no relation to the one by Minkus; and an American musical, Man of La Mancha (1965), by Dale Wasserman, Mitch Leigh, and Joe Darion. Man of La Mancha was made into a film in 1972, directed by Arthur Hiller. Paisiello at the clavichord, by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, 1791. ... Jules Massenet Jules (Émile Frédéric) Massenet (May 12, 1842 – August 13, 1912) was a French composer. ... Manuel de Falla y Matheu (November 23, 1876 – November 14, 1946) was a Spanish composer of classical music. ... Maestro Ludwig Minkus, Paris, circa 1870. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Georg Wilhelm Pabst (August 25, 1885 - May 29, 1967) was a film director. ... Grigori Mikhailovich Kozintsev (Russian: ; Kiev, 22 March (O.S. 9 March) 1905 – Leningrad, now Saint Petersburg, 11 May 1973) was a Soviet Russian film director. ... George Balanchine (January 9 (O.S.) = January 22 (N.S.), 1904–April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th centurys foremost choreographers, and one of the founders of American ballet. ... Man of La Mancha is a 1965 Broadway musical in one act which tells the story of the classic novel Don Quixote as a play within a play, performed by Miguel de Cervantes and his fellow prisoners as he awaits a hearing with the Spanish Inquisition. ... Dale Wasserman, a prolific writer of drama, admits to little more than being born (1917). ... Mitch Leigh (born January 30, 1928 in Brooklyn, New York) is a Jewish-American writer of musical theatre and theatrical producer best known for the show Man Of La Mancha. ... Arthur Hiller, O.C. (born November 22, 1923 in Edmonton, Alberta) is an Oscar-nominated Canadian film director. ...


Don Quixote 's influence can be seen in the work of Smollett, Defoe, Fielding, and Sterne, as well as in the classic 19th-century novelists Scott, Dickens, Flaubert, Melville, and Dostoevsky, and in the works of James Joyce and Jorge Luis Borges.The theme also inspired the 19th-century French artists Honoré Daumier and Gustave Doré. Tobias Smollett Tobias George Smollett (March 19, 1721 - September 17, 1771) was a Scottish author, best known for his picaresque novels, such as Roderick Random and Peregrine Pickle. ... Daniel Defoe (1659/1661 [?] â€“ April 24 [?], 1731)[1] was a British writer, journalist, and spy, who gained enduring fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. ... Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... Laurence Sterne Laurence Sterne (November 24, 1713 – March 18, 1768) was an Irish-born English novelist and an Anglican clergyman. ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ... Dickens redirects here. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Borges redirects here. ... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ...


The Euro coins of €0.10, €0.20 and €0.50 made for Spain bear his portrait and signature. For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Ethnic and religious heritage

Cervantes has been declared an Old Christian (pure blood), New Christian (converso), secularist, and Christian humanist. Old Christian (cristiano viejo in Spanish, cristão novo in Portuguese) was a social and law-effective category used in the Iberian Peninsula from the late 15th and early 16th century onwards, to distinguish Portuguese and Spanish attested as having cleanliness of blood from the populations categorized as New Christian... The term New Christian (cristianos nuevos in Spanish, cristãos novos in Portuguese) was used to refer to the Jews and Moors who were converted to Christianity and their baptized descendants. ... Look up Humanist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


New Christians were called so for their - or their elder's- recent conversion to Christian faith, and were suspected of secretly practising Judaism. Jews had been expelled from Spain and all Spanish domains by the Catholic Kings in 1492, and those who stayed had to forcibly become baptised. Nevertheless, those Jews who remained as New Christians were always suspected of continuing their Jewish religious practices, and therefore, were constantly under the eye of the Inquisition. Jews were not allowed the property of any land, and suffered significant legal discrimination. Thus, they could only earn a living by trade or skill. Any gentleman who wanted to prosper in the social scale, or gain privileges - nobility was tax free - had to prove his purity of blood, and that gave the status of Old Christian important economic, legal and social consequences.


Purporters of the New Christian theory, established by Americo Castro, often suggest it to be on Cervantes' mother's side. The theory is almost exclusively supported by circumstantial evidence but would "explain" some mysteries of Cervantes' life.[16] It has been supported by authors such as Anthony Cascardi and Caravaggio. Others, such as Claudio Albornoz or Francisco Olmos Garcia, who considers it a "tired issue" only supported by Americo Castro, reject the theory strongly. [17] Américo Castro Y Quesada (1885–1972) was a Spanish cultural historian, philologist, and literary critic who challenged some of the prevailing notions of Spanish identity, raising heated controversy with his conclusions that (1) Spaniards didnt become the distinct group they are today until after the Islamic conquest of...


