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Encyclopedia > Migration Period
2nd to 5th century simplified migrations. See also map of the world in AD 820.
2nd to 5th century simplified migrations. See also map of the world in AD 820.

The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions or Völkerwanderung, is a name given by historians to a human migration which occurred within the period of roughly AD 300700 in Europe,[1] marking the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3948x2827, 1311 KB) See also Image:Karte völkerwanderung. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3948x2827, 1311 KB) See also Image:Karte völkerwanderung. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x600, 41 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is a list of historians. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Franks penetrate into northern Belgium (approximate date). ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ...


The migration included the Goths, Vandals, and Franks, among other Germanic, Bulgar and Slavic tribes. The migration may have been triggered by the incursions of the Huns, in turn connected to the Turkic migration in Central Asia, population pressures, or climate changes. Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe which entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


Migrations would continue well beyond 1000 AD, successive waves of Slavs, Alans, Avars, Bulgars, Hungarians, Pechenegs, Cumans, and Tatars radically changing the ethnic makeup of Eastern Europe. Western European historians, however, tend to emphasize the migrations most relevant to Western Europe. Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: Besenyő, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ...

Contents

The modern account

The migration movement may be divided into two phases; the first phase, between AD 300 and 500, largely seen from the Mediterranean perspective, put Germanic peoples in control of most areas of the former Western Roman Empire. (See also: Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Burgundians, Alans, Langobards, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Suebi, Alamanni, Vandals). The first to formally enter Roman territory — as refugees from the Huns — were the Visigoths in 376. Tolerated by the Romans on condition that they defend the Danube frontier, they rebelled, eventually invading Italy and sacking Rome itself (410) before settling in Iberia and founding a 200-year-long kingdom there. They were followed into Roman territory by the Ostrogoths led by Theodoric the Great, settling in Italy itself. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, from which the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Scandinavia that entered the late Roman Empire. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... For the coarse vegetable textile fiber, see Jute. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe which entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Events Visigoths appear on the Danube and request entry into the Roman Empire in their flight from the Huns Births Cyril of Alexandria, theologian Deaths Categories: 376 ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ...


In Gaul, the Franks, a fusion of western Germanic tribes whose leaders had been strongly aligned with Rome, entered Roman lands more gradually and peacefully during the 5th century, and were generally accepted as rulers by the Roman-Gaulish population. Fending off challenges from the Allemanni, Burgundians and Visigoths, the Frankish kingdom became the nucleus of the future states of France and Germany. Meanwhile Roman Britain was more slowly conquered by Angles and Saxons. Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... White cliffs of Dover in England White cliffs of Rugen down the Baltic coast from Schleswig The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestor of Angeln, a modern district located in Schleswig, Germany. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ...


The second phase, between AD 500 and 700, saw Slavic tribes settling in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly in eastern Magna Germania, and gradually making it predominantly Slavic. The Bulgars, who had been present in far eastern Europe since the second century, in the seventh century expanded their kingdom to eastern Balkan territory of the Byzantine Empire. Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... ( 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors ( 96– 180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... ( 6th century - 7th century - 8th century - other centuries) Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Arabs subjugate Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, North Africa and Central Asia to Islam. ... Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Η παλαιά μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles; alternative name: Onoguria/Onoghuria) was a Bulgar state, founded by Kubrat, which briefly existed in the 7th century north of the Caucasus mountains in the steppe between the rivers Dnieper and Lower Volga[1]. // Main article: Kubrat Kubrat (also Kurt or... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


The Arabs tried to invade Europe via Asia Minor in the second half of the seventh century and the early eighth century, but were eventually defeated at the siege of Constantinople by the joint forces of Byzantium and Bulgaria in 717-18. At the same time, they invaded Europe via Gibraltar, conquering Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) from the Visigoths in 711 before finally being halted by the Franks at the Battle of Tours in 732. These battles largely fixed the frontier between Christendom and Islam for the next three centuries. Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... March 21 - Battle of Vincy between Charles Martel and Ragenfrid. ... Events Pelayo established the Kingdom of Asturias in the Iberian peninsula (modern day Portugal and Spain). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... See also: phone number 711. ... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi† Strength Unknown, possibly 20,000 to 30,000 [1] Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[2] mention a figure of 80,000. ...


During the eighth to tenth centuries, not usually counted as part of the Migrations Period but still within the Early Middle Ages, new waves of migration, first of the Magyars and later of the Turkic peoples, as well as Viking expansion from Scandinavia, threatened the newly established order of the Frankish Empire in Central Europe. Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ...


The romantic vision: Völkerwanderung vs. Barbarian Invasions

The German term Völkerwanderung [ˈfœlkɐˌvandəʁʊŋ] ("migration of nations"), is still used as an alternative label for the Migration Period in English-language historiography.[2].


However, the term Völkerwanderung is also strongly associated with a certain romantic historical style which has strong roots in the German-speaking world of the 19th century, perhaps associated with the same cultural process which included the music of Wagner and the writings of Nietzsche and Goethe. Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe, during the Industrial Revolution. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ...


