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Encyclopedia > Middle school

Middle school serves as a bridge between the Elementary School and the High School. The terms can be used in different ways in different countries, sometimes interchangeably. In Chinese language, especially Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong, middle school is the synonym to secondary school. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ...


In 1888 Harvard University president Charles Eliot launched an effort to reorganize primary and secondary schooling. At that time, as state after state enacted compulsory attendance laws, eight-year elementary schools and four-year high schools were the most common types of institutions. But Eliot and his colleagues on the National Education Association's Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies argued that young adolescents wasted time in the last years of elementary school and should be introduced to college preparatory courses such as algebra and Latin at an earlier age. The committee recommended reducing elementary schools to six grade levels (1 - 6) and increasing secondary grades to six grade levels (7 - 12). They also recommended that the new secondary schools be designed to allow talented, college-bound students to be promoted quickly so that they could complete the six years of secondary school in as few as four years.


As grades seven and eight began to be considered junior or introductory high school grades rather than elementary grades, intermediate schools (grades 7 - 8), junior high schools (grades 7 - 9), and junior-senior high schools (grades 7 - 12) began to appear. These new secondary schools were seen as a way of offering young adolescents a curriculum that was more substantial and more differentiated than that offered in elementary schools, while also addressing common practical problems such as the overcrowding of K - 8 elementary schools and high rates of students leaving school after grade eight. In addition to giving college-bound youths earlier access to college preparatory work, educators in these schools sought to entice greater numbers of noncollege-bound youths to stay in school at least through grade nine by offering them commercial, domestic, and vocational curricula. By 1920 the number of junior high schools in the United States had grown to 883. By the 1940s more than half of the nation's young adolescents attended a junior high school, and by 1960 four out of five did so.


The enduring contributions of junior high schools to middle-level education in America are many. These schools introduced a broader range of exploratory, tryout courses and activities in order to assist young adolescents to discover and develop their interests and abilities. Junior high schools were also the source of other educational innovations, including homeroom and teacher-adviser programs, extracurricular activities, and core curriculum approaches emphasizing the correlation of subject areas and the integration of learning across disciplinary boundaries.


The emergence of middle schools

Despite the innovations and successes of junior high schools, these schools became the target of increasing criticism for tending to adopt the curricula, grading systems, large size, schedules, regimentation, and impersonal climate of senior high schools. Ironically, some of the key organizational changes that the early promoters of junior high schools believed would meet the special needs of young adolescents - departmentalization, teacher specialization, and school buildings as seventh- and eighth-grade programs. The ninth-grade program and curriculum were constrained by Carnegie unit requirements for high school graduation and college entrance. Because these requirements affected scheduling and staffing decisions, they often strongly influenced the educational programs offered to seventh and eighth graders in junior high schools as well.


Fifty years after the first junior high schools were established, educators began to call for middle schools - new schools that had a different grade organization and a more developmentally responsive program - in order to provide a more gradual and appropriate transition between the elementary and high school years. In the 1950s Alvin Howard became one of the first to advocate the creation of a 6 - 8 school that would remove the limitations imposed by Carnegie units, have a more stable school climate than a 7 - 8 school, and would recognize the earlier onset of puberty of young adolescents in the second half of the twentieth century. William Alexander and Emmett Williams, in 1965, recommended the creation of 5 - 8 middle schools featuring interdisciplinary teaming, small learning communities, a teacher advisory program, and special learning centers where students could catch up on needed skills or branch out into further exploration. For example, Alexander and Williams suggested the creation of wing units (interdisciplinary teams of teachers to jointly plan curriculum and deliver instruction to 100 students). Each wing unit would join with wing units from the other grade levels in the school to form a "school within the school." The special learning centers would be open during the school day, after school, and on Saturday, and would include a library, a reading laboratory, a home arts center, a typing and writing laboratory, a foreign language laboratory, an arts and hobby center, a music room, and a physical education/recreation center.


