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Encyclopedia > Midwestern United States
Regional definitions vary from source to source. The red states shown are usually included, while all or portions of the striped states may or may not be considered part of the Midwestern United States. Kentucky and West Virginia are generally included in the South and Pennsylvania is usually included in the Mid-Atlantic, but regions of these states are often included in the Midwest in maps, descriptions, and cultural delineations.
Regional definitions vary from source to source. The red states shown are usually included, while all or portions of the striped states may or may not be considered part of the Midwestern United States. Kentucky and West Virginia are generally included in the South and Pennsylvania is usually included in the Mid-Atlantic, but regions of these states are often included in the Midwest in maps, descriptions, and cultural delineations.[1][2]
The Midwest in the 4-region division of the US
The Midwest in the 4-region division of the US

The Midwestern United States (or Midwest or Middle West) is an informal name for a group of north-central states of the United States of America, usually including Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.[3] A 2006 Census Bureau estimate put the population at 66,217,736. Both the geographic center of the contiguous U.S. and the population center of the U.S. are in the Midwest. The United States Census Bureau divides this region into the East North Central States (essentially the Great Lakes States); and the West North Central States. Image File history File links US_map-Midwest. ... Image File history File links US_map-Midwest. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (916x699, 107 KB) Summary Map of U.S. Census Regions and Divisions. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (916x699, 107 KB) Summary Map of U.S. Census Regions and Divisions. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Dakotan Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A tourist enjoys his trip to the marker located near Lebanon, Kansas, USA A small chapel and picnic ground are located adjacent the marker The Geographic Center of the Contiguous United States is pinpointed by a historical marker that is located within a small park near the town of Lebanon... The mean center of U.S. population is determined by the United States Census Bureau after tabulating the results of each census. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The East North Central States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States which are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. ... The Great Lakes states of the U.S. are colored red in this map. ... The West North Central States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by that countrys census bureau. ...


Chicago is the largest city in the region, followed by Detroit and Indianapolis. Other cities in the region include Bismarck, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Des Moines, Fargo, Fort Wayne, Grand Rapids, Kansas City, Lincoln, Madison, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Omaha, Rapid City, Sioux Falls, St. Louis, Toledo and Wichita. Sault Ste. Marie is the oldest city in the region having been founded in 1668--more than 30 years before Detroit, over 120 years prior to Cleveland, and more than 160 years prior to Chicago. For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Detroit redirects here. ... Indianapolis redirects here. ... Location of Bismarck in Burleigh County, North Dakota Coordinates: , Country State County Burleigh Founded 1872 Government  - Mayor John Warford Area  - City 27. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Fairfield, Delaware Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City 212. ... “Des Moines” redirects here. ... “Fargo” redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Room for Dreams Location in the state of Indiana, USA Coordinates: , Country United States State Indiana County Allen French settlement 1680s Founding October 22, 1794 Incorporated (town) 1829 Incorporated (city) February 22, 1840 Founder Jean François Hamtramck Named for Gen. ... Grand Rapids redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Nickname: Location in Nebraska Coordinates: , Country   State     County United States   Nebraska     Lancaster Founded[1]   Renamed   Incorporated 1856   July 29, 1867   April 1, 1869 Government  - Mayor Chris Beutler Area  - City 195. ... For other uses, see Madison (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... Minneapolis redirects here. ... Omaha redirects here. ... Rapid City is a city located in the western part of South Dakota and is second largest city in the state of South Dakota after Sioux Falls. ... Nickname: Motto: Gateway to the Plains Location in Minnehaha County and the state of South Dakota Counties (metropolitan area) Government  - Mayor Dave Munson Area  - City 178. ... St. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio Location of Toledo within Lucas County, Ohio. ... For other uses, see Wichita (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Sault Ste. ... Detroit redirects here. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ...


The term Midwest has been in common use for over 100 years. Other designations for the region have fallen into disuse, such as the "Northwest" or "Old Northwest" (from Northwest Territory), "Mid-America," or "Heartland". Since the book Middletown appeared in 1929, sociologists have often used Midwestern cities, and the Midwest generally, as "typical" of the entire nation.[4] The Midwest region of the United States has a higher employment to population ratio (the percentage of employed people at least 16 years old) than the Northeast, the West, the South, or the Sun Belt states.[5] The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. ... Heartland is a most often a geopolitical term, often used to refer to a central area of Eurasia that is remote and inaccessible from the periphery. ... The Middletown studies refer to a classic sociological case study of a city in Indiana, as contained in two books by Robert Staughton Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd: Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture, published in 1929. ... The Sun Belt, highlighted in red This article is about the region of the United States. ...

Contents

Definition

Midwest as shown by U.S. Census Bureau official map from [3]
Midwest as shown by U.S. Census Bureau official map from [3]

Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance "Old Northwest" states and many states that were part of the Louisiana Purchase. The states of the Old Northwest are also known as "Great Lakes states". Many of the Louisiana Purchase states are also known as Great Plains states. Image File history File links Midwest6. ... Image File history File links Midwest6. ... The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. ... The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km²) of French territory (Louisiana) in 1803. ... The Great Lakes states of the U.S. are colored red in this map. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ...


The North Central Region, is defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as these 12 states: For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...

  • Illinois: Old Northwest, Ohio River, and Great Lakes state.
  • Indiana: Old Northwest, Ohio River, and Great Lakes state.
  • Iowa: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains state.
  • Kansas: Louisiana Purchase, Border state, Great Plains state.
  • Michigan: Old Northwest and Great Lakes state.
  • Minnesota: Old Northwest and Great Lakes state; western part Louisiana Purchase.
  • Missouri: Louisiana Purchase, Border state, Great Plains state.
  • Nebraska: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains state.
  • North Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains state .
  • Ohio: Old Northwest (Historic Connecticut Western Reserve), Ohio River, and Great Lakes state. Also a Northeastern Appalachian state in the southeast.
  • South Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains state.
  • Wisconsin: Old Northwest and Great Lakes state.

This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Dakotan Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Connecticuts land claims in the West The Connecticut Western Reserve was land claimed by Connecticut in the Northwest Territory in what is now northeastern Ohio. ... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Physical geography

