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Encyclopedia > Midsummer
Midsummer
Midsummer
Midsummer celebration, Åmmeberg, Sweden
Also called Summer Solstice, St. John's Feast Day, Līgo, Litha, Ivan Kupala Day
Observed by Northern Europeans and Anglophones
Type Cultural, Christian, Pagan
Significance Marks the Ancient middle of Summer, Astronomical beginning of Summer, and the nativity of St. John the Baptist.
Date June 21, 24, 25 or a date close to the Summer Solstice on June 20-23
Celebrations Festivals, Bonfires, Feasting, Singing, Maypole Dancing
Related to Summer Solstice, Quarter days, Nativity of St. John the Baptist

Midsummer may refer to the period of time centered upon the summer solstice and the diverse celebrations of it around the world, but more often refers to European celebrations that accompany the summer solstice, or to Western festivals that take place in June and are usually related to Saint John the Baptist. European midsummer-related holidays, traditions and celebrations, many of which are pre-Christian in origin (although they are also called Saint John's Day festivals), are particularly important in Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Estonia, but found also in Ireland, parts of Britain (Cornwall especially), France, Italy, Portugal, in other parts of Europe and elsewhere, such as Canada, the United States, and even in the Southern Hemisphere (Brazil), where this European-born celebration would be more appropriately called Midwinter). Image File history File links Maypole_Sweden. ... Åmmeberg is a small swedish town in the municipality of Askersund, in the southern part of the province of Närke. ... Saint Jonas Festival (aka: Rasos, aka: St. ... Jāņi (IPA: ) is a Latvian festival held on the 23/24 June to celebrate the summer solstice, the shortest night and longest day of the year. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Illumination of Earth by the sun on the northern hemisphere summer solstice The summer solstice is an astronomical term regarding the position of the sun in relation to the celestial equator. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dancing around the maypole, in Åmmeberg, Sweden The maypole is a tall wooden pole (traditionally of hawthorn or birch), sometimes erected with several long coloured ribbons suspended from the top, festooned with flowers, draped in greenery and strapped with large circular wreaths, depending on local and regional variances. ... Two images showing the amount of reflected sunlight at southern and northern summer solstices respectively (watts / m²). A solstice occurs twice a year, whenever Earths axis tilts the most toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to be farthest north or south at noon. ... In British and Irish tradition, the quarter days were the four dates on which servants were hired, and rents and rates were due. ... The Nativity of St. ... Two images showing the amount of reflected sunlight at southern and northern summer solstices respectively (watts / m²). A solstice occurs twice a year, whenever Earths axis tilts the most toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to be farthest north or south at noon. ... Illumination of Earth by the sun on the northern hemisphere summer solstice The summer solstice is an astronomical term regarding the position of the sun in relation to the celestial equator. ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... The Nativity of St. ... Cornwall (pronounced ; Cornish: ) is a county in south-west England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the northern winter solstice In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is at a point in its orbit where one hemisphere is most inclined away from the sun. ...


Midsummer is also sometimes referred to as Litha; stemming from Bede's De temporum ratione in which he gave the Anglo-Saxon names for the months roughly corresponding to June and July as "se Ærra Liþa" and "se Æfterra Liþa" (the early Litha month and the later Litha month) with an intercalendary month of "Liþa" appearing after se Æfterra Liþa on leap years. Bede (IPA: ) (also Saint Bede, the Venerable Bede, or (from Latin) Beda (IPA: )), (ca. ... De Temporum Ratione is a treatise on the reckoning of time written in Latin by the Northumbrian Anglo-Saxon monk Bede. ...


Solstitial celebrations still centre upon 24 June, which is no longer the longest day of the year. The difference between the Julian calendar year (365.2500 days) and the tropical year (365.2422 days) moved the day associated with the actual astronomical solstice forward approximately three days every four centuries until Pope Gregory XIII changed the calendar bringing the solstice to around 21 June. In the Gregorian calendar, the solstice moves around a bit but in the long term it moves only about one day in 3000 years. June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... A tropical year is the length of time that the Sun, as viewed from the Earth, takes to return to the same position along the ecliptic (its path among the stars on the celestial sphere). ... Gregory XIII, born Ugo Boncompagni (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585) was pope from 1572 to 1585. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ...

Contents

History

In the 7th century, Saint Eligius (died 659/60) warned the recently-Christianized inhabitants of Flanders against these pagan solstitial celebrations. According to the Vita by his companion Ouen, he would say: Signature of St. ...

"No Christian on the feast of Saint John or the solemnity of any other saint performs solestitia [summer solstice rites] or dancing or leaping or diabolical chants."

Indeed, as Saint Eligius demonstrates, Mid-Summer has been Christianized as the feast of Saint John the Baptist: notably, unlike all other saints' days, this feast is celebrated on his birthday and not on the day of his martyrdom, which is separately observed as the "Decollation of John the Baptist" on 29 August. That more conventional day of Saint John the Baptist is not marked by Christian churches with the emphasis one might otherwise expect of such an important saint. St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... The Nativity of St. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


As for his solsticial birthday, the Roman Catholic Church celebrates the Nativity of John the Baptist (June 24) as a Solemnity, which is the highest degree a liturgical feast can have. It is even one of the few saint's feasts that is celebrated even when it falls on a Sunday; typically the feast of a saint is superseded when it falls on a Sunday. There is hardly any way that the feast of St John the Baptist could be given more emphasis in the liturgical calendar. June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ...


The celebration of Midsummer's Eve was from ancient times linked to the summer solstice. People believed that mid-summer plants had miraculous and healing powers and they therefore picked them on this night. Bonfires were lit to protect against evil spirits which were believed to roam freely when the sun was turning southwards again. In later years, witches were also thought to be on their way to meetings with other evil powers. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ...