In 1966 Donald Eichorn, a school district superintendent, wrote the first full book promoting the creation of 6 - 8 middle schools. The book attempted to apply Piaget's theories regarding early adolescent development in designing a suitable educational program. For example, Eichorn proposed that middle schools offer frequent opportunities for active learning and interaction with peers. He suggested eliminating activities that might embarrass late maturers or place them at a competitive disadvantage (e.g., interscholastic athletics and prom queen contests) and replacing them with less competitive activities that welcome and affirm all students regardless of their current level of physical or cognitive development (intramural athletics and physical education programs and flexible self-selected projects that allow all students to pursue personal interests and develop further interests while making frequent use of a well-equipped resource center). He proposed flexible scheduling to allow for extended learning opportunities and flexible groupings of middle school students for instruction (e.g., by current cognitive functioning or interests) rather than just by chronological age or grade level. He called for a curriculum that featured frequent use of interdisciplinary thematic units that reflected the interrelated nature of different content areas and that balanced traditional academic subjects with cultural studies, physical education, fine arts, and practical arts.


Growth and maturation of the middle school movement

In 1965 only 5 percent of middle-grades schools in the United States were 6 - 8 or 5 - 8 middle schools, and 67 percent were 7 - 9 junior high schools. By the year 2000 these percentages were reversed: only 5 percent of middle-grades schools were 7 - 9 junior highs and 69 percent were 6 - 8 or 5 - 8 middle schools. The number of middle schools grew rapidly - from 1,434 (23%) in 1971 to 4,094 (33%) in 1981; 6,168 (51%) in 1991; and 9,750 (69%) in 2000.


Although the number of middle schools grew quickly during the 1960s and 1970s, according to William Alexander, writing in 1978, most of these new schools displayed "limited progress toward the objectives of the middle school movement" (p. 19). In fact, John Lounsbury noted in 1991 that the first comparative studies of the new middle schools and the old junior high schools revealed that the schools "were surprisingly alike in actual practice" (p. 68). Changes were restricted largely to the names of schools and the grades they contained.


One reason for the lack of progress in implementing a set of distinct practices was that many middle schools were established for reasons of expediency. For example, the new grade arrangements helped some districts reduce overcrowding in elementary schools, poor utilization of buildings, or racial segregation. Through the 1970s little empirical research was conducted on the consequences of implementing or ignoring the lists of recommended practices. Thus, there was no scientific evidence to persuade educators to change their programs and practices.


By the 1980s the debates between educators about the best grade structures for young adolescents began to die out, as both middle school and junior high school advocates realized that the typical middle-grades school, regardless of grade organization, was still failing to meet the needs of its students. "Junior high and middle school proponents and practitioners began to coalesce into a single cause - the cause of improving early adolescent education" (Lounsbury, p. 67). This new unity of purpose and vision was also fueled by the emergence of a strong and respected literature on the characteristics of early adolescents, and by research indicating that the transition to middle-grades schools was associated with declines in academic motivation and performance.


Research also indicated that students perceived their middle-grades teachers as more remote and impersonal than their elementary teachers, and that they were less certain that their middle-grades teachers cared about them or knew them well. Furthermore, student work completed in the first year of the middle grades was often less demanding than in the last year of elementary school, academic expectations in middle-grades schools were generally low, and students had few opportunities to learn important new concepts and apply them to real-world problems. This research along with case studies and empirical analyses of the effects of recommended practices on the quality of school programs and on the learning, motivation, and development of young adolescents all gave further impetus to the calls for the reform of middle-grades schools.


As practitioners, researchers, and scholars began speaking with one voice about the continuing shortcomings of middle-grades education in the United States, middle-grades reform began receiving unprecedented national attention. That is, at the end of the 1980s, states and foundations that had been focusing their educational reform initiatives on pre-school and early elementary education or on high school improvement and dropout prevention, began to recognize that the middle grades might be central to helping more students succeed and stay in school. California was one of the first states to produce a task-force report calling for middle-grades reform. California's 1987 report, Caught in the Middle, was followed by a long line of reports from Florida, Maryland, Louisiana, and at least fifteen other states. At about the same time, foundations such as the Lilly Endowment, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation began advocating and funding middle-grades reform initiatives.


These efforts helped solidify the consensus on the kinds of supportive structures and responsive practices needed by students in the middle grades (e.g., the eight principles outlined in 1989 by the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development in Turning Points). At this time, research in the middle grades by a wide variety of researchers began to show that schools serving early adolescents, especially middle schools, were increasingly implementing educational programs that were based on these recommended practices for the middle grades. Fewer schools were middle schools only in name.