These states are generally perceived as being relatively flat. That is true of several areas, but there is a measure of geographical variation. In particular, the eastern Midwest lying near the foothills of the Appalachians, the Great Lakes Basin, and northern parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa demonstrate a high degree of topographical variety. Prairies cover most of the states west of the Mississippi River with the exception of eastern Minnesota and the Ozark Mountains of southern Missouri. Illinois lies within an area called the "prairie peninsula," an eastward extension of prairies that borders deciduous forests to the north, east, and south. Rainfall decreases from east to west, resulting in different types of prairies, with the tallgrass prairie in the wetter eastern region, mixed-grass prairie in the central Great Plains, and shortgrass prairie towards the rain shadow of the Rockies. Today, these three prairie types largely correspond to the corn/soybean area, the wheat belt, and the western rangelands, respectively. Hardwood forests in this area were logged to extinction in the late 1800s. The majority of the Midwest can now be categorized as urbanized areas or pastoral agricultural areas. Areas in northern Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin, such as the Porcupine Mountains. The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... Great Lakes Basin The Great Lakes Basin consists of the Great Lakes and the surrounding lands of the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin in the United States, and the provinces of Ontario and Quebec in Canada, whose direct runoff and watersheds form a... A prairie is an area of land of low topographic relief that principally supports grasses and herbs, with few trees, and is generally of a mesic (moderate or temperate) climate. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... This article is about the Ozark Plateau. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... Prairie grasses The tallgrass prairie is an ecosystem native to central North America, with fire as its primary periodic disturbance. ... The shortgrass prairie ecosystem of the North American Great Plains is a prairie that formerly encompassed lands from the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains east to Nebraska, including rangelands in Colorado and Kansas, and extending to the south through the high plains of Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico. ... For the Australian television series see Rain Shadow (TV series). ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... Soy redirects here. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... A view from the Porcupine Mountains The Porcupine Mountains are group of small mountains spanning across the northwestern Upper Peninsula of Michigan in Ontonagon and Gogebic counties, near the shore of Lake Superior. ...


Residents of the wheat belt, which consists of the westernmost states of the Midwest, generally consider themselves part of the Midwest, while residents of the remaining rangeland areas usually do not. Of course, exact boundaries are nebulous and shifting.


Ten largest Midwestern U.S. cities

Cities
Rank City State Population
(2000 census)[6]
1 Chicago IL 2,896,016
2 Detroit MI 951,270
3 Indianapolis IN 791,926
4 Columbus OH 711,470
5 Milwaukee WI 596,974
6 Cleveland OH 478,403
7 Kansas City MO 441,545
8 Omaha NE 390,007
9 Minneapolis MN 382,618
10 St. Louis MO 348,189
Urban Areas
Rank Urban area State(s) Population
(2000 census)
1 Chicago IL-IN 8,307,904
2 Detroit MI 3,903,377
3 Minneapolis-Saint Paul MN 2,388,593
4 St. Louis MO-IL 2,077,662
5 Cleveland OH 1,786,647
6 Cincinnati OH-KY-IN 1,503,262
7 Kansas City MO-KS 1,361,744
8 Milwaukee WI 1,308,913
9 Indianapolis IN 1,218,919
10 Columbus OH 1,133,193
Metro Areas
Rank Metro area State(s) Population
(2000 census)[7]
1 Chicago IL-IN-WI 9,098,316
2 Detroit MI 4,452,557
3 Minneapolis-Saint Paul MN-WI 2,968,806
4 St. Louis MO-IL 2,698,687
5 Cleveland OH 2,148,143
6 Cincinnati OH-KY-IN 2,009,632
7 Kansas City MO-KS 1,836,038
8 Columbus OH 1,612,694
9 Indianapolis IN 1,525,104
10 Milwaukee WI 1,500,741

For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Detroit redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Indianapolis redirects here. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Fairfield, Delaware Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City 212. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Omaha redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Minneapolis redirects here. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Urban areas in the United States are defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as contiguous census block groups with a population density of at least 1,000 per square mile (about 400 per square km). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Chicagoland redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Detroit metropolitan area, often referred to as Metro Detroit, is the metropolitan area located in southeastern Michigan, centered on the city of Detroit. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Minneapolis-Saint Paul is the most populous urban area in the state of Minnesota, United States, and is composed of 188 cities and townships. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Greater St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... NASA image of Greater Cleveland and Lake Erie Greater Cleveland is a nickname for the metropolitan area surrounding Cleveland in Ohio. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky metropolitan area The Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky____the worst place on the planet____ metropolitan area is a metropolitan area that includes 15 counties in Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Kansas City satellite map The Kansas City Metropolitan Area is a fifteen county metropolitan area is anchored by Kansas City, Missouri straddling the border between the states of Missouri and Kansas. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Columbus Metropolitan Area is the metropolitan area centered on the American city of Columbus, Ohio. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Indianapolis, IN, Metropolitan Statistical Area is the 33rd largest Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in the United States. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Location in the state of Wisconsin The Milwaukee–Racine–Waukesha metropolitan area is an urban area that the U.S. Census Bureau defines as a Combined Statistical Area centered on the city of Milwaukee and had a population of 1,708,563 people as of the 2005 U.S. Census... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

History

Exploration and early settlement

European settlement of the area began in the 17th century following French exploration of the region. The French established a network of fur trading posts and Jesuit missions along the Mississippi River system and the upper Great Lakes. French control over the area ended in 1763 with the conclusion of the French and Indian War. British colonists began to expand into the Ohio Country during the 1750s. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 temporarily restrained expansion west of the Appalachian Mountains, but did not stop it completely. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... The Ohio Country, showing the present-day U.S. state boundaries The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains and in the region of the upper Ohio River south of Lake... A portion of eastern North America; the 1763 Proclamation line is the border between the red and the pink areas. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ...


Early settlement began either via routes over the Appalachian Mountains, such as Braddock Road; or through the waterways of the Great Lakes. Fort Pitt, now Pittsburgh, at the source of the Ohio River, was an early outpost of the overland routes. The first settlements in the Midwest via the waterways of the Great Lakes were centered around military forts and trading posts such as Green Bay, Sault Ste. Marie, and Detroit. The first inland settlements via the overland routes were in southern Ohio or northern Kentucky, on either side of the Ohio River, and early such pioneers were Daniel Boone and Spencer Records. In 1755, General Edward Braddock of the Coldstream Guards was sent to rout the French from Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh). ... A Plan of the New Fort at Pitts-Burgh, drawn by cartographer John Rocque and published in 1765. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Green Bay is the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... Nickname: Location of Sault Ste. ... Detroit redirects here. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... This article is about the American pioneer. ... Spencer Records, 1762-1847 Early pioneer of the American Midwest, who moved with his large family as a boy in 1766 from the East Coast over the Appalachians into the area of Fort Pitt in Western Pennsylvania (now Pittsburgh), and in 1783, as a young man, down the Ohio River...


Following the American Revolutionary War, the rate of settlers coming from the eastern states increased rapidly. In the 1790s, American Revolutionary War veterans and settlers from the original states moved there in response to Federal government of the United States land grants. The Ulster-Scots Presbyterians of Pennsylvania (often through Virginia) and the Dutch Reformed, Quaker, and Congregationalists of Connecticut were among the earliest pioneers to Ohio and the Midwest. This article is about military actions only. ... This article is about military actions only. ... United States Government redirects here. ... A land grant is a gift of land made by the government for projects such as roads, railroads, or especially academic institutions. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Dutch Reformed village church of St. ... Quaker redirects here. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km...


The region's fertile soil made it possible for farmers to produce abundant harvests of cereal crops such as corn, oats, and, most importantly, wheat. In the early days, the region was soon known as the nation's "breadbasket". Grain redirects here. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...


Development of transportation

Two waterways have been important to the Midwest's development. The first and foremost was the Ohio River which flowed into the Mississippi River. Spanish control of the southern part of the Mississippi, and refusal to allow the shipment of American crops down the river and into the Atlantic Ocean, halted the development of the region until 1795. View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...