In Sweden Mid-summer celebration originates from the time before Christianity; it was celebrated as a sacrifice time in the sign of the fertility.


The solstice itself has remained a special moment of the annual cycle of the year since Neolithic times. The concentration of the observance is not on the day as we reckon it, commencing at midnight or at dawn, but the pre-Christian beginning of the day, which falls on the previous eve. In Sweden, Finland and Estonia, Midsummer's Eve is considered the greatest festival of the year, comparable only with Walpurgis Night, Christmas Eve, and New Year's Eve. Walpurgis Night in Sweden. ... The Christmas Eve (1904-05), watercolor painting by the Swedish painter Carl Larsson (1853-1919) Christmas Eve, the evening of December 24th, the preceding day or vigil before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the Christmas season. ... The New Year is an event that happens when a culture celebrates the end of one year and the beginning of the next year. ...


National traditions

France

In France, the "Fête de la Saint-Jean" (feast of St John), traditionally celebrated with bonfires (le feu de la Saint-Jean) that are reminiscent of Midsummer's pagan rituals, is a catholic festivity in celebration of Saint John the Baptist. It takes place on June 24, on Midsummer day (St John's day). John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ...


In certain French towns, a tall bonfire is built by the inhabitants in order to be lit on St John's Day. In the Vosges region and in the Southern part of Meurthe-et-Moselle, this huge bonfire is named "chavande".


The 21 June is also known as the Fête de la Musique. The Fête de la Musique, also known as World Music Day is a festival taking place on June 21, the summer solstice. ...


Quebec, Canada

In Quebec, Canada, the celebration of June 24 was brought to New France by the first French colonists. Great fires were lit at night. According to the Jesuit Relations, the first celebrations of St John's day in New France took place around 1638. In 1834, Ludger Duvernay, printer and editor of La Minerve took the leadership of an effort to make June 24 the national holiday of the Canadiens (French Canadians). Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² - Water... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... Cover of the Jesuit Relations for 1662-1663 The Relations des Jésuites de la Nouvelle-France, commonly abbreviated as the Jesuit Relations, are the annual reports which were issued by the superior of the Jesuit missions in New France to the Jesuit overseer in France between the years of... Ludger Duvernay (January 22, 1799 - November 28, 1852) was born in Verchères, Quebec. ... Front page of the August 21, 1837 of La Minerve, displaying the eponymous Minerva. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In 1908, Pope Pius X designated John the Baptist as the patron saint of the French-Canadians. In 1925, June 24 became a legal holiday in Quebec and in 1977, it became the secular National Holiday of Quebec. It still is the tradition to light great fires on the night of the 24th of June. Pope Pius X (1903-1914), pictured in 1904, wearing the 1834 Triple Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI Saint Pius X, né Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 - 20 August 1914) was Pope from 1903 to 1914, succeeding Pope Leo XIII. He was the first pope since the Counter-Reformation Pope... Fête Nationale parade, MontrealPICTURE IS TOO DISTURBING TO LOOK AT, DO NOT LOOK AT THIS PICTURE OR YOU WILL CATCH THE FRENCH! (lol) The Fête nationale du Québec (Quebec National Holiday) is an official holiday of Quebec, Canada. ...


Portugal

In Portugal, Midsummer festivities are included in what is known today as "Santos Populares" (Popular Saints celebrations), now corresponding to different municipal holidays: St Anthony's Day in Lisbon (June 13), St John's Day in Oporto, Braga, and Almada (June 24), St Peter's day in Seixal, Sintra, Póvoa do Varzim, and Barcelos (June 29). The actual Midsummer, St John's day, is celebrated traditionally more in Oporto. Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... A modern view of the ancient city of Porto, the city that gave the name to the country. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Norte  - Subregion Cávado  - District or A.R. Braga Mayor Mesquita Machado  - Party PS Area 183. ... District or region Setúbal Mayor   - Party Emília Sousa CDU Area 70. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Península de Setúbal  - District or A.R. Setúbal Mayor Alfredo Costa  - Party CDU Area 95. ... District Lisbon Mayor   - Party Fernando Seara PSD Area 316. ... Póvoa de Varzim (pron. ... Barcelos is a city located in Braga district in the north of Portugal the city population is 22,207 in 7 parishes the municipality has 121,245 in 89 parishes. ... A modern view of the ancient city of Porto, the city that gave the name to the country. ...


Saints’ days are full of fun and merriment. The streets are decorated with balloons and arches made out of brightly-coloured paper; people dance in the city’s small squares, and altars, dedicated to the saints, are put up as a way of asking for good fortune. These holidays are days of festivities with good food and refreshments, people eat Caldo Verde (cabbage and potato soup), Sardinha Assada (grilled sardines), bread and drink red wine and água-pé (grape juice with a small percentage of alcohol).


In Lisbon, in Avenida da Liberdade, there are the Marchas, a parade of the inhabitants from the city’s different traditional quarters, with hundreds of singers and dancers and a vast audience applauding their favourite participants. As St Anthony is the matchmaker saint, it is still the tradition in Lisbon to celebrate multiple marriages (200 to 300) and still following the tradition, if you are attracted to someone, one can declare himself in the heat of the festivities by offering to the loved person a manjerico (a flower-pot with a sweet basil plant) and a love poem. Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ...


In Oporto St John's is a festival that is lived to the full in the streets, where anything is permitted. People carry a leek with them (or a little plastic hammer), which they use to bang their neighbours over the head for good luck. There is also dancing, while the highlight of the night is the firework display over the River Douro. A modern view of the ancient city of Porto, the city that gave the name to the country. ...