Accomplishments of the middle school movement

Anthony Jackson and Gayle Davis noted in 2000 that "structural changes in middle-grades education - how students and teachers are organized for learning - have been fairly widespread and have produced good results" (p. 5). Changes in practice that ensure each student in a middle-grades school has more support from (and more meaningful relationships with) caring adults at the school have reduced the negative shifts in students' motivational beliefs during the middle grades. Schools-within-schools, looping (assigning teachers to the same students for two or three years), semidepartmentalizion (assigning a teacher to teach two subjects to three class sections rather than one subject to six class sections), and interdisciplinary teaming with a common planning period for the teachers on a team are examples of structural reforms that have been made in many middle-grades schools. Such reforms have been found to increase students' well-being and perceptions that their teacher cares about them and their learning, and to strengthen teacher - student relationships. In turn, when middle-grades students perceive their teachers care about them and their learning, they are more likely to report that they try to do what their teachers ask them to do and give their best effort in class, and they are less likely to engage in risky behaviors.


In sum, many middle-grades schools have succeeded in changing their climates and structures to become what Joan Lipsitz and colleagues, in 1997, called "warmer, happier, and more peaceful places for students and adults"(p. 535). However, as David Hamburg noted in 2000, changes in climates and structures "are necessary but not sufficient for major improvement in academic achievement" (p. xii). That is, while modest achievement gains may result from changes in school organization - such as semidepartmentalization, team teaching, or creating smaller learning environments - major achievement gains are obtained only in schools that have implemented both changes in school organization and in curriculum, instruction, and professional development changes that assist teachers to "transmit a core of common, substantial knowledge to all students in ways that foster curiosity, problem solving, and critical thinking" (Hamburg, p. x). For example, in a 1997 study by Robert Felner and colleagues of a group of thirty-one Illinois middle schools, those schools that had made both structural and instructional changes that were consistent with Turning Points recommendations achieved substantially better and displayed larger achievement gains over a two-year period than did similar schools that had implemented at least some of the key structural changes outlined in Turning Points, but not changes in curriculum and instruction. Another study suggesting the critical importance of going beyond just structural changes in improving achievement was conducted by Steven Mertens, Nancy Flowers, and Peter Mulhall in 1998, and involved 155 middle-grades schools in Michigan. When these researchers analyzed outcomes in schools that had one of the key structural changes in place (interdisciplinary teams that were given high levels of common planning time), they found that achievement gains were much higher among the subset of these schools that had a received a grant from the Kellogg Foundation that made it possible for their teachers to engage more regularly in staff development activities focused on curriculum and instruction. In fact there is even evidence from this study that staff development may be more important than common planning time in facilitating achievement gains. Schools whose teams had inadequate common planning (but had a grant that made frequent professional development possible) showed more achievement gains than did schools without grants, even those whose teams had high levels of planning time.


Unfortunately, high-performing middle schools are still rare, because "relatively little has changed at the core of most students' school experience: curriculum, assessment, and instruction" (Jackson and Davis, p. 5). Although structures and practices that are in keeping with the best of the middle-grades reform documents are an essential foundation for middle-grade reform, dramatic and sustained improvements in student performance occur only if teachers also provide all students with markedly better learning opportunities every day.


Problems

One particularly vexing problem that plagued junior high schools and continues to plague middle schools is what Samuel H. Popper termed being "a school without teachers" . Because of the lack of teacher education programs and licensure that focus on the middle school level, the majority of young adolescents are taught by teachers who prepared for a career as an elementary or high school teacher. Fewer than one in four middle-grades teachers have received specialized training to teach at the middle level before they begin their careers. As a result, teachers who wind up teaching in middle schools, even those who discover that they enjoy teaching middle school students, find themselves woefully unprepared to work with this age group. Thomas Dickinson commented in 2001 that these instructors enter middle schools "unschooled in appropriate curriculum and instruction for young adolescents, and ignorant of the place and purpose of middle school organizational practices and the complex role of the middle school teacher" . This is clearly one reason why curriculum and instruction in the middle grades continues to show little improvement over time.