The river inspired two classic American books written by a native Missourian, Samuel Clemens, who took the pseudonym Mark Twain: Life on the Mississippi and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Today, Twain's stories have become staples of Midwestern lore. Twain's hometown of Hannibal, Missouri is a tourist attraction in the area offering a glimpse into the Midwest of his time. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Life on the Mississippi cover Life on the Mississippi is a memoir by Mark Twain detailing his days as a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River before the American Civil War. ... Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. ... Hannibal is a riverfront city of 17,757 (2000 census), located in Marion and Ralls County, Missouri. ...


The second waterway is the network of routes within the Great Lakes. The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 completed an all-water shipping route, more direct than the Mississippi, to New York and the seaport of New York City. Lakeport cities grew up to handle this new shipping route. During the Industrial Revolution, the lakes became a conduit for iron ore from the Mesabi Range of Minnesota to steel mills in the Mid-Atlantic States. The Saint Lawrence Seaway later opened the Midwest to the Atlantic Ocean. The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... This article is about the state. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... The Mesabi Iron Range is a vast deposit of iron ore and the largest of four major iron ranges in the region collectively known as the Iron Range of Minnesota. ... Steel Mill was one of Bruce Springsteens early bands and performed regularly on the Jersey Shore, in Virginia, and also in California from 1969 till January 1971. ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... The Eisenhower Locks in Massena, NY. The St. ...

Lake Michigan is bordered by four Midwestern states: Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin.
Lake Michigan is bordered by four Midwestern states: Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin.

Inland canals in Ohio and Indiana constituted another great waterway, which connected into the Great Lakes and Ohio River traffic. The canals in Ohio and Indiana opened so much of Midwestern agriculture that it launched the world's greatest population and economic boom foreshadowing later "emerging markets". The commodities that the Midwest funneled into the Erie Canal down the Ohio River contributed to the wealth of New York City, which overtook Boston and Philadelphia. New York State would proudly boast of the Midwest as its "inland empire"; thus, New York would become known as the Empire State. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. ... Categories: Water-transport stubs | Canals | Water transport ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Boston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ...


19th century sectional conflict

Because the Northwest Ordinance region, comprising the heart of the Midwest, was the first large region of the United States which prohibited slavery (the Northeastern United States emancipated slaves in the 1830s), the region remains culturally apart from the country and proud of its free pioneer heritage. The regional southern boundary was the Ohio River, the border of freedom and slavery in American history and literature (See: Uncle Tom's Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe; Beloved, by Toni Morrison). The Midwest, particularly Ohio, provided the primary routes for the "Underground Railroad", whereby Midwesterners assisted slaves to freedom from their crossing of the Ohio River through their departure on Lake Erie to Canada. Slave redirects here. ... Map of the US northeast. ... This article is about slavery. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American author and abolitionist, whose novel Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential, even in Britain. ... Beloved is a 1987 Pulitzer Prize winning novel by Nobel laureate Toni Morrison. ... For the Louisiana politician, see deLesseps Morrison, Jr. ... H. B. Lindsley, Harriet Tubman, c. ...


The region was shaped by the relative absence of slavery (except for Missouri), pioneer settlement, education in one-room free public schools, and democratic notions brought with American Revolutionary War veterans, Protestant faiths and experimentation, and agricultural wealth transported on the Ohio River riverboats, flatboats, canal boats, and railroads. Williamson School was a one-room school in Blanch, Caswell County, North Carolina One-room schools were commonplace throughout rural portions of various countries including the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Scotland and Ireland in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A riverboat is a specialized watercraft (vessel) designed for operating on inland waterways. ... A Flatboat is a boat with a flat bottom and has square ends. ... There are two articles associated with canal watercraft: Narrowboat - a specialized craft for operation in early narrow canals Barge - a more generic term that includes canal craft Category: ... railroads redirects here. ...


Industrialization and immigration

By the time of the American Civil War, European immigrants bypassed the East Coast of the United States to settle directly in the interior: German immigrant Lutherans and Jews to Ohio, Wisconsin, Illinois, and eastern Missouri; Swedes and Norwegians to Wisconsin, Minnesota and northern Iowa. Poles, Hungarians, and German Catholics and Jews founded or settled in Midwestern cities. Many German Catholics also settled throughout the Ohio River valley and around the Great Lakes. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... German Americans (German Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of ethnic German ancestry and currently form the largest ancestry group in the United States, accounting for 17% of the U.S. population. ... -1... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The term Norwegians may refer to: People with a Norwegian ancestral or ethnic identity, whether living in Norway, emigrants, or the descendents of emigrants. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Midwest was predominantly rural at the time of the Civil War, dotted with small farms across Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri and Iowa, but industrialization, immigration, and urbanization fed the Industrial Revolution, and the heart of industrial progress became the Great Lakes states of the Midwest. German, Scandinavian, Slavic and African American immigration into the Midwest continued to bolster the population there in the 19th and 20th centuries, though generally the Midwest remains a predominantly diverse, Protestant region. Large concentrations of Catholics are found in larger metropolitan areas because of German, Irish, Italian, and Polish immigration before 1915, and Mexican American migration since the 1950s. Famous Amish farm settlements are found in northern Ohio, northern Indiana and central Illinois and in various parts of Missouri and Iowa as well. Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The Great Lakes states of the U.S. are colored red in this map. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Countries with dominating Slavic ethnicities  West Slavic  East Slavic  South Slavic Slav redirects here. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ...


In the 20th century, African American migration from the Southern United States into the Midwestern states changed Chicago, St. Louis, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Cincinnati, Gary, Detroit, Minneapolis, and many other cities in the Midwest dramatically, as factories and schools enticed families by the thousands to new opportunities. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Historic Southern United States. ...


History of the term "Midwest"

The term "Middle West" originated in the 19th century, followed by "Midwest." The heart of the Midwest is bounded by the Great Lakes and the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys, the "Old Northwest" (or the "West"), an area that comprised the original Northwest Territory. This area is now called the "East North Central States" by the United States Census Bureau and the "Great Lakes" region by its inhabitants. The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. ...


The Northwest Territory was created out of the ceded English (formerly French and Native American) frontier lands under the Northwest Ordinance by the Continental Congress just before the U.S. Constitution was ratified. The Northwest Ordinance prohibited slavery and religious discrimination, and promoted public schools and private property, but did not apply after the territories became states. The Northwest Ordinance also specified that the land be surveyed and sold in the rectangular grids of the Public Land Survey System, which was first used in Ohio. The effect of this grid system can be seen throughout the Midwest in such things as county shapes and road networks. Northwest Territory (1787). ... The Continental Congress resulted from the American Revolution and was the de facto first national government of the United States. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... Slave redirects here. ... Religious discrimination is valuing or treating a person or group differently because of what they do or do not believe. ... The term public school has two contrary meanings: In England, one of a small number of prestigious historic schools open to the public which normally charge fees and are financed by bodies other than the state, commonly as private charitable trusts; here the word public is used much as in... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... The Public Land Survey System (PLSS) is a method used in the United States to survey and identify land parcels, particularly for titles and deeds of rural, wild or undeveloped land. ...