The Völkerwanderung, the forceful expansion of the Germanic tribes into France, England, Northern Italy and Iberia, is seen an indication of cultural energy and dynamism. This analysis became associated with nineteenth century German Romantic nationalism. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Northern Italy encompasses nine of the countrys 20 autonomous regions: Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Liguria Lombardia Piemonte Toscana Trentino-Alto Adige Valle dAosta Veneto Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige and Valle dAosta are regions with a special statute. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Even the term "barbarian invasion" is still in use in some English works;[3] It has its roots in the Latin point of view about the migration period: if Germans and Slavic peoples use the term "migration" (Völkerwanderung in German, Stěhování národů in Czech, etc.), in cultures that are heirs to Latin language (French, Italians, Spanish, etc.), these migrations are called "barbarian invasions" (e.g. the Italian term "Invasioni Barbariche"). Barbarian historically has the neutral meaning of "foreigner"[4] but it also has a pejorative meaning of "uncivilized" and "cruel", making it problematic as a neutral historical descriptor. Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Even the old romantic vision of the Migration age differs between differing cultures: on one side the 'Völkerwanderung': the myth of young and vigorous people who succeeded the old and decadent Roman society; on the other side there is the stereotype of uncivilized and savage 'barbarians', who destroyed the highly developed Roman Civilization, starting a Dark Age of disorder and violence. See also Decadent movement Decadence refers to a personal trait and, much more commonly, to a state of society. ...


Today, the notion of the "invasions" of pre-Romantic-generation historians has also fallen out of favour: many scholars today hold that a great deal of the migration did not represent hostile invasion so much as tribes taking the opportunity to enter and settle lands already thinly populated and weakly held by a divided Roman state whose economy was shrinking at a time when the climate was cooling.


While there were certainly battles, and sieges of cities, and death of innocent civilians fought between the tribes and the Roman peoples (the Roman empire had no standing army at the time, so battles were fought primarily between Germanic warriors and Roman citizens), the migration period did not see the kind of wholesale destruction carried out in later centuries by the Mongols or by industrial-era armies. Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million...


However, this viewpoint is not widely shared by historians in Italy and some other nations around the world[attribution needed]. The Germanic invasions are still viewed by them as a time of great destruction and violence -- a view that is supported by some archaeological evidence[citation needed]. The multiple invasions and raids led by the Germanic tribes resulted in large numbers of refugees fleeing cities and the countryside. The migration period in Italy was devastating and severe[citation needed].


Migration period

In reaction to the above, twentieth-century English-language historiography largely abandoned the German and Latin terms, replacing them with the more neutral "Migration Period", as in the series Studies in Historical Archaeoethnology or Gyula László's The Art of the Migration Period.


Timeline


Notes

  1. ^ Precise dates given may vary; often cited is 410, the sack of Rome by Alaric I and 751, the accession of Pippin the Short and the establishment of the Carolingian Dynasty.
  2. ^ "Jene Epoche, in der sich der Übergang von der Spätantike zum Frühmittelalter vollzog, wird in der deutschen Wissenschaftssprache traditionell als 'Völkerwanderungszeit' bezeichnet."; "This epoch, in which the transition from Late Antiquity to the early Middle Ages took place, is traditionally called "Völkerwanderungszeit", or "migration time", in the German scientific language". Manuel Koch, "Das Reich der Vandalen und seine Vorgeschichte(n) ("The empire of the vandals and its prehistory") (on-line (in German))
  3. ^ "Barbarian Invasions" is still a commonly used and accepted term for this period. See for example Katherine Fischer Drew, "Barbarians, Invasions Of" in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, edited by Joseph Strayer, Vol.2 1983
  4. ^ a) Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th Ed., Vol. 20 (Macropædia), page 742, right column, line 57 ff. (Chicago, 1989). b) Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary, page 149, voice "Barbarian" (New York, 1983)

Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... Events Pippin the Short is elected as king of the Franks by the Frankish nobility, marking the end of the Merovingian and beginning of the Carolingian dynasty. ... Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Dictionary of the Middle Ages: Supplement 1 (2003) The Dictionary of the Middle Ages is a 13-volume encyclopedia of the Middle Ages published by the American Council of Learned Societies between 1982 and 1989, with a supplemental volume added in 2003. ... Joseph Strayer (1904-1987) was an influential 20th century American medieval historian and student of Charles H. Haskins. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... 1888 advertisement for Websters Dictionary Websters Dictionary is the common title given to English language dictionaries in the United States, derived from American lexicographer Noah Webster. ...

See also

Ancient Germanic culture Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... The Origin and Deeds of the Goths (Latin: De origine actibusque Getarum), commonly referred to as Getica, was written by Jordanes, probably in Constantinople, and was published in AD 551. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... The Goths, Gepids, Vandals, and Burgundians were East Germanic groups who appear in Roman records in Late Antiquity. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... Reidgotaland, Hreidgotaland or Hreiðgotaland was a land in Scandinavian mythology. ... Gravegoods from various North French and Rhineland sites, up to the 6th c. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of...

References

  • J.B. Bury (1923). History of the Later Roman Empire. Available online.

John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ...


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