There is a growing consensus to support specialized teacher preparation at the middle-grades level. Numerous studies show that middle-grades teachers and principals favor specialized teacher preparation of middle-grades teachers. Similarly, the National Middle School Association, The National Association for Secondary School Principals, and the National Forum to Accelerate Middle Grades Reform have all called for the specialized preparation of middle-grades teachers. Perhaps the only solution to this enduring problem is for states to establish mandatory requirements for middle-level licensure that do not overlap significantly with licensure for elementary school or high school teachers. This will serve as an incentive for colleges and universities to establish specialized programs that prepare practicing and future teachers to work effectively with middle school students, curricula, and instructional practices, and also as an incentive to teachers to pursue this specialized training.


Unfortunately, there is also a lack of middle-school principal preparation. "Preparation to lead a school based on the tenets of the middle school concept is even more rare than middle school teacher preparation programs. The same can be said for the licensure of middle school principals" .


The National Forum to Accelerate Middle Grades Reform declared in 2000 that high-performing middle schools are "academically excellent, developmentally responsive, and socially equitable" . If such middle schools are going to become the norm rather than the exception, both middle school teachers and principals need more specialized preparation and continuing professional development to support and sustain their trajectory toward excellence.Thus in some governmental and institutional contexts, "Middle school" may be used as no more than an alternative name to "junior high school", or it might imply a pedagogical shift away from primary and secondary school practices. The concept of the name junior high dates back to 1909, with the founding of Indianola Junior High School in Columbus, Ohio. [1] The concept of the name "middle school" dates back to 1950, from Bay City, Michigan. [1] Indianola Junior High School was the first junior high school in the United States. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Fairfield, Delaware Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City 212. ... Bay City is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan located near the base of the Saginaw Bay on Lake Huron. ...


Asia

Afghanistan

In Afghanistan education often does not last until middle school. Under the Taliban, girls were not allowed to attend school. Now, both boys and girls are allowed to attend school, but many families elect to have their children work at home, rather than send them to school. The Taliban (Pashto: - , also anglicised as Taleban) are a Sunni Islamist and Pashtun nationalist movement[2] that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the Northern Alliance and NATO countries. ...


People's Republic of China

In the People's Republic of China, junior middle schools (chuzhong or 初中) refer to years 7–9. It covers the last 3 years of the 9-year compulsory education, which is subject to fees. At the end of the last year, the college-bound students take exams to enter high school (gaozhong or 高中) others wishing to continue their training may enter technical high school (中学专科/中专) or vocational school (职业学校). Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also as referred to as a trade school or career college, and school is operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ...


Japan

In Japan, junior high schools, which cover years seven through nine, are called chū gakkō (中学校, literally, middle school). They are referred to as "junior high schools" in most conversations in English and are referred to by MEXT as "lower secondary schools". (See Secondary education in Japan.) Office building The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology ), also known as MEXT, is one of the ministries of the Japanese government. ... Japanese high school students wearing the sailor fuku Japanese junior high school students in sailor fuku Secondary Education in Japan is split into lower secondary schools (中学校 chÅ«gakkō, literally, middle school) which cover the seventh through ninth years, and upper secondary schools (高等学校 kōtōgakkō, literally, high school, abbreviated to...


South Korea

In the Republic of Korea, a middle school is called junghakgyo (중학교, 中學校, also literally meaning "middle school") which includes grades 7 through 9. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ...


Indonesia

In Indonesia children go to school at the age of 3. They start from pre-school and kindergarten. At the age of 6 they go to SD 1 (grade school). They spend six years here then continue to Junior High School (SMP) for three years. After Junior high they go to Senior high for three years. After 12 years of completing grade school, it's up to them to continue college or university in what they prefer.


Taiwan

Taiwanese junior high schools (3-year) were originally called chuzhong (初級中學, 初中; "primary middle school"). However, in August 1968, they were renamed guozhong (國民中學, 國中; "citizen middle school") when they became free of charge and compulsory. Private middle school nowadays are still called chuzhong. Taiwanese junior high schools are attended normally by those older than twelve. Accompanied with the switch from junior high to middle school was the cancellation of entrance examination needed to enter senior high school. This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ...