In contrast, land in Kentucky and Tennessee was surveyed and sold using metes and bounds. As Revolutionary War soldiers were awarded lands in Ohio and migrated there and to other Midwestern states with other pioneers, the area became the first thoroughly "American" region. Frederick Jackson Turner celebrated its frontier for shaping the national character of individualism and democracy. Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Metes and bounds is a system or method of describing land, real property (in contrast to personal property) or real estate. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... Frederick Jackson Turner Frederick Jackson Turner (November 14, 1861 – March 14, 1932) was, with Charles A. Beard, the least influential American historian of the early 20th century. ... Frederick Jackson Turner, author of the Frontier Thesis The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis is the conclusion of Frederick Jackson Turner that the wellsprings of American exceptionalism and vitality have always been the American frontier, the region between urbanized, civilized society and the untamed wilderness. ... For articles with similar names and topics, see Individual (disambiguation). ...


The Midwest region today sometimes refers not only to states created from the Northwest Ordinance, but also may include states between the Appalachian Mountains and the Rocky Mountains and north of the Ohio River. In all, 12 states are covered by The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia(2006). Northwest Territory (1787). ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ...


The term "West" was applied to the region in the early years of the country. Later, the region west of the Appalachians was divided into the Far West (now just the West), and the Middle West. Some parts of the Midwest have also been referred to as Northwest for historical reasons (for instance, this explains the Minnesota-based Northwest Airlines as well as Northwestern University in Illinois), so the current Northwest region of the country is called the Pacific Northwest to make a clear distinction. Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Northwest Airlines, Inc. ... Northwestern University (NU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university with campuses located in Evanston, Illinois and downtown Chicago. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ...


The boundaries of what is considered the Midwest today are somewhat ambiguous. People from across the region consider themselves to be from the Midwest for very different reasons and have varying definitions and perceptions of the Midwest, and use has changed historically, gradually growing westward to include states which formerly were thought of as being the "West." Because the Northwest Territory lay between the East Coast and the then-far-West, the states carved out of it were called the "Northwest" in 1789, and "Middle West" (Middlewest, Middle-West) by 1898.


In the early 19th century, anything west of the Mississippi River was considered the West, and the Midwest was the region west of the Appalachians and east of the Mississippi. In time, some users began to include Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri, and with the settlement of the western prairie, a new term, "Great Plains States," was used for the row of states from North Dakota to Kansas. Later, these states annexed themselves unofficially to the Midwest. Today, the term "Far West" means the West Coast, and people as far west as the prairie sections of Colorado, Wyoming and Montana sometimes identify themselves with the term Midwest.[8]


Culture

Chicago is the largest city in the Midwest
Chicago is the largest city in the Midwest
Detroit is the busiest commercial border crossing in North America.
Detroit is the busiest commercial border crossing in North America.
Indianapolis is the third largest city in the Midwest
Indianapolis is the third largest city in the Midwest

Midwesterners are alternately viewed as open, friendly, and straightforward, or sometimes stereotyped as unsophisticated and stubborn. Roman Catholicism is the largest single religious denomination in the Midwest, varying between 19 and 29% of the state populations. Baptists compose 14% of the populations of Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan, up to 22% in Missouri and down to 5% in Minnesota. Lutherans peak at 22-24% in Wisconsin and Minnesota, reflecting the Scandinavian and German heritage of those states as parodied humorously by Garrison Keillor in his Prairie Home Companion. Pentecostal and charismatic denominations have few adherents in the Midwest, ranging between 1 and 7% (although the Assembly of God began in lower Missouri). Judaism and Islam are each practiced by 1% or less of the population, with higher concentrations in major urban areas, such as Chicago, Indianapolis, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Detroit and Cleveland. Those with no religious affiliation make up 13-16% of the Midwest's population. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 462 pixel Image in higher resolution (2600 × 1500 pixel, file size: 366 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chicago User:Jcrocker... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 462 pixel Image in higher resolution (2600 × 1500 pixel, file size: 366 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chicago User:Jcrocker... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Detroit redirects here. ... North American redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 583 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This photo was also taken from the top floor of an IU Hospital parking garage in spring 2007. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 583 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This photo was also taken from the top floor of an IU Hospital parking garage in spring 2007. ... Indianapolis redirects here. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... -1... Garrison Keillor (born Gary Edward Keillor on August 7, 1942 in Anoka, Minnesota) is an American author, storyteller, humorist, columnist, musician, satirist, and radio personality. ... A Prairie Home Companion is a live radio variety show created and hosted by Garrison Keillor. ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... The charismatic movement begins with the adoption of certain beliefs typical of those held by Pentecostal Christians — specifically what are known as the biblical charisms or spiritual gifts: glossolalia (speaking in tongues), prophesying, supernatural healing — by those within mainstream Protestant and Roman Catholic churches. ... The Assemblies of God is the worlds largest Pentecostal Christian denomination. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Indianapolis redirects here. ... St. ... Minneapolis redirects here. ... Detroit redirects here. ... Cleveland redirects here. ...


The rural heritage of the land in the Midwest remains widely held, even if industrialization and suburbanization have overtaken the states in the original Northwest Territory. Given the rural, antebellum associations with the Midwest, further rural states like Kansas have become icons of Midwesternism, most directly with the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. The Wizard of Oz (film) redirects here. ...


Midwestern politics tends to be cautious, but the caution is sometimes peppered with protest, especially in minority communities or those associated with agrarian, labor or populist roots. This was especially true in the early 20th century when Milwaukee was a hub of the socialist movement in the United States, electing three socialist mayors and the only socialist congressional representative (Victor Berger) during that time. The metropolis-strewn Great Lakes region tends to be the most liberal area of the Midwest, and liberal presence diminishes gradually as you move south and west from that region into the less-populated rural areas. The Great Lakes region has spawned people such as the La Follette political family, labor leader and five-time Socialist Party of America presidential candidate Eugene Debs, and Communist Party leader Gus Hall. Minnesota in particular has produced liberal national politicians Paul Wellstone, Walter Mondale, Eugene McCarthy, and Hubert Humphrey as well as protest musician Bob Dylan. This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Victor Luitpold Berger (February 28, 1860 - August 7, 1929) was a United States politician and a founding member of the Socialist Party of America. ... Robert Marion La Follette, Sr. ... May refer to the politcal leader Eugene_V._Debs May also be in reference to a a debutante ball, a formal party undertaken by the leaving members of second-level schools in Ireland, most often in the month of August or September. ... Gus Hall Gus Hall (October 8, 1910 – October 13, 2000) was a labor organizer, a founder of the United Steelworkers of America trade union, a leader of the Communist Party USA, and five-time U.S. presidential candidate. ... Paul David Wellstone (July 21, 1944 – October 25, 2002) was an American politician and two-term U.S. Senator from Minnesota. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... Not to be confused with the anti-Communist senator Joseph Raymond McCarthy. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... This article is about the recording artist. ...