The second origin theory suggests Cervantes is of Old Christian stock. Most of the evidence for this is supported by documentary evidence but does not help fill the gaps of some of the personality and life aspects and virtues of Cervantes, as well as the New Christian theory does. However, it must be noted that the only surviving document addressing Cervantes pedigree is the 1569 "Informacion de la limpieza de Miguel de Cervantes, estante en Roma" which addresses Cervantes directly as an Old Christian.[18] Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ...


Notes

a. ^  The most reliable and accurate portrait of the writer to date is that provided by Cervantes himself in the Exemplary Novels (translated by Walter K. Kelly):[19]

This person whom you see here, with an oval visage, chestnut hair, smooth open forehead, lively eyes, a hooked but well-proportioned nose, and silvery beard that twenty years ago was golden, large moustaches, a small mouth, teeth not much to speak of, for he has but six, in bad condition and worse placed, no two of them corresponding to each other, a figure midway between the two extremes, neither tall nor short, a vivid complexion, rather fair than dark, somewhat stooped in the shoulders, and not very lightfooted: this, I say, is the author of Galatea, Don Quixote de la Mancha, The Journey to Parnassus, which he wrote in imitation of Cesare Caporali Perusino, and other works which are current among the public, and perhaps without the author's name. He is commonly called MIGUEL DE CERVANTES SAAVEDRA.
 
— Miguel de Cervantes, Exemplary Novels (Author's Preface)

b. ^  His signature spells Cerbantes with a b but he is now known after the spelling Cervantes used by the printers of his works. Saavedra was the surname of a distant relative that Cervantes adopted as his second surname after his return from Barbary Coast.[20] The earliest documents signed with Cervantes' two names (Cervantes Saavedra) appear several years after his repatriation. Cervantes began adding the second surname Saavedra (a name that did not correspond to his immediate family) to his patronymic in 1586-1587, in official documents related to his marriage to Catalina de Salazar.[21] Ortega addresses the UN General Assembly Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born 11 November 1945) was President of Nicaragua from 1985 to 1990, during the Sandinista government, and is currently the leader of the Sandinista party. ... The Barbary Coast, or Barbary, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the 19th century to refer to the coastal regions of what is now Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. ...


c. ^  The only evidence is a statement by Professor Tomas González, that he once saw an old entry of the matriculation of a Miguel de Cervantes.[22] No subsequent scholar has been successful in verifying this statement. In any case, there were at least two other Miguels born about the middle of the century.


d. ^  "He" refers to the writer of a spurious Part II of Don Quixote (Second Volume of the Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha) known under the pseudonym Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda. Avellaneda had referred to Cervantes as an "old and one-handed" man. For other uses, see Alias. ... In 1614, a sequel to Cervantes Don Quixote was published under the pseudonym Alonso Fernándo de Avellaneda. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c "Cervantes, Miguel de". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002). 
  2. ^ Fuentes, Carlos. Myself with Others: Selected Essays. (1988).
  3. ^ William Byron, "Cervantes. A Biography," Doubleday & Company: Garden City, NY, 1978, pp. 23-32.
  4. ^ "Cervantes, Miguel de". The Encyclopedia Americana. (1994). 
  5. ^ 'The Enigma of Cervantine Genealogy, 118
  6. ^ F.A. de Armas, Cervantes and the Italian Renaissance, 32
    * F.A. de Armas, Quixotic Frescoes, 5
  7. ^ F.A. de Armas, Cervantes and the Italian Renaissance, 33
  8. ^ J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, The Life of Cervantes, 9
  9. ^ M.A. Garcés, Cervantes in Algiers, 220
  10. ^ J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, The Life of Cervantes, 41
  11. ^ M.A. Garcés, Cervantes in Algiers, 236
  12. ^ C. Calvo, Shakespeare and Cervantes in 1916, 78.
  13. ^ World Book and Copyright Day — April 23, 2006, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
  14. ^ The Spanish title of novela is misleading. In modern Spanish it means "novel", but Cervantes used it meaning the Italian shorter novellas.
  15. ^ Francis Carr, Who Wrote Don Quixote? (London: Xlibris Corporation, 2004).
  16. ^ Cervantes: A Biography by William Byron, Pg 32
  17. ^ Cervantes and His Postmodern Constituencies by Anne J. Cruz, Carroll B. Johnson, Pg 116
  18. ^ Cervantes and His Postmodern Constituencies by Anne J. Cruz, Carroll B. Johnson, Pg 117
  19. ^ M. de Cervantes, The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Exemplary Novels of Cervantes
  20. ^ M.A. Garcés, Cervantes in Algiers, 191-192
    * C. Slade, Introduction, xxiv
  21. ^ M.A. Garcés, Cervantes in Algiers, 191-192
  22. ^ J. Fitzmaurice-Kelly, The Life of Cervantes, 9
    * J. Ormsby, About Cervantes and Don Quixote