Australia/Oceania

Australia

In most regions of Australia don't have middle schools as students go straight from primary school to secondary school. A primary school in Český Těšín, Czech Republic. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ...


In 1996 and 1997 a national conference met to develop what became known as the National Middle Schooling Project, which aimed to develop a common Australian view of

  • early adolescent needs
  • guiding principles for educators
  • appropriate strategies to foster positive adolescent learning.

The first middle school established in Australia is The Armidale School, in Sydney. Schools have followed this trend such as The King's School. The Armidale School (TAS) is an independent, Anglican, day and boarding school predominantly for boys, located in Armidale, on the New England Tablelands of northern New South Wales, Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... For other schools of the same name, see The Kings School. ...


As of 2007, the Northern Territory has introduced a three tier system featuring Middle Schools for years 7-9 (approx ages 12-15) and high school year 10-12. (approx ages 15-18)[2] 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... Three-tier education refers to those structures of schooling, which exist in some parts of England, where pupils are taught in three distinct school types. ...


New Zealand

In New Zealand intermediate schools cover years 7 and 8 (formerly known as form 1 and 2, with children aged 11-12) in areas where the local primary schools teach year 1 to year 6 students. Many primary schools however, do teach year 7 and 8. These primary schools may have a relationship with a nearby intermediate school to teach manual training classes such as woodwork.


Recently, however, Junior High Schools covering years 7-10 (the four years between primary and NCEA, the national secondary qualification) have been established. The first was [http://www.ajhs.school.nz Albany Junior High School in Albany, Auckland. NCEA can stand for: National Certificate of Educational Achievement, New Zealands main secondary school qualification National Council for Educational Awards, Ireland National Catholic Educational Association, United States National Conference on Ethics in America, United States National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, Australia Category: ... Albany is a northern suburb of North Shore, one of several cities in the Auckland metropolitan area in northern New Zealand. ...


Europe

Bosnia, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia

In the countries of former Yugoslavia, srednja škola (literally translated as Middle School) refers to age between 14 and half - 15 and 18, and lasts 2-4 years since elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). The final four years of elementary school are actually what would be called junior high school in USA. Students have up to 12-13 different subjects in each school year (most of them only two 45-minute class periods per week). For example, 8th grade students do not have one subject called Science but three separate subjects called Chemistry, Physics and Biology. As part of the former Yugoslavia, Bosnia enjoyed a highly-developed educational system. ... Education in Montenegro is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science of Government of Montenegro. ... Education in Serbia is regulated by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Sports. ... General location of the political entities known as Yugoslavia. ...


France

In France, the equivalent period to middle school is collège, which ends with the Troisième (the equivalent of the Canadian and American Grade 9). Upon completion of this grade, students are awarded a Brevet des collèges if they obtain a certain number of points on a series of tests in various subjects. In France, secondary education is in two stages: the collèges (IPA: ) cater for the first four years of secondary education from the ages of 11 to 15; the lycées (IPA: ) provide a three-year course of further secondary education for children between the ages of 15 and 18. ... Ninth grade is a year of education in the United States and other countries nine years after kindergarten. ... A Brevet des collèges diploma. ...


Italy

In Italy, middle school (which is "scuola media" in Italian) refers to age between 10-11 and 13-14, lasting 3 years. At the end of the third year, students have to take a final test due to complete this grade. Middle school in Italy is the last compulsory year; however, starting to work at the age of 14 is actually illegal, so, even students who don't wish to keep studying anymore, usually take a short professional course (two years). Students who decide to end school at the age of 14, can either get a sabbatical or start working illegally.