Across the country the traditional midsummer bonfire is also built, and following an ancient pagan tradition, revelers try to jump over the bonfire, this in order to gain protection during the rest of the year.


Brazil

The Portuguese Midsummer Day (St John's Day) brought to Brazil during colonial times has become a very important popular event that is celebrated during a period that starts one week before St John's Day and ends one week after. As this nationwide festival, called "Festa Junina" (Saint John Festival), happens during the European midsummer, it takes place in the Brazilian midwinter and is most associated with Northeastern Brazil, but today celebrated in the whole country. Festa Junina, typically termed São João (Saint John) as it is centered on that saints day, is the name of annual Brazilian celebrations (historically related to the Midsummer festivities in Europe) which take place in the beginning of the Brazilian winter, consequently during the European summer. ...


As the northeast is largely arid or semi-arid these popular festivals not only coincide with the rainy seasons of most states in the northeast but they also provide the people with an opportunity to give thanks to Saint John for the rain. They also celebrate rural life and feature typical clothing, food, dance (particularly quadrilha, which is similar to square dancing). Like Midsummer and Saint John's Day in Portugal and Scandinavian countries, São João celebrates marital union. The "quadrilha" features couple formations around a mock wedding whose bride and groom are the central attraction of the dancing. A maypole, called "mastro de São João", is also raised.


Usually taking place in an arraial, a large, open space outdoors, men dress up as farm boys with suspenders and large straw hats and women wear pigtails, freckles, painted gap teeth and red-checkered dresses, all in a loving tribute to the origins of Brazilian country music and of themselves, some of whom are recent immigrants from the countryside to cities such as Olinda, Recife, Maceió and Salvador, and some return to the rural areas during the festival to visit their families. However, nowadays, Saint John festivities are extremely popular in all urban areas and among all social classes. In the Northeast, they are as popular as Carnival. It should be noted that, like during Carnival, these festivities involve costume-wearing (in this case, peasant costumes), dancing, heavy drinking, and visual spectacles (bonfires, fireworks display, and folk dancing). Igreja da Sé Ruas de Olinda Olinda (means oh beautiful) is a city in Pernambuco, Brazil, next to Recife and Paulista. ... Nickname: Motto: Ut luceat omnibus Latin: That it may shine on all (Matthew 5:15) Location in Brazil Founded March 12, 1537 Incorporated (as village) 1709 Incorporated (as city) 1823 Government  - Mayor João Paulo Lima e Silva (PT) Area  - City 218 km²  (84. ... Maceio, Brazil. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ...


Two northeastern towns in particular have competed with each other for the title of "Biggest Saint John Festival in the World", namely Caruaru (in the state of Pernambuco), and Campina Grande, in Paraíba state. In fact, Caruaru features in the Guinness Book of World Records for holding the biggest outdoor country festival. As Saint John festivities also coincide with the corn harvest, dishes served during this period are commonly made with corn, such as canjica and pamonha; dishes also include peanuts, potatoes sausages and also sweet rice. The celebrations are very colorful and festive and include amazing pyrotechnics. Bonfires and fire in general are thus one of the most important features of these festivities, a feature that is among the remnants of midsummer pagan rituals in the Iberian Peninsula. Clay sculptures. ... Flag of Pernambuco See other Brazilian States Capital Recife Largest City Recife Area 98,281 km² Population   - Total   - Density 7,918,344 80. ... Campina Grande (population circa 400,000) is a city in northeastern Brazil. ... Flag of Paraíba See other Brazilian States Capital João Pessoa Largest City João Pessoa Area 56. ... Canjica dry beans. ... Pamonha is a traditional Brazilian food. ... Rituals was an American soap opera that ran in syndication from September 1984 to September 1985 in 260 25 minutes episodes. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


Denmark

Danish bonfire with with the traditional burning of a witch
Danish bonfire with with the traditional burning of a witch

In Denmark, the solstitial celebration is called Sankt Hans aften ("St. John's Eve"). It was an official holiday until 1770, and in accordance with the Danish tradition of celebrating a holiday on the evening before the actual day, it takes place on the evening of 23 June. It is the day where the medieval wise men and women (the doctors of that time) would gather special herbs that they needed for the rest of the year to cure people. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 881 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 881 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


It has been celebrated since the times of the Vikings, by visiting healing water wells and making a large bonfire to ward away evil spirits. Today the water well tradition is gone. Bonfires on the beach, speeches, picnics and songs are traditional, although bonfires are built in many other places where beaches may not be close by (i.e. on the shores of lakes and other waterways, parks, etc.). In the 1920s a tradition of putting a witch made of straw and cloth (probably made by the elder women of the family) on the bonfire emerged as a remembrance of the church's witchburnings from 1540 to 1693. (Unofficially a witch was lynched as late as 1897.) This burning sends the witch—and by extension, all our cares and worries—away from us, to Bloksbjerg, the mountain 'Brocken' in the Harz region of Germany where the great witch gathering was thought to be held on this day. Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 11 - Eruption of Mt. ... The Brocken, or Blocksberg, is the highest peak (1142 meters) in the Harz Mountains in Germany, between the rivers Weser and Elbe. ... The Harz is a mountain range in northern Germany. ...