Because of 20th century African American migration from the South, a large African American urban population lives in most of the regions' major cities, although the concentration is not generally as large as that of the Southern United States. The combination of industry and cultures, Jazz, Blues, and Rock and Roll, led to an outpouring of musical creativity in the 20th century in the Midwest, including new music like the Motown Sound and techno from Detroit and house music & the blues from Chicago. Rock and Roll music was first identified as a new genre by a Cleveland radio DJ, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is now located in Cleveland. See also Music of the Midwest/Motown, Detroit, 70s Soul Music, Ohio Players, Kool and The Gang, and Dayton. Today the population of the Midwest is 65,971,974, or 22.2% of the total population of the United States. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The states in blue had the ten largest net gains of African-Americans, while the states in red had the ten largest net losses. ... Historic Southern United States. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Blues music redirects here. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... The Motown Sound is a style of soul music with distinctive characteristics, including the use of tambourine along with drums, bass instrumentation, a distinctive melodic and chord structure, and a call and response singing style originating in gospel music. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... Detroit redirects here. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at sunset. ... The Motown Sound is a style of soul music with distinctive characteristics, including the use of tambourine along with drums, bass instrumentation, a distinctive melodic and chord structure, and a call and response singing style originating in gospel music. ... Detroit redirects here. ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ...


Cultural overlap with neighboring regions

Differences in the definition of the Midwest mainly split between the Heartland and the Great Plains on one side, and the Great Lakes and the Rust Belt on the other. While some point to the small towns and agricultural communities in Kansas, Iowa, the Dakotas and Nebraska of the Great Plains as representative of traditional Midwestern lifestyles and values, others would assert that the declining Rust Belt cities of the Great Lakes, with their histories of 19th- and early-20th century immigration, manufacturing base, and strong Catholic influence, are more representative of the Midwestern experience. Under such a definition, cities as far east as Buffalo, New York and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania may be considered Midwestern in nature. Heartland is a most often a geopolitical term, often used to refer to a central area of Eurasia that is remote and inaccessible from the periphery. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Manufacturing Belt, highlighted in red The Manufacturing Belt, often referred to as the Rust Belt, is an area in parts of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie First Settled 1789 Founded 1801 Incorporated (City) 1832 Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ...


Certain areas of the traditionally defined Midwest are often cited as not being representative of the 'Midwest,' while other areas traditionally outside of the Midwest are often claimed to be part of the Midwest. These claims often embody historical, cultural, economic or demographic arguments for inclusion or exclusion.


Two other important regions, Appalachia and the Ozark Mountains, overlap with the Midwest, Appalachia in Southern Ohio and the Ozarks in Southern Missouri. The Ohio River has long been the boundary between North and South, and between the Midwest and the Upper South. All the lower Midwestern states, including Missouri, have a major Southern component, but only Missouri was a slave state before the Civil War. Areas included within the Appalachian Regional Commissions charter. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The Upland South is defined by landform, history, and culture, and does not correspond well to state lines. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Slave redirects here. ...


In addition, parts of the Northeastern states have a Midwestern feel. Western Pennsylvania, which contains the cities of Erie and Pittsburgh, shares culture, history, and identity with the "Midwest," but overlaps with Appalachia as well.[9] Buffalo, New York, the western terminus of the Erie Canal and gateway to the Great Lakes, also offers a Midwestern orientation, and in most instances its residents identify more readily with the cultures of Chicago or Detroit than cities on the Eastern Seaboard. However, residents of Western Pennsylvania and Western New York rarely, if ever, consider themselves Midwesterners. Map of the US northeast. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... “Erie” redirects here. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Areas included within the Appalachian Regional Commissions charter. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie First Settled 1789 Founded 1801 Incorporated (City) 1832 Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Detroit redirects here. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Western New York refers to the westernmost region of New York State. ...


The prairie parts of Montana, Wyoming, and especially Colorado are sometimes considered part of the Midwest, especially to people in the Great Plains which are closer to the geographic middle of the country.[citation needed] However, such an inclusion would be considered incorrect to most people in the Great Lakes region as many people near the Great Lakes do not even consider the Plains states to be the Midwest, as much of those states are ranchland. This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ...


Oklahoma is sometimes thought of as being a Midwestern state, though it is always identified as a South Central state. Eastern Oklahoma is decidedly "Southern" in its cultural history and its connection to the oil business and other Southern industries, having much in common with nearby Arkansas and eastern Texas. However, western and central Oklahoma (excluding the Oklahoma City area) and the upper Texas Panhandle (generally the part of Texas north of and including Amarillo, Texas), by contrast, generally have more in common economically, climatically, and culturally with the states of Kansas and Nebraska and the eastern part of Colorado than with most of the American South or Southwest.[citation needed] These areas may have been under nominal control of the Confederate States of America but were thinly populated during the Civil War, and were settled largely by people from the Midwest and rely heavily upon ranching and wheat-growing instead of cotton and lumbering for their agricultural production which so clearly mark the American South. For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Red states show the core of the South Central, states shown as pink may or may not be included in the South Central, and thus their inclusion or exclusion varies from source to source. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The Oklahoma City Metropolitan Area is a large urban region located in the central part of the state of Oklahoma. ... The Texas Panhandle is a region of the state of Texas consisting of the northernmost 26 counties in the state. ... Amarillo redirects here. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia...


Kentucky is also sometimes considered Midwestern,[10] reflecting its heritage as a border state between the Southeast and Midwest that remained in the Union during the Civil War; however, the state is defined as Southern by the US Census Bureau and many would argue that its culture, especially in rural areas, remains distinctly Southern. Due to significant corn and grain production, much of the state forms part of the American agricultural core, or Corn Belt, along with states like Illinois, Indiana and Iowa.[11] Several regions along the northern border with the Ohio River, especially in the industrial and urbanized Louisville and Northern Kentucky areas, saw significant levels of German immigration in the 19th century,[12] as did most other Midwestern states. Industrial regions in north Kentucky, such as Louisville, have also experienced population and employment declines that have led to their being viewed as part of the Rust Belt region.[13] Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Categories: US geography stubs | Belt regions of the United States ... Louisville redirects here. ... The term Northern Kentucky generally refers to the three northernmost counties in Kentucky. ... Manufacturing Belt, highlighted in red The Manufacturing Belt, often referred to as the Rust Belt, is an area in parts of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States of America. ...


The four Northern Panhandle counties of West Virginia could also be considered part of the Midwest, due to their location north of the Mason-Dixon Line extension (Wetzel-Marshall county border). Also, cities such as Wheeling and Weirton have experienced a dramatic population decrease due to their Rust Belt economies; this is in common with the Midwest. The other 51 counties of the state are generally located within the Upper South region, which is in keeping with the U.S. Census Bureau's definition of all of West Virginia as a South Atlantic state. The Northern Panhandle is a region in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... For the polling company, see Mason-Dixon Polling & Research Inc. ... Wetzel County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... Marshall County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... Nickname: The Friendly City Location in Ohio County in the State of West Virginia Coordinates: Settled 1769 Established 1806 Incorporated 1836  - Mayor Nick Sparachane  - City Manager Robert Herron  - Chief of Police Kevin Gessler, Sr. ... Weirton is a city located in the Northern Panhandle of West Virginia. ... The Upland South is defined by landform, history, and culture, and does not correspond well to state lines. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ...