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, some English Local Education Authorities introduced Middle Schools in the 1960s and 1970s. The notion of Middle Schools was mooted by the Plowden Report of 1967 which proposed a change to a three-tier model including First schools for children aged between 5 and 8, Middle Schools for 8–12 year-olds, and then Upper or High Schools for 12–16 year-olds.[3] Some authorities introduced Middle Schools for ideological reasons, in line with the report, while others did so for more pragmatic reasons relating to the raising of the school leaving age in compulsory education to 16, or to introduce a comprehensive system.[4] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A Local Education Authority (LEA) is the part of a council in England or Wales that is responsible for education within that councils jurisdiction. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The Plowden Report is the unofficial name for the 1967 report of the Central Advisory Council For Education (England) into Primary education in England. ... Three-tier education refers to those structures of schooling, which exist in some parts of England, where pupils are taught in three distinct school types. ... First School is a term occasionally used in the United Kingdom for a primary school. ... The Raising Of School Leaving Age (often shortened to ROSLA) is an act brought into force when the legal age a child is allowed to leave compulsory education increases. ... A comprehensive school is a secondary school that does not select children on the basis of academic attainment or aptitude. ...


Different authorities introduced different age-range schools, although in the main, three models were used:

  • 5–8 First Schools, followed by 8–12 Middle Schools, as suggested by Plowden
  • 5–9 First Schools, followed by 9–13 Middle Schools
  • 5–10 First Schools followed by 10–13 Middle Schools, or Intermediate Schools

In addition, some schools were provided as combined schools catering for pupils in the 5–12 age range as a combined first and middle school. [4] Combined School is a term used in the United Kingdom which has begun to lose its original meaning. ...


Around 2000 middle and combined schools were in place in the early 1980s. However, that number began to fall in the later 1980s with the introduction of the National Curriculum. The new curriculum's splits in Key Stages at age 11 encouraged the majority of Local Education Authorities to return to a two-tier system of Primary and Secondary schools.[5] The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ... The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ... The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland, as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act 1988. ... A Key Stage is a stage of the state education system in the UK setting the educational knowledge expected of students at various ages. ... A Local Education Authority (LEA) is the part of a council in England or Wales that is responsible for education within that councils jurisdiction. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Czech Republic. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ...


Under current legislation, all middle schools must be deemed either primary or secondary. Thus, schools which accept pupils up to age 12 are entitled middle-deemed-primary, while those accepting pupils aged 13 or over are entitled middle-deemed-secondary. For statistical purposes, such schools are often included under primary and secondary categories "as deemed".[6] Notably, most schools also follow teaching patterns in line with their deemed status, with most deemed-primary schools offering a primary-style curriculum taught by one class teacher, and most deemed-secondary schools adopting a more specialist-centred approach.


Some Middle Schools still exist in various areas of England. The are supported by the National Middle Schools' Forum. A list of Middle Schools in England is available. The National Middle Schools Forum (NMSF) is a national education association dedicated exclusively to the promtion and support of Middle schools in England. ... Since the Education Act 1964, it has been possible for local authorities in England and Wales to open Middle schools which cross the traditional primary / secondary (2-tier system) divide. ...


In Scotland a similar system was trialled in Grangemouth, Falkirk between 1975 and 1987.[7](See Grangemouth middle schools article) The label of junior high school is used for some through schools in Orkney and Shetland which cater for pupils from 5 up to the age of 16, at which point they transfer to a nearby secondary school. This article is about the country. ... Grangemouth petrochemical works, November 2006 A map of Grangemouth from 1945 Grangemouth is a town and former burgh in the council area of Falkirk, Scotland, and formerly in the County of Stirling. ... Falkirk (an Eaglais Bhreac in Gaelic) is one of the 32 unitary authority council areas in Scotland. ... Two Middle schools were operated in the Grangemouth area of Stirlingshire, Scotland between 1974 and 1988. ...


North America

The definition of "middle school" is muddied somewhat because, in North American contexts, "secondary education" quite frequently means post-compulsory (High School level) education, encompassing such diverse institutions as "English as a second language" schooling, trade schools and certificate programs, as well as other intermediate options such as Junior colleges, four-year colleges and full universities. North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... A vocational school, also sometimes referred to as a trade school is one operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... For the Indian grade 11 and 12 schools, see Junior College A junior college is a two-year post-secondary school whose main purpose is to provide a method of obtaining academic, vocational and professional education. ... For other uses, see College (disambiguation). ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...


Canada and the United States

As mentioned earlier in the article, the first junior high school was established in 1909. Advocated by groups such as the National Middle School Association, the middle school concept is a relatively new model for the middle-level grades, contrasted with the more traditional junior high concept. North American children at this level are educated either at junior high schools or at middle schools, depending on the philosophy and practice of the particular school. National Middle School Association (NMSA) is an international education association dedicated exclusively to the middle level grades. ...