Holger Drachmann and P.E. Lange-Müller wrote a beautiful midsommervise (Midsummer hymn) in 1885 called "Vi elsker vort land..." ("We Love Our Land") that is sung at every bonfire on this evening. Holger Drachmann 1888 Holger Henrik Herboldt Drachmann (October 9, 1846 - January 14, 1908), was a Danish poet and dramatist. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Estonia

"Jaanipäev" ("John's Day" in English) was celebrated long before the arrival of Christianity in Estonia, although the day was given its name by the crusaders. The arrival of Christianity, however, did not end pagan beliefs and fertility rituals surrounding this holiday. In 1578, Balthasar Russow wrote in his Livonian Chronicle about Estonians who placed more importance on the festival than going to church. He complained about those who went to church, but did not enter, and instead spent their time lighting bonfires, drinking, dancing, singing and following pagan rituals. Balthasar Russow was one of the most important Livonian and Estonian medieval chroniclers. ... Livonian Chronicle may refer to one of the following chronicles. ...


Midsummer marks a change in the farming year, specifically the break between the completion of spring sowing and the hard work of summer hay-making.


Understandably, some of the rituals of Jaanipäev have very strong folkloric roots. The best-known Jaanik, or midsummer, ritual is the lighting of the bonfire and the jumping over it. This is seen as a way of guaranteeing prosperity and avoiding bad luck. Likewise, to not light the fire is to invite the destruction of your house by fire. The fire also frightened away mischievous spirits who avoided it at all costs, thus ensuring a good harvest. So, the bigger the fire, the further the mischievous spirits stayed away.


Estonians celebrate "Jaaniõhtu" ("John's Night" in English) on the eve of the Summer Solstice (June 23) with bonfires. On the islands of Saaremaa and Hiiumaa, old fishing boats may be burnt in the large pyres set ablaze. On Jaaniõhtu, Estonians all around the country will gather with their families, or at larger events to celebrate this important day with singing and dancing, as Estonians have done for centuries. The celebrations that accompany Jaaniõhtu are the largest and most important of the year, and the traditions mirror those of southern neighbour Latvia and northern Finland. In Estonia, aside from Christmas, Jaaniõhtu (Midsummers Eve) and Jaanipäev (St Johns Day) are the most important days in the calendar. ... This article is about the island. ... Tahkuna peninsula is the most northern part of Hiiumaa, Estonia Hiiumaa is the second largest island (989 km²) belonging to Estonia. ...


Finland

Midsummer bonfire in Mäntsälä, Finland. Bonfires are very common in Finland, where many people spend their midsummer in the countryside outside towns
Midsummer bonfire in Mäntsälä, Finland. Bonfires are very common in Finland, where many people spend their midsummer in the countryside outside towns

Before 1316, the summer solstice was called Ukon juhla, after an old Finnish god Ukko. In Karelia, people had many bonfires side by side, the biggest of which was called Ukko-kokko (the "bonfire of Ukko"). At present, the midsummer holiday is known as juhannus (or midsommar, for the Swedish-speaking minority), and is the year's most notable occasion for drunkenness and revelry. Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1037 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1037 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The church of Mäntsälä was completed in 1866. ... Simplified drawing of a stone carving type found in Karelia, which is believed to have characteristics of both snake and thunder In Finnish mythology, Ukko (Estonian spelling Uku) is a god of sky, weather, crops (harvest) and other natural things. ... Map showing the parts Karelia is traditionally divided into. ...


In the Finnish midsummer celebration tradition, bonfires (kokko) are burnt at lakesides. In the coastal areas that are the stronghold of the Swedish speaking Finns, these are supplanted by a maypole tradition, transferred from Sweden, and pickled herring. ... Dancing around the maypole, in Ã…mmeberg, Sweden The maypole is a tall wooden pole (traditionally of hawthorn or birch), sometimes erected with several long coloured ribbons suspended from the top, festooned with flowers, draped in greenery and strapped with large circular wreaths, depending on local and regional variances. ...


When Finland was Christianized, the holiday was named after John the Baptist (Johannes) in order to give a Christian meaning to the pagan holiday. The traditions, however, remain quite unchanged and survive in modern-day Finland, although they have lost their original purposes. In folk magic, still well known but no longer seriously practiced, midsummer was a very potent night and the time for many small rituals, mostly for young maidens seeking suitors. Will o wisps were believed to be seen at midsummer night, marking a treasure. For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and cultural practices transmitted from generation to generation, in addition to the formally stated creeds and beliefs of a codified major religion. ... A will o the wisp is a ghostly, pale light sometimes seen at night hovering and sliding around in swamps and graveyards. ...


A great many people get very drunk and happy. Many music festivals of all sizes are organized on the Midsummer weekend. It is also an occasion when many people look for a relationship (often a rather short one). The statistics for the number of people drowned and killed in road accidents and other mishaps are morbidly counted every year while the number of assaults also peaks. It's also common to start summer holidays on Midsummer day.


Midsummerday is also the Day of the Finnish Flag. The flag is hoisted at 6 pm on Midsummer eve and flown all night till 9 pm the following evening. The Finnish flag By law, the Finnish flag must be flown from public buildings on the following days: February 28, day of Kalevala; the occasion is also celebrated as the Day of Finnish culture May 1, Labour Day Second Sunday in May, Mothers Day June 4, birthday of Carl Gustaf... Flag ratio: 11:18 Flag ratio: 11:18 Flag ratio: 11:19 The flag of Finland, also called Siniristilippu (The Blue-Cross Flag), dates from the beginning of the 20th century, and is modelled on the Danish flag, the Dannebrog. ...

  • Midsummer in Finland

Germany

On June 20, 1653 the Nuremberg town council issued the following order: :"Whereas experience heretofore hath shown, that after the old heathen use, on John's day in every year, in the country, as well in towns as villages, money and wood hath been gathered by young folk, and thereupon the so-called sonnenwendt or zimmet fire kindled, and thereat winebibbing, dancing about the said fire, leaping over the same, with burning of sundry herbs and flowers, and setting of brands from the said fire in the fields, and in many other ways all manner of superstitious work carried on---Therefore the Hon. Council of Nürnberg town neither can nor ought to forbear to do away with all such unbecoming superstition, paganism, and peril of fire on this coming day of St. John." is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg, Polish: Norymberga) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. ...