Political trends

One of the two major political parties in the United States, the Republican Party, originated in southern Wisconsin. Its founding place was Ripon, Wisconsin, in the 1850s and included opposition to the spread of slavery into new states as one of its agendas. Most of the rural Midwest is considered to be a Republican stronghold to this day, and Hamilton County, the home of Cincinnati, Ohio, is one of the few metropolitan counties in America which voted predominantly Republican at the close of the 20th century. From the American Civil War to the Great Depression and World War II, Midwestern Republicans dominated American politics and industry, just as Southern Democrat farmers dominated antebellum rural America and as Northeastern financiers and academics in the Democratic party would dominate America from the Depression to the Vietnam War and the height of the Cold War.[citation needed] The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Ripon is a city located in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin. ... Slave redirects here. ... Hamilton County is a county in the located in the southwest corner of the state of Ohio, United States. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Southern Democrats are members of the U.S. Democratic Party who reside in the U.S. South. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before war(ante means before and bellum is war). ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... Map of the US northeast. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


As political trends have changed and the Midwest's population has shifted from the countryside to its cities, the general political mood has moved to the center, and the region is now home to many critical swing states that do not have strong allegiance to either party. Upper Midwestern states, such as Illinois, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan have proven reliably Democratic, while even Iowa has shifted towards the Democrats. Normally a Republican stronghold, Indiana became a key state in the 2006 midterm elections, picking up three House Seats to bring the total to five Democrats to four Republicans representing Indiana in the U.S. House. The state government of Illinois is currently dominated by the Democratic Party. Both of Illinois' senators are Democrats and a majority of the state's U.S. Representatives are also Democrats. Illinois voters have preferred the Democratic presidential candidate by a significant margin in the past four elections (1992, 1996, 2000, 2004). The same is true of Michigan and Wisconsin, which also currently have a Democratic governor and two Democratic senators. Iowa is considered by many analysts to be the most evenly divided state in the country, but has leaned Democratic for the past fifteen years or so. Iowa has a Democratic governor, a Democratic Senator, three Democratic Congressmen out of five, has voted for the Democratic presidential candidate in three out of the last four elections, (1992, 1996, 2000). As of the 2006 midterms elections, Iowa has a state legislature dominated by Democrats in both chambers. Minnesota voters have chosen the Democratic candidate for president longer than any other state. Minnesota was the only state among the 50 states (along with Washington, D.C.) of the U.S. to vote for Walter Mondale over Ronald Reagan in 1984 (Minnesota is Mondale's home state). In Iowa and Minnesota, however, the recent Democratic pluralities have often been fairly narrow. Minnesota has elected and reelected a Republican governor, as well as supported some of the most pro-gun concealed weapon laws in the nation. In United States presidential politics, a swing state (also, battleground state) is a state in which no candidate has overwhelming support, meaning that any of the major candidates have a reasonable chance of winning the states electoral college votes. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... Reagan redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ...


In 2006, Democrats scored major gains across the region. In Iowa, Democrats gained control of the state legislature and held onto the governor's mansion, giving them one-party control of Iowa's government. Elsewhere, Democrats gained control of the Wisconsin Senate, the Michigan Legislature, and the Indiana House. Minnesota, thought to be trending Republican, saw the DFL post double-digit gains in the Minnesota House and win all state-wide elections, save for the gubernatorial race. Democrats also won all state-wide races in Ohio, and gained control of all Illinois statewide offices. The Wisconsin Senate, whose powers are modeled after those of the U.S. Senate, is the upper house of the Wisconsin State Legislature, smaller than the Wisconsin State Assembly. ... The Michigan Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... The Indiana General Assembly is the state legislature, or legislative branch, of the state government of Indiana. ... The Minnesota House of Representatives is the lower house in the Minnesota State Legislature. ...


On a federal level, Democrat Sherrod Brown defeated incumbent Mike DeWine 56-44 for the U.S. Senate. Sherrod Campbell Brown (born November 9, 1952) is the Democratic Junior United States Senator from the state of Ohio. ... Richard Michael Mike DeWine (born January 5, 1947) is an American politician from Ohio. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...


By contrast, the Great Plains states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas have been strongholds for the Republicans for many decades. These four states have gone for the Republican candidate in every presidential election since 1940, except for Lyndon B. Johnson's landslide over Barry Goldwater in 1964. However, North Dakota's Congressional delegation has been all-Democratic since 1987, and South Dakota has had at least two Democratic members of Congress in every year since 1987. Nebraska has elected Democrats to the Senate and as Governor in recent years, but the state's House delegation has been all-Republican since 1995. Kansas has elected a majority of Democrats as governor since 1956 and currently has a 2-2 split in its House delegation, but has not elected a Democrat to the Senate since 1932. Official language(s) English Demonym North Dakotan Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Missouri is considered a "bellwether state". Only once since 1904 has the Show-Me-State not voted for the winner in the presidential election, in 1956. Missouri's House delegation has generally been evenly divided between Democrats and Republicans, with the Democrats holding sway in the large cities at the opposite ends of the state, Kansas City and St. Louis, and the Republicans controlling the rest of the state. Missouri's Senate seats were mostly controlled by Democrats until the latter part of the 20th century, but the Republicans have held one or both Senate seats continuously since the 1976 elections. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Around the turn of the 20th century, the region also spawned the Populist Movement in the Plains states and later the Progressive Movement, which largely consisted of farmers and merchants intent on making government less corrupt and more receptive to the will of the people. The Republicans were unified anti-slavery politicians, whose later interests in invention, economic progress, women's rights and suffrage, freedman's rights, progressive taxation, wealth creation, election reforms, temperance and prohibition eventually clashed with the Taft-Roosevelt split in 1912. Similarly, the Populist and Progressive Parties grew out intellectually from the economic and social progress claimed by the early Republican party. The Protestant and Midwestern ideals of profit, thrift, work ethic, pioneer self-reliance, education, democratic rights, and religious tolerance influenced both parties despite their eventual drift into opposition. Look up Populism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmens Bureau or (mistakenly) the Freedmans Bureau, was an agency of the government of the United States that was formed to aid distressed refugees of the United States Civil War, including former slaves and poor white... A progressive tax, or graduated tax, is a tax that is larger as a percentage of income for those with larger incomes. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... This article is about the political process. ... A cartoon from Australia ca. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... The Populist Party was a short-lived political party in late 19th century in the United States. ... The United States Progressive Party refers to three distinct political parties in 20th-century United States politics. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ...