Conceptual distinctions

Junior high schools were created for the purpose of "bridging the gap between the elementary and the high school," a concept credited to Charles W. Eliot, president of Harvard University.[8] The faculty is organized into academic departments that operate more or less independently of one another. The middle school movement in the United States saw this model as inadequately addressing the intended purpose of transition by maintaining an emphasis on the high school model, as reflected in the "junior high" designation. Prof. ... Harvard redirects here. ... A faculty is a division within a university. ... This is a list of academic disciplines (and academic fields). ...


The middle school concept often involves a group of two to eight teachers from different disciplines working as a team with the same group of students of the same grade level, with each teacher teaching a different subject. This format facilitates interdisciplinary units, where part or all of the entire team teaches on the same general topic from the perspective of different disciplines. The middle school philosophy also advocates assigning students in each team to a homeroom. By having homeroom daily for various discussions and activities, middle schools try to foster a sense of belonging in students to ease social and emotional difficulties during adolescence.[citation needed] Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ...


Configurations

Middle school (sometimes abbreviated MS[9][10][11])is often used instead of junior high school when demographic factors increase the number of younger students.[12] Middle schools are usually grades 6, 7, and 8 (i.e. around ages 11-14), varying from area to area and also according to population vs. building capacity. Another common model includes grades 5-8.


The middle school format has now replaced the junior high format by a ratio of about ten to one in the U.S. In Canada, the junior high concept is primarily seen in Western Canada, while middle schools to US-standards are generally only seen in Ontario and parts of Atlantic Canada, where they are sometimes called senior elementary schools. Many people also call middle school "junior high school." Middle school does not exist at all in Quebec, where primary school comprises grades 1 to 6, secondary school comprises grades 7 to 11, and those latter are named "secondary 1" through "secondary 5". This article is about the region in Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... HI Eric u suck!!!!!!!!!!!!! from,Trevor and Dalton ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

See also: Secondary education in the United States and Education in Canada

As part of education in the United States, secondary education usually covers grades 5, 6, or 7 through twelve. ... Canadian School Train, pupils attend classes at Nemigos near Chapleau, Ontario. ...

Mexico

In Mexico, the middle school system is called "secundaria" ("secondary") and comprises grades 7-9 and is completed after primary (1-6) and before preparatory (10-12).


Professional organizations

The National Middle School Association (NMSA) was founded in 1973. It now claims over 30,000 members representing principals, teachers, central office personnel, professors, college students, parents, community leaders, and educational consultants across the United States, Canada, and 46 other countries. An equivalent organisation operates in the UK under the name of The National Middle Schools' Forum. The National Middle Schools Forum (NMSF) is a national education association dedicated exclusively to the promtion and support of Middle schools in England. ...


Further reading

  • Arnold, J. "Needed: A Realistic Perspective of the Early Adolescent Learner." CLEARINGHOUSE 54:4 (1980).
  • Atwell, Nancie. "In the Middle: New Understanding About Writing, Reading, and Learning." Boynton/Cook Pub (1987).
  • Beane, J. "Dance to the Music of Time: The Future of Middle Level Education." THE EARLY ADOLESCENT MAGAZINE 2 (September 1987):18–26.
  • Beane, J. A MIDDLE SCHOOL CURRICULUM: FROM RHETORIC TO REALITY. Columbus, Ohio: National Middle School Association, 1990a.
  • Beane, J. AFFECT IN THE CURRICULUM: TOWARD DEMOCRACY, DIGNITY, AND DIVERSITY. New York: Teachers College Press, 1990b.
  • Cross Keys Middle School. A PLACE OF OUR OWN. Florissant, Missouri: Florissant Public Schools, 1990.
  • Jennings, W., and Nathan, J. "Startling/Disturbing Research on School Program Effectiveness." PHI DELTA KAPPAN 59 (1977): 568–572.
  • Fenwick, J. (Primary Author) Taking Center Stage: A Commitment to Standards-Based Education for California's Middle Grades Students. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 2001
  • "Why Middle Level Schools Are KEY to Young Adolescent Success" Westerville, OH: NMSA, 2003. [2]