Ireland

In the Irish calendar, Midsummer is one of the four Irish Quarter days that divide the official calendar, and the evening before (St. John's Eve) is called Bonfire Night. Many towns and cities have 'Midsummer Carnivals' with fairs, concerts and fireworks either on or on the weekend nearest to Midsummer. In some rural spots, bonfires are occasionally lit on hilltops. This tradition harks back to Pagan times. Irish deities connected with Midsummer include Áine and Manannán mac Lir, to whom Midsummer offerings were traditionally made in County Limerick and the Isle of Man, respectively. The Irish calendar does not observe the typical astronomical seasons (beginning, in the Northern Hemisphere, on the equinoxes and solstices), or the meteorological seasons (beginning on March 1, June 1, September 1 and December 1), but rather centers the seasons around the solstices and equinoxes (so that, for instance, midsummer... In British and Irish tradition, the quarter days were the four dates on which servants were hired, and rents and rates were due. ... The evening of June 23, St. ... Bonfire Night can refer to a number of occasions: St. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A concert comprises a performance, usually involving some degree of formality, and particularly a performance featuring music. ... It has been suggested that Firework be merged into this article or section. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... The gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology are known from a variety of sources. ... In Irish mythology, Áine (also Aillen) was a goddess of love, growth, cattle and the sun. ... In Irish and Manx mythology, Manannán mac Lir is the god of the sea. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Limerick Code: LK Area: 2,686 km² Population (2006) 183,863 (including Limerick City); 131,303 (without Limerick City) Website: www. ...


Italy

In Italy, the feast of Saint John the Baptist has been celebrated in Florence from medieval times, certainly in the Renaissance, with festivals sometimes lasting the three days from 21 to 24 June. Saint John the Baptist is the patron saint of Florence and Turin where a fireworks display takes place at the celebration on the river. Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... “Torino” redirects here. ...


Jersey

In Jersey most of the former midsummer customs are largely ignored nowadays. The custom known as Les cônes d'la Saint Jean was observed as late as the 1970s - horns or conch shells were blown. Ringing the bachîn (a large brass preserving pan) at midsummer to frighten away evil spirits survived as a custom on some farms until the 1940s and has been revived as a folk performance in the 21st century. This tradition is called in Jèrriais faithe braithe les peîles [1]. Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ...


A large fair in the parish of St. John was suppressed by an Act of the States of Jersey in 1797 following large scale disorder. A custom which survived longer, until the First World War, was that of making milk-à-punch: young people would rise early and steal milk from cows in the field and eggs from the chicken-run (sometimes with the connivance of the farmer turning a blind eye) and make a warm flip-type drink. The Centre Stone at Sion in St. ... The States of Jersey (French: États de Jersey) is the parliament of Jersey. ...


Latvia

Main article: Jāņi

In Latvia, Midsummer is called Jāņi (Jānis being Latvian for John) or Līgo Svētki (Svētki = festival). It is a national holiday celebrated on a large scale by almost everyone in Latvia and by people of Latvian origin abroad. Celebrations consist of a lot of traditional elements - eating Jāņu cheese, drinking beer, singing hundreds of Latvian folk songs dedicated to Jāņi, burning bonfire to keep light all trough the night and jumping over it, wearing wreaths of flowers (for the women) and leaves (for the men) together with modern commercial products and ideas. Oak wreaths are worn by men named Jānis in honor of their name day. Small oak branches with leaves are attached to cars in Latvia during the festivity. Jāņi is Latvian festival held on 23/24 June to celebrate summer solstice - the shortest night and longest day in year. ... Jāņi is Latvian festival held on 23/24 June to celebrate summer solstice - the shortest night and longest day in year. ... Jāņi is Latvian festival held on 23/24 June to celebrate summer solstice - the shortest night and longest day in year. ...


In the western town of Kuldīga, revellers mark the holiday by running naked through the town at three in the morning. The event has taken place for the past seven years. Runners are rewarded with beer, and police are on hand in case any "puritans" attempt to interfere with the naked run.[1] KuldÄ«ga (German: Goldingen) is a town in western Latvia. ...


Lithuania

At the beginning of the 20th century, solstitial bonfires were common all over Lithuania, but Soviet years have repressed such customs. The Festival of Kupolė (Kupolinės) was associated with the Feast of St John the Baptist (Joninės). KupolÄ— in Lithuanian mythology is the spirit of springtime vegetation and flowers. ...

See also: Saint Jonas' Festival
  • Lithuanian folk customs connected with Midsummer

Saint Jonas Festival (aka: Rasos, aka: St. ...

Norway

St. Hansbål ved Jølstervatnet. Painting by Nikolai Astrup.

As in Denmark, Sankthansaften is celebrated on 23 June in Norway. The day is also called Jonsok, which means "John's wake," important in Catholic times with pilgrimages to churches and holy springs. For instance, right up to 1840, there was a pilgrimage to the stave church in Røldal (southwest Norway) whose crucifix was said to have healing powers. Today, however, Sankthansaften is largely regarded as a secular event. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 663 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (847 × 766 pixel, file size: 148 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artist: Nikolai Astrup (Norway 1880-1928) Title: St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 663 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (847 × 766 pixel, file size: 148 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artist: Nikolai Astrup (Norway 1880-1928) Title: St. ... Self-portrait 1904 Nikolai Astrup painted by Henrik Lund 1900. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Urnes stave church in Luster, Norway, listed as a world heritage site by UNESCO A stave church is a medieval wooden church with a post and beam construction related to timber framing. ... Røldal stave church. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


Most places the main event is the burning of a large fire. In parts of Norway a custom of arranging mock marriages, both between adults and between children, is still kept alive. The wedding was meant to symbolise the blossoming of new life. Such weddings are known to have taken place in the 1800s, but the custom is believed to be older.