The Midwest has long mistrusted Northeastern elitism. Some favor isolationism, a belief held by George Washington that Americans should not concern itself with foreign wars and problems. It gained much support from German American and Swedish American communities, and leaders like Robert La Follette, Robert A. Taft, and Colonel Robert McCormick, publisher of the Chicago Tribune.[14] Non-interventionism, the diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations in order to avoid being drawn into wars not related to direct territorial self-defense, has had a long history in the United States. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Robert La Follette can refer to two United States politicians. ... Robert Alphonso Taft I (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft family political dynasty of Ohio, was a United States Senator and Presidential candidate in the United States Republican Party. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Unemployment remains low (under 5%), but is higher than the national average; some manufacturing-dependent states — most notably Michigan — have still higher unemployment rates.[15] Outsourcing of higher paying manufacturing jobs and a rise in low-wage service jobs is a major issue. This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Linguistic characteristics

The accents of the region are generally distinct from those of the South and many urban areas of the American Northeast. The accent considered characteristic of most of the Midwest is considered by many to be "standard" American English. This accent is preferred by many national radio and television broadcasters, who go so far as to actually have potential broadcasters receive training in speaking "Midwestern."[citation needed] The Inland North Dialect of American English was the standard Midwestern speech that was the basis for General American in the mid-20th Century, though it has been recently modified by the northern cities vowel shift. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


This may have started because many prominent broadcast personalities — such as Walter Cronkite, Johnny Carson, David Letterman, Tom Brokaw, John Madden and Casey Kasem — came from this region and so created this perception. More recently, a National Geographic magazine article (Nov. 1998) attributed the high number of telemarketing firms in Omaha, Nebraska, due to the "neutral accents" of the area's inhabitants. Walter Leland Cronkite, Jr. ... For other persons named John Carson, see John Carson (disambiguation). ... David Michael Letterman (born April 12, 1947, in Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.) is an Emmy Award-winning American television host and comedian. ... Thomas John Brokaw (born February 6, 1940 in Webster, South Dakota) is a popular American television journalist, Previously working on regularly scheduled news documentaries for the NBC television network, and is the former NBC News anchorman and managing editor of the program NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw. ... John Earl Madden (born April 10, 1936) is a former National Football League player, head coach, and a Pro Football Hall-of-Famer. ... Kemal Amin Casey Kasem, (born on April 27, 1932, in Detroit, Michigan) is an American radio personality and voice actor. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...


However, many Midwestern cities are now undergoing the Northern Cities Shift away from the perceived standard accent. Three isoglosses identifying the NCVS. In the brown areas is more retracted than . ...


In some regions, particularly the farther north into the Upper Midwest one goes, a definite accent is sometimes detectable, usually reflecting the heritage of the area. For example, Minnesota, western Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula have strong Scandinavian accents, which intensify the farther north one goes. Many parts of western Michigan have noticeable Dutch-flavored accent. Many areas close to the Canadian border share similar accent traits as Canadians, sounding extremely similar (most notably pronunciation of words such as "about" as "aboat" in Michigan). This is partly due to the constant flow of citizens between these areas due to close business/commercial ties (Michigan & Ontario in particular). Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Also, residents of Chicago are recognized to have their own distinctive nasal accent (the Chicago bark), with a similar accent occurring in parts of Wisconsin, Michigan, Northern Indiana, Cleveland, and Western New York State. Arguably, this may have been derived from heavy Irish, German, Polish, and Eastern European influences in the Great Lakes Region. The most southern parts of the Midwest, generally south of U.S. Route 50, show distinctly southern speech patterns. For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... U.S. Route 50 is a major east-west route of the U.S. Highway system, stretching just over 3000 miles (4800 km) from West Sacramento, California east to Ocean City, Maryland on the Atlantic Ocean. ...


See also

This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... Cities in the Midwestern United States with over 10000 inhabitants, as of the final United States 2000 Census figures: 1. ... Urban or metropolitian areas in the United States are defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as contiguous census block groups with a population density of at least 1,000 per square mile (about 400 per square km). ... This List of colleges and universities in the United States includes colleges and universities in the U.S. that grant four-year baccalaureate and/or post-graduate masters and doctorate degrees. ... The Inland North Dialect of American English was the standard Midwestern speech that was the basis for General American in the mid-20th Century, though it has been recently modified by the northern cities vowel shift. ... Midwestern cuisine in the United States features simple dishes such as pot roast, sausage, scrapple, pancakes and other comfort foods. ... In the late 1970s and 1980s, one of the most popular forms of rock and roll was heartland rock. ... Midwest hip hop is hip hop music performed by artists from the Midwestern United States. ... This is a partial list of islands of the United States // (Midwest) States Illinois Indiana Biddle Ribeye Island Park Holmes Monkey Iowa Kansas Franks Island Kickapoo Island - historical Nelson Island Stigers Island Michigan Amygdaloid Island, part of Isle Royale National Park Beaver Island, inhabited island in Lake Michigan Beaver Island...

Notes

  1. ^ (1955) The North American Midwest: A Regional Geography. New York, New York: Wiley Publishers. ISBN 0901411931. 
  2. ^ Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative: Midwest Region
  3. ^ http://www.census.gov/const/regionmap.pdf
  4. ^ Sisson (2006) pp 69-73; Richard Jensen, "The Lynds Revisited," Indiana Magazine of History (Dec 1979) 75: 303-319, online at [1]
  5. ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics
  6. ^ Incorporated Places of 100,000 or More Ranked by Population: 2000 (pdf) U.S. Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Accessed November 20, 2007.
  7. ^ Population in Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Ranked by 2000 Population for the United States and Puerto Rico: 1990 and 2000 (pdf). U.S. Census Bureau. December 30, 2003. Accessed November 20, 2007.
  8. ^ Sisson (2006) pp 57-60
  9. ^ Defining the Midwest Megaregion
  10. ^ (1955) The North American Midwest: A Regional Geography. New York, New York: Wiley Publishers. ISBN 0901411931. 
  11. ^ An Outline of American Geography, Map 9: The Agricultural Core
  12. ^ Kentucky's German-Americans In The Civil War
  13. ^ [http://www.census.gov/prod/99pubs/cenbr987.pdf Census Brief: "Rust Belt" Rebounds]
  14. ^ Ralph H. Smuckler, "The Region of Isolationism," American Political Science Review, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Jun., 1953), pp. 386-401 in JSTOR; John N. Schacht, Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert E. Wood, John L. Lewis (1981).
  15. ^ Unemployment in the region was 4.8% in November 2006, compared to 4.5% nationally.[2]

Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ...

References

  • Buley, R. Carlyle. The Old Northwest: Pioneer Period 1815-1840 2 vol (1951), Pulitzer Prize
  • Cayton, Andrew R. L. Midwest and the Nation (1990)
  • Cayton, Andrew R. L. and Susan E. Gray, Eds. The American Midwest: Essays on Regional History. (2001)
  • Frederick; John T. ed. Out of the Midwest: A Collection of Present-Day Writing (1944) literary excerpts
  • Garland, John H. The North American Midwest: A Regional Geography (1955)
  • Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888-1896 (1971)
  • Fred A. Shannon, "The Status of the Midwestern Farmer in 1900". The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. Vol. 37, No. 3. (Dec., 1950), pp. 491-510. in JSTOR
  • Richard Sisson, Christian Zacher, and Andrew Cayton, eds. The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia (Indiana University Press, 2006), 1916 pp of articles by scholars on all topics covering the 12 states; ISBN 0-253-34886-2 ISBN-13: 978-0-253-34886-9
  • Terre Haute Tribune-Star (West Central news daily)
  • Meyer, David R. "Midwestern Industrialization and the American Manufacturing Belt in the Nineteenth Century". Vol. 49, No. 4 (Dec., 1989) pp. 921-937. The Journal of Economic History, [4], JSTOR.