For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ...

Bibliography

Printed sources

  • Armas, Frederick A. de (2002). "Cervantes and the Italian Renaissance", The Cambridge Companion to Cervantes By Anthony Joseph Cascardi. Cambridge University. ISBN 0-521-66387-3. 
  • Armas, Frederick A. de (2006). "The Exhilaration of Italy", Quixotic Frescoes: Cervantes and Italian Renaissance Art. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-802-09074-5. 
  • "Cervantes, Miguel de". The Encyclopedia Americana. (1994). Grolier Incorporated. 
  • "Cervantes, Miguel de". Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2002). 
  • Calvo, Clara (2004). "Shakespeare and Cervantes in 1916: The Politics of Language", Shifting the Scene: Shakespeare in European Culture By Ladina Bezzola Lambert, Balz Engler. University of Delaware Press. ISBN 0-874-13860-4. 
  • Fitzmaurice-Kelly, James (2005). "The Youth of Cervantes", The Life of Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1-417-97000-6. 
  • Garcés, María Antonia (2002). "An Erotics of Creation", Cervantes in Algiers: a Captive's Tale. Vanderbilt University Press. ISBN 0-826-51470-7. 
  • Lokos, Ellen (1998). "The Politics of Identity and the Enigma of Cervantine Genealogy", Cervantes and his Postomodern Consituencies by Ann J. Cruz. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-815-33206-8. 
  • Qualia, Charles B. (Januar 1949). "Cervantes, Soldier and Humanist". The South Central Bulletin 9 (No.1): 1+10-11. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 

Online sources

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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Miguel de Cervantes
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Miguel de Cervantes
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Persondata
NAME Cervantes, Miguel de
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de; De Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel
SHORT DESCRIPTION Spanish novelist, poet and playwright
DATE OF BIRTH September 29, 1547(1547-09-29)
PLACE OF BIRTH Alcalá de Henares, Spain
DATE OF DEATH April 23, 1616
PLACE OF DEATH Madrid, Spain

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Location Location of Alcalá Coordinates : 40º28’N , 3º22’W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Alcalá de Henares (Spanish) Spanish name Alcalá de Henares Founded Preromanian Postal code 28. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1616 (MDCXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Cervantes Project (907 words)
Miguel de Cervantes, born in Alcalá de Henares in 1547, was the son of a surgeon who presented himself as a nobleman, although Cervantes's mother seems to have been a descendant of Jewish converts to Christianity.
Certain recent biographers--such as Andrés Trapiello (Las vidas de Cervantes, Barcelona, 1993) and, not without a hint of scandal, Fernando Arrabal (Un esclavo llamado Cervantes, Paris and Madrid, 1996)--have revived the tradition of romanticized biographies in which the biographer's personality obliterates that of the writer whose life is the supposed subject.
Biography of Miguel de Cervantes by J. Ormsby.
Miguel de Cervantes (3738 words)
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Spanish novelist, playwright and poet, was born at Alcalá de Henares in 1547.
Cervantes became the slave of a Greek renegade named Dali Mami, and, as the letters found on him were taken to prove that he was a man of importance in a position to pay a high ransom, he was put under special surveillance.
Isabel de Saavedra was stated to be a spinster when arrested at Valladolid in June 1605; the settlement of her marriage with Luis de Molina in 1608 describes her as the widow of Diego Sanz, as the mother of a daughter eight months old, and as owning house-property of some value.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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