Poland

Especially in northern Poland – the Eastern Pomeranian and Kashubian regions (but also in the whole country), midsummer is celebrated on June 23. People dress like dangerous sea pirates, and girls throw wreaths made of flowers into the Baltic Sea, and into lakes or rivers. The midsummer day celebration starts at about 8:00 p.m. and lasts all night until sunrise. People celebrate this special day every year and call it Noc Świętojańska which means St. John's Night. On that day in big Polish cities (like Warsaw and Kraków) there are many organized events, the most popular event being the Wianki, which means wreaths. is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Wawel Hill, Old Town, Kraków. ...


Romania

In Romania, the Midsummer celebrations are named Drăgaica or Sânziene. Drăgaica is celebrated by a dance performed by a group of 5-7 young girls of which one is chosen as the Drăgaica. She is dressed as a bride, with wheat wreath, while the other girls, dressed in white wear a veil with bedstraw flowers. Bride Bride in formal dress North America. ... Binomial name Galium verum L. Galium verum (Ladys Bedstraw or Yellow Bedstraw) is a herbaceous annual plant of the family Rubiaceae, native to Europe and Asia. ...


Midsummer fairs are being held in many Romanian villages and cities. The oldest and best known midsummer fair in Romania is the Drăgaica fair, held in Buzău between 10 and 24 June every year. Drăgaica is the traditional Midsummer fair held annually in Buzău, Romania. ... Buzău () is a city in the Buzău County, Wallachia, Romania, situated near the right bank of the Buzău river, between the Carpathian Mountains and the fertile lowlands of south Moldavia and east Wallachia. ... (Redirected from 10 June) June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ...


Russia

Night on the Eve of Ivan Kupala, by Henryk Hector Siemiradzki.

Ivan Kupala was the old Russian name for John the Baptist. Up to the present day, the Russian Midsummer Night (or Ivan's Day) is known as one of the most expressive Russian folk and pagan holidays. Ivan Kupala Day is the day of summer solstice celebrated in Russia and Ukraine on June 23 OS and July 6 NS. This is a pagan fertility rite, which has been accepted into the Orthodox Christian calendar. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x476, 21 KB)Heinrich Semiradski (1845-1902). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (860x476, 21 KB)Heinrich Semiradski (1845-1902). ... Ivan Kupala Day (Івана Купала, Ivana Kupala) is celebrated in Russia and Ukraine on 7 July. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ...


Many rites of this holiday are connected with water, fertility and autopurification. The girls, for example, would float their flower garlands on the water of rivers and tell their fortunes from their movement. Lads and girls would jump over the flames of bonfires. Nights on the Eve of Ivan Kupala inspired Modest Mussorgsky to create his Night on Bald Mountain. Fertility is a measure of reproduction: the number of children born per couple, person or population. ... Purification is the process of rendering something pure, i. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Modest Mussorgsky A Night on Bald Mountain usually refers to one of two compositions – either a seldom performed early (1867) musical picture by Modest Mussorgsky, (Russian: , Ivanova noch na lïsoy gore), or a later (1886) and very popular fantasy for orchestra by Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, A Night on the...


Sweden

In modern Sweden, Midsummer's Eve and Midsummer's Day (Midsommarafton and Midsommardagen) are celebrated from the eve of the Friday between June 19 - 25. It is arguably the most important holiday of the year, and one of the most uniquely Swedish in the way it is celebrated, even if it has been influenced by other countries long ago. The main celebrations take place on the Friday, and the traditional events include raising and dancing around a huge maypole. One typical dance is the frog dance. Before the maypole is raised, greens and flowers are collected and used to cover the entire pole. is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dancing around the maypole, in Ã…mmeberg, Sweden The maypole is a tall wooden pole (traditionally of hawthorn or birch), sometimes erected with several long coloured ribbons suspended from the top, festooned with flowers, draped in greenery and strapped with large circular wreaths, depending on local and regional variances. ...


Raising and dancing around a maypole (majstången or midsommarstången) is an activity that attracts families and many others. People dancing around the pole listen to traditional music and many wear traditional folk costumes. The year's first potatoes, pickled herring, sour cream, and possibly the first strawberries of the season are on the menu. Drinking songs are also important at this feast, and many drink heavily. Dancing around the maypole, in Ã…mmeberg, Sweden The maypole is a tall wooden pole (traditionally of hawthorn or birch), sometimes erected with several long coloured ribbons suspended from the top, festooned with flowers, draped in greenery and strapped with large circular wreaths, depending on local and regional variances. ... A very popular Scandinavian food item, pickled herring has been around for a long time. ... Sour cream is a dairy product rich in fats obtained by fermenting a regular cream by certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria. ...