External links

The United States is a nation in the Western Hemisphere. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... Map of the US northeast. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The East North Central States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States which are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. ... The West North Central States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... 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Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The Cabinet meets in the Cabinet Room on May 16, 2001. ... This is an incomplete list of federal agencies, which are either departmental agencies within the executive branch of the United States government or are Independent Agencies of the United States Government (including regulatory agencies and government corporations). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... The United States courts of appeals (or circuit courts) are the mid-level appellate courts of the United States federal court system. ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ... CIA redirects here. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... NSA redirects here. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... USN redirects here. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... USAF redirects here. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Politics of the United States takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of the United States is head of state, head of government, and of a de facto two-party legislative and electoral system. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      Third parties in the United States are political parties other than the two... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      The United States has a federal government, with elected officials at federal (national), state and... Political Compass. ... This article provides a list of major political scandals of the United States. ... Map of results by state of the 2004 U.S. presidential election, representing states won by the Democrats as blue and those won by the Republican Party as red. ... This article is about the national personification of the USA. For other uses, see Uncle Sam (disambiguation). ... Flag of Puerto Rico The political movement for Puerto Rican Independence (Lucha por la Independencia Puertorriqueña) has existed since the mid-19th century and has advocated independence of the island of Puerto Rico, in varying degrees, from Spain (in the 19th century) or the United States (from 1898 to... United States territory is any extent of region under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States,[1] including all waters[2] (around islands or continental tracts). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This is a list of the cities, towns, and villages of the United States. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... This list of regions of the United States includes official (governmental) and non-official areas within the borders of the United States, not including U.S. states, the federal district of Washington, D.C. or standard subentities such as cities or counties. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that Middle Atlantic States be merged into this article or section. ... Historic Southern United States. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states south, or for the most part west of the Mississippi River, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ... The list of mountains of the United States shows the location of mountains in a given state. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Rivers in the United States is a list of rivers in the United States. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... The Colorado River from the bottom of Marble Canyon, in the Upper Grand Canyon Colorado River in the Grand Canyon from Desert View The Colorado River from Laughlin Horseshoe Bend is a horseshoe-shaped meander of the Colorado River located near the town of Page, Arizona The Colorado River is... This is a list of the extreme points of the United States, the points that are farther north, south, east, or west than any other location in the country. ... The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Water supply and sanitation in the United States is provided by towns and cities, public utilities that span several jurisdictions and rural cooperatives. ... USD redirects here. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... The Fed redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... For information on household income, see Household income in the United States. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... This graph shows the household income of the given percentiles from 1967 to 2003, in 2003 dollars. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... The primary regulator of communications in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission. ... This article adopts the US Department of Transportation definition of passenger vehicle The United States is home to the largest passenger vehicle market of any country,[1] which is a consequence of the fact that it has the largest Gross Domestic Product of any country in the world. ... Interstate Highways in the 48 contiguous states. ... Current U.S. Route shield Current U.S. Route shield in California The system of United States Numbered Highways (often called U.S. Routes or U.S. Highways) is an integrated system of roads and highways in the United States numbered within a nationwide grid. ... There arergwertwertert[1] Kyle Railroad (KYLE) [2] Missouri and Northern Arkansas Railroad (MNA) [3] Montana Rail Link (MRL) [4] Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway (MMA) [5] Nebraska, Kansas and Colorado RailNet (NKCR) New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (NYSW) [6] Northern Plains Railroad Paducah and Louisville Railway (PAL) [7] Palouse... The United States of America has a large and lucrative tourism industry serving millions of international and domestic tourists. ... The first U.S. census, in 1790, recorded four million Americans. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... For other uses, see American Dream (disambiguation). ... The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... Violent conforntation between working class union members and law enforecement such as the one between teamsters and Minneapolis police above were commonly frowned upon by professional middle class. ... Strictly speaking, the United States does not have national holidays (i. ... Prisons in the United States are operated by both the federal and state governments as incarceration is a concurrent power under the Constitution of the United States. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... This article is about the high culture and popular culture of the United States. ... The United States is home to a wide array of regional styles and scenes. ... American classical music refers to music written in the United States but in the European classical music tradition. ... American folk music, also known as Americana, is a broad category of music including Native American music, Bluegrass, country music, gospel, old time music, jug bands, Appalachian folk, blues, Tejano and Cajun. ... The first major American popular songwriter, Stephen Foster Even before the birth of recorded music, American popular music had a profound effect on music across the world. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... This article is about television in the United States, specifically its history, art, business and government regulation. ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ... Hollywood redirects here. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The folklore of the United States, or American folklore, is one of the folk traditions which has evolved on the North American continent since Europeans arrived in the 16th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... The Harlem Renaissance was named after the anthology The New Negro, edited by Alain Locke in 1925. ... Beats redirects here. ... Albert Bierstadt, The Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak, 1863, Hudson River School Visual arts of the United States refers to the history of painting and visual art in the United States. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Closely related to the development of American music in the early 20th century was the emergence of a new, and distinctively American, art form -- modern dance. ... The United States has a history of architecture that includes a wide variety of styles. ... Union Jack. ... Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. ... Main articles: Adolescent sexuality and Adolescent sexual behavior Adolescent sexuality in the United States relates to the sexuality of American adolescents and its place in American society, both in terms of their feelings, behaviors and development and in terms of the response of the government, educators and interested groups. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... Anti-Americanism, often Anti-American sentiment, is defined as being opposed or hostile to the United States of America, its people, its principles, or its policies. ... Capital punishment is the legal process which ends the life of a felon. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine underground brewery during the prohibition era. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... 1970s US postage stamp block In the United States today,the organized environmental movement is represented by a wide range of organizations sometimes called non-governmental organizations or NGOs. ... Gun Politics in the United States, incorporating the political aspects of gun politics, and firearms rights, has long been among the most controversial and intractable issues in American politics. ... The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. ... - Fence barrier on the international bridge near McAllen, TX . ... Pornography may use any of a variety of media — written and spoken text, photos, movies, etc. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. ... International recognition Civil unions and domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated Civil unions legal, same-sex marriage debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage, also called gay...


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NationMaster - American Lifestyle statistics (2823 words)
The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii).
The United States does not have an official language at federal level; nevertheless, English is spoken by the vast majority of the population and serves as the de facto language: English is the language used for legislation, regulations, executive orders, treaties, federal court rulings, and all other official pronouncements.
The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii).
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