References

  1. ^ a b CEEP. Popular Topics. Middle School, U of I.
  2. ^ About Middle Years. Middle Years - N8orthern Territory of Australia. Northern Territory Government (200). Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  3. ^ Central Advisory Council for Education (England) (1967). Volume 1 Chapter 10 The Ages and Stages of Primary Education. Children and their Primary Schools. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  4. ^ a b "Middle Schools Decline Due to Haphazard Development" ([dead link]Scholar search) (1981-11-13). Times Educational Supplement. 
  5. ^ British Broadcasting Corporation (1998). Education: End of the Middle Way?. BBC News website. BBC News. Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  6. ^ The Education (Middle School) (England) Regulations 2002. Statutory Instrument 2002 No. 1983. Her Majesty's Stationery Office (2002). Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  7. ^ Meldrum, James (1976). Three-tier Education in Grangemouth. 
  8. ^ "Junior high plan outlined," The Dallas Morning News, September 22, 1929, section 1, page 9.
  9. ^ Glossary of FCPS Acronyms.
  10. ^ "What does MS stand for?".
  11. ^ Abbreviation Guidelines.
  12. ^ [1] Definition of junior high school, accessed June 12, 2007

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links

Students in Rome, Italy. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... Free education is a policy stance in politics that ensures education for its citizens up to a certain level. ... A free school is a decentralized network in which skills, information, and knowledge are shared without hierarchy and the institutional environment of formal schooling. ... For the film of this title, see Private School (film). ... The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ... An independent school is a school which is not dependent upon national or local government for financing its operation and is instead operated by tuition charges, gifts, and perhaps the investment yield of an endowment. ... An independent school in the United Kingdom is a school relying, for all of its funding, upon private sources, so almost invariably charging school fees. ... Charter schools are publicly funded elementary or secondary schools in the United States that have been freed from some of the rules, regulations, and statutes that apply to other public schools in exchange for some type of accountability for producing certain results, which are set forth in each schools... A day school is an institution where children are given educational instruction only during the day and after which children return to their homes. ... In education, the phrase alternative school, sometimes referred to as a minischool, or special school, is any public or private school having a special curriculum, especially an elementary or secondary school offering a more flexible program of study than a traditional school. ... A parochial school (or faith school) is a type of private school which engages in religious education in addition to conventional education. ... A boarding school is usually a fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... In the U.S. system of education, a magnet school is a public school which offers innovative courses, specialized training, etc. ... A virtual school is simply a school where students of all ages can do their coursework online. ... Compulsory education is education which children are required by law to receive and governments to provide. ... A comprehensive school is a secondary school that does not select children on the basis of academic attainment or aptitude. ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also as referred to as a trade school or career college, and school is operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (usually abbreviated to preparatory school, college prep school, or prep school) is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education. ... A grammar school is a school that may, depending on regional usage as exemplified below, provide either secondary education or, a much less common usage, primary education (also known as elementary). Grammar schools trace their origins back to medieval Europe, as schools in which university preparatory subjects, such as Latin... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Czech Republic. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... A university-preparatory school or college-preparatory school (usually abbreviated to preparatory school, college prep school, or prep school) is a private secondary school designed to prepare a student for higher education. ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also as referred to as a trade school or career college, and school is operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... For other uses, see College (disambiguation). ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Middle School Software - Software Teacher Time4Learning (721 words)
Middle School Students need software that teaches at their level
In the middle school literary analysis strand, students perform a variety of activities before, during and after reading, and learn to identify genre, voice, point of view, mood and use of various literary techniques such as flashbacks and foreshadowing.
Middle school writing is developed through extensive composition work that is closely tied to the other skills being taught in middle school language arts.
Middle school - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1024 words)
Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two.
The notion of Middle Schools was mooted by the Plowden Report of 1967 which proposed a change to a three-tier model including First Schools for children aged between 5 and 8, Middle Schools for 8–12 year-olds, and then Upper or High Schools for 12–16 year-olds.
In addition, some schools were provided as combined schools catering for pupils in the 5–12 age range as a combined first and middle school.
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