Midsummer Dance by Anders Zorn, 1897
Midsummer Dance by Anders Zorn, 1897

Because Midsummer is one of the times of the year when magic is believed to be the strongest[citation needed], it was a good night to perform rituals to look into the future. Traditionally, young people pick bouquets of seven or nine different flowers and put them under their pillow in the hope of dreaming about their future spouse. In the past it was believed that herbs picked at Midsummer were highly potent, and water from springs could bring good health. Greenery placed over houses and barns were supposed to bring good fortune and health to people and livestock; this old tradition of decorating with greens continues, even though most don't take it seriously. To decorate with greens was called att maja (to "may") and may be the origin of the word majstång, maja coming originally from the month May Other researchers say the term came from German merchants who raised the maypole in June because the Swedish climate made it impossible to find the necessary greens and flowers in May, and continued to call it a maypole. Today, however, it is most commonly called a midsommarstång. In earlier times, small spires wrapped in greens were erected; this probably predates the maypole tradition, which is believed by many to have come from the continent in the Middle Ages. Others argue that some form of Midsummer pole occurred in Sweden during the pre-Christian times, and was a phallic fertility symbol, meant to impregnate the earth, but as there were no records from those times it cannot be proven, and this idea might just be a modern interpretation of the poles form. The earliest historical mention of the maypole in Sweden is from the Middle Ages. Midsummer was however linked to an ancient fertility festival which was adapted into St. Johans day by the church, even though it retained many pagan traditions, as the Swedes were slow to give up the old heathen customs. The connection to fertility is naturally linked to the time of year. Many young people became passionate at Midummer, and this was accepted, probably because it resulted in more childbirths in March which was a good time for children to be born. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Anders Zorn: Self-portrait in red 1915 Anders Zorn (February 18, 1860 – August 22, 1920) was a Swedish painter who painted a portrait of, among others, the former American President Grover Cleveland in 1899. ...


Midsummer is one of the only pagan holidays that are still celebrated in Europe (if not the only). In Denmark and Norway it is referred to as the eve of St. Hans but it's only in Sweden that it has kept its original name. Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is...


To many Swedes this holiday is seen as a holiday of partying, and as the start of the summer. The cities become almost deserted as most people travel to the country, often to their summer cottages, to celebrate. Midsummer rivals Christmas as the most important holiday of the year.


United Kingdom

In Great Britain from the 13th century Midsummer was celebrated on Midsummer Eve (St. John's Eve, June 23) and St. Peter's Eve (June 28) with the lighting of bonfires, feasting and merrymaking. The tradition largely fell to the Reformation, but persisted in rural areas up until the nineteenth century before petering out. is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


Other Midsummer festivities had uneasy relations with the Reformed establishment. The Chester Midsummer Watch Parade, begun in 1498, was held at every Summer Solstice in years when the Chester Mystery Plays were not performed. Despite the cancellation of the plays in 1575, the parade continued; in 1599, however, the Lord Mayor ordered the parades banned and the costumes destroyed. The parade was permanently banned in 1675. History The Chester Midsummer Watch Parade began in 1498. ... The Chester Mystery Plays are a cycle of mystery plays from the 14th century, and the most complete set of such plays in existence. ...


Traditional Midsummer bonfires are still lit on some high hills in Cornwall (see Carn Brea and Castle an Dinas, St. Columb Major). This tradition was revived by the Old Cornwall Society in the mid 20th century. Another Cornish midsummer celebration is Golowan, which takes place at Penzance, Cornwall which normally starts on the Friday nearest St John's Day. Golowan lasts several days and culminates in Mazey Day. This is a revival of the Feast of St John (Gol-Jowan) with fireworks and bonfires. Cornwall (pronounced ; Cornish: ) is a county in south-west England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... Carn Brea Castle Carn Brea (Cornish: Karnbre) is a civil parish and hilltop site near Redruth in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom, famous for its long history of human occupation. ... Castle an Dinas is an Iron Age hillfort near St. ... The Federation of Old Cornwall Societies (FOCS) was formed in 1924, with the objective of collecting and maintaining all those ancient things that make the spirit of Cornwall - its traditions, its old words and ways, and what remains to it of its Celtic language and nationality . // The FOCS motto Kyntelleugh... A bagpipe band from Mid Argyll walk along Market Jew Street The Golowan Festival is held in Penzance during June each year. ... Penzance Harbour and surrounding area as seen from the air Penzance (Cornish: Pensans) is a civil parish and port town in the Penwith district of Cornwall, England, UK. Granted various Royal Charters from 1512 onwards and incorporated in 1614,[2] it has a population of 21,168[1] people and...


See also Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


June 24, Midsummer Day, the feast of St John the Baptist, is one of the quarter days in England. June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... In British and Irish tradition, the quarter days were the four dates on which servants were hired, and rents and rates were due. ...


In recent years on Summer Solstice, English Heritage runs a "Managed Open Access" to Stonehenge for the Summer Solstice celebrations. English Heritage is a United Kingdom government body with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. ... For other meanings of Stonehenge, see: Stonehenge (disambiguation) Stonehenge is in the English county of Wiltshire, about 8 miles (13 km) north of Salisbury. ...


USA

Solstice fire in Montana
Solstice fire in Montana

Midsummer celebrations are held throughout the US. The NYC Swedish Midsummer celebrations in Battery Park, New York City, attracts some 3,000-5,000 people annually, which makes it one of the largest celebrations after the ones held in Leksand and at the Skansen Park in Stockholm. This event is cohosted by the Swedish Consulate in NYC and the NYC Parks Dept. Swedish Midsommar is also celebrated in other places with large Swedish and Scandinavian populations, such as Chicago, Minneapolis, and Lindsborg, Kansas. The Swedish "language village" (summer camp) Sjölunden, run by Concordia College in Minnesota, also celebrates Midsommar. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 110 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 110 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked... NYC Midsummer or Swedish Midsummer is a Swedish midsummer celebration organized since 1996 in one of New York Citys parks on the Friday afternoon close to the June solstice or St Johns Day. ... Battery Park (to New Yorkers, The Battery) is a 21-acre (8. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Leksand is a Municipality in Dalarna County, in central Sweden. ... Winter view of Skogaholm Manor, moved to Skansen from Närke Hand-coloured postcard of Skansen, ca 1900 Skansen is the first open air museum and zoo in Sweden and is located on the island DjurgÃ¥rden in Stockholm, Sweden[citation needed]. It was founded in 1891 by Artur Hazelius... Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th Century Population (April 2007)  - City 782,885  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ... Concordia is the Latin word for harmony, which has been used to refer to many things: Concordia was the Roman goddess of harmony. ...


Geneva, Illinois, hosts a Swedish Day (Svenskarnas Dag) festival on the third Sunday of June. The event, featuring maypole-raising, dancing, and presentation of an authentic Viking ship, dates back to 1911. Incorporated City in 1835. ...


The Seattle, Washington neighborhood of Fremont puts on a large Summer Solstice Parade & Pageant, which in recent years has controversially included painted naked cyclists. Nickname: Location of Seattle in King County and Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County King County Incorporated December 2 1869 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Greg Nickels (NP) Area  - City  142. ... Fremont Fremont is a neighborhood in Seattle, Washington. ... The Summer Solstice Parade & Pageant is an annual event sponsored and produced by The Fremont Arts Council (FAC), an organization that supports the arts and artists in and around the Fremont neighborhood of Seattle, Washington. ... The Synchronised Cycling Drill Team shown performing. ...


A solstitial celebration is held on Casper Mountain in Wyoming at Crimson Dawn park. Crimson Dawn is known in the area for the great stories of mythical creatures and people that live on Casper Mountain. The celebration is attended by many people from the community, and from around the country. A large bonfire is held and all are invited to throw a handful of red dirt into the fire in hopes that they get their wish granted.[2] Casper Mountain is a long mountain at the north end of the Laramie Mountains overlooking Casper, Wyoming along the North Platte River. ... The Crimson Dawn is a fictional mystical substance found in the comic book X-Men and part of the Marvel Comics universe. ...


Neopaganism

As forms of Neopaganism can be quite different and have very different origins, these representations can vary considerably, despite the shared name. Some celebrate in a manner as close as possible to how they believe the Ancient Germanic pagans observed the tradition, while others observe the holiday with rituals culled from numerous other unrelated sources, Germanic culture being only one of the sources used.


Germanic neopaganism

Midsummer or Litha is listed on the reconstructed Germanic calendar used by some Germanic Neopagans. In modern times, Litha is celebrated by Germanic Neopagans or Heathens who emphasize the reconstruction of Anglo-Saxon Germanic paganism. The Germanic calendars were the regional agricultural almanacs in use amongst the Germanic peoples, prior to the adoption of the Julian and later the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Heathenry be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Heathenry be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Germanic neopaganism. ... Polytheistic reconstructionism, or simply reconstructionism, is the practice of re-establishing and practicing historical polytheistic religions in the modern world. ... Anglo-Saxon religion is the religious practices and beliefs of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes of pre-Christian England to about the 7th century AD. // Origins and History The Anglo-Saxons arrived in Britain from southern Scandinavia, the Netherlands and northern Germany. ... ROSIE IS A GERMN LADYGermanic paganism refers to the religion of the Germanic nations preceding Christianization. ...


Wicca

Litha is one of the eight solar holidays or sabbats observed by Wiccans, though the New Forest traditions (those referred to as British Traditional Wicca) tend to use the traditional name Midsummer. It is celebrated on the Summer Solstice, or close to it. The holiday is considered the turning point at which summer reaches its height and the sun shines longest. Among the Wiccan sabbats, Midsummer is preceded by Beltane, and followed by Lughnasadh or Lammas. The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... In the Wiccan form of neopaganism, a Sabbat is one of the eight major seasonal festivals which make up the Wheel of the Year. ... The pentagram within a circle, a symbol of faith used by many Wiccans, sometimes called a pentacle. ... British Traditional Wicca (abbreviated BTW) is a term used to describe some Wiccan Traditions which have their origins in the New Forest region of England. ... Summer is one of the four seasons of the year. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... This article is about the Gaelic holiday. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In English-speaking countries, August 1 is Lammas Day (loaf-mass day), the festival of the first wheat harvest of the year. ...

Holidays Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

See also

The term Christianised calendar refers to feast days which are Christianised survivals from pre-Christian times. ... In Neopaganism, the Wheel of the Year is the natural cycle of the seasons, commemorated by the eight Sabbats. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the northern hemisphere winter solstice Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the southern hemisphere winter solstice In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is at a point in its orbit where one hemisphere is... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Latvian town to mark summer solstice with naked run

References

  • Hutton, Ronald (1993). The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-18946-7. 
  • Hutton, Ronald (1996, 2001). The Stations of the Sun. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-285448-8. 
  • Lemprière, Raoul (1976). Customs, Ceremonies and Traditions of the Channel Islands. Hale. ISBN 0-7091-5842-4. 

External links

Look up midsummer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Midsummer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2390 words)
Midsummer, or Litha as it was known by the ancient Germanic peoples, refers the period of time centered upon the summer solstice and the religious celebrations that accompany it.
Midsummer's Eve is in Sweden and Finland considered the greatest festival of the year, comparable only with Walpurgis Night, Christmas Eve, and New Year's Eve.
Midsummer, usually referred to by the traditional name, Litha, is one of the eight solar holidays or sabbats of Neopaganism, especially Wicca.
Midsummer - definition of Midsummer in Encyclopedia (1398 words)
As in Sweden, maypoles have been transferred to the midsummer festivities, and pickled herring is the hallmark of the coastal areas, where also the Finland-Swedish language and culture have their stronghold.
In Britain from the 13th century Midsummer was celebrated on Midsummer Eve (St. John's Eve, June 23) and St. Peter's Eve (June 28) with the lighting of bonfires, feasting and merrymaking.
Midsummer is one of the eight solar holidays or sabbats of Neopaganism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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