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Encyclopedia > Middle power

Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have large and mild influence and recognized internationally. There is no single specific definition of which countries are middle powers. Foreign affairs redirects here. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article is about powerful states. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ...

Contents

Definition

There is no standard agreed method to decide which states are middle powers. Some researchers use Gross National Product (GNP) statistics to draw lists of middle powers around the world. Economically, middle powers are generally those that are not considered too "big" or too "small", however that is defined. However, economics is not always considered the defining factor. Under the original sense of the term, a middle power was one that had some degree of influence globally, but not dominance over any one area. However, this usage is not universal, and some define middle power to include nations that can be regarded as regional powers. Measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate the value of goods and services produced in an economy. ... In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. ...


According to academics at the University of Leicester and University of Nottingham; University of Leicester seen from Victoria Park - Left to right: the Department of Engineering, the Attenborough tower, the Charles Wilson building. ... The University of Nottingham is a leading research and teaching university in the city of Nottingham, in the East Midlands of England. ...


"middle power status is usually identified in one of two ways. The traditional and most common way is to aggregate critical physical and material criteria to rank states according to their relative capabilities. Because countries’ capabilities differ, they are categorized as superpowers (or great powers), middle powers or small powers. More recently, it is possible to discern a second method for identifying middle power status by focusing on behavioural attributes. This posits that middle powers can be distinguished from superpowers and smaller powers because of their foreign policy behaviour – middle powers carve out a niche for themselves by pursuing a narrow range and particular types of foreign policy interest. In this way middle powers are countries that use their relative diplomatic skills in the service of international peace and stability. Both measures are contested and controversial, though the traditional quantitative method has proved more problematic than the behavioural method."[1] A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... This article is about negotiations. ...


According to Eduard Jordaan of the University of Stellenbosch; Stellenbosch University is an internationally recognised university which is situated in the town of Stellenbosch, South Africa. ...


"All middle powers display foreign policy behaviour that stabilises and legitimises the global order, typically through multilateral and cooperative initiatives. However, emerging and traditional middle powers can be distinguished in terms of their mutually-influencing constitutive and behavioural differences. Constitutively, traditional middle powers are wealthy, stable, egalitarian, social democratic and not regionally influential. Behaviourally, they exhibit a weak and ambivalent regional orientation, constructing identities distinct from powerful states in their regions and offer appeasing concessions to pressures for global reform. Emerging middle powers by contrast are semi-peripheral, materially inegalitarian and recently democratised states that demonstrate much regional influence and self-association. Behaviourally, they opt for reformist and not radical global change, exhibit a strong regional orientation favouring regional integration but seek also to construct identities distinct from those of the weak states in their region."[2] Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


Middle power as an equivalent of the idea of Semi-periphery.


The notion of middle power can also be understood as equivalent to the idea of semi-peripherical countries. From the world-system's perspective, as posited by neo-marxist Immanuel Wallerstein, "World-systems analysis argues that capitalism, as a historical social system, has always integrated a variety of labor forms within a functioning division of labor (world-economy. Countries are part of the world-economy. Far from being separate societies or worlds, the world-economy manifests a tripartite division of labor with core, semi-peripheral, and peripheral zones" World-systems theory Although both notions -middle power and semi-peripheral zones may refer to the same type of countries, the idea of middle powers disregard power and domination as part of the country distinct status. Colombia would be seen at as a semi-peripherical country. World-systems analysis is not a theory, but an approach to social analysis and social change developed principally by Andre Gunder Frank and Immanuel Wallerstein, with major contributions by Samir Amin, Giovanni Arrighi, Christopher Chase-Dunn, Peter Turchin, Andrey Korotayev, Janet Abu Lughod, Tom Hall, and others. ...


Middle Power Diplomacy

According to Laura Neak of the International Studies Association; A group of scholars and practitioners founded the International Studies Association (ISA) in 1959 to pursue mutual interests in international studies. ...


"Although there is some conceptual ambiguity surrounding the term middle power, middle powers are identified most often by their international behavior–called 'middle power diplomacy' - the tendency to pursue multilateral solutions to international problems, the tendency to embrace compromise positions in international disputes, and the tendency to embrace notions of ‘good international citizenship’ to guide...diplomacy. Middle powers are states who commit their relative affluence, managerial skills, and international prestige to the preservation of the international order and peace. Middle powers help to maintain the international order through coalition-building, by serving as mediators and "go-betweens," and through international conflict management and resolution activities, such as UN peacekeeping. Middle powers perform these internationalist activities because of an idealistic imperative they associate with being a middle power. The imperative is that the middle powers have a moral responsibility and collective ability to protect the international order from those who would threaten it, including, at times, the great or principal powers. This imperative was particularly profound during the most intense periods of the Cold War."[3] A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... Peacekeeping is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace. ...


According to Tomoe Otsuki of the University of British Columbia; "Middle Power does not just mean a state’s size or military or economic power. Rather, 'middle power diplomacy' is defined by the issue area where a state invests its resources and knowledge. Middle Power States avoid a direct confrontation with great powers, but they see themselves as ‘moral actors’ and seek their own role in particular issue areas, such as human rights, environment, and arms regulations. Middle powers are the driving force in the process of transnational institutional-building."[4] The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Characteristics of middle power diplomacy include :[5]

  • Commitment to multilateralism through global institutions and allying with other middle powers.
  • High degree of civil society penetration in the country's foreign policy.
  • A country that reflects and forms its national identity through a 'novel foreign policy': Peacekeeping, Human Security, the ICC, and the Kyoto Protocol

The Middle Powers Initiative (MPI), a program of the Global Security Institute, highlights the importance of middle powers diplomacy. Through MPI, eight international non-governmental organizations are able to work primarily with middle power governments to encourage and educate the nuclear weapons states to take immediate practical steps that reduce nuclear dangers, and commence negotiations to eliminate nuclear weapons. Middle power countries are particurly influential in issues related to arms control, being that they are politically and economically significant, internationally respected countries that have renounced the nuclear arms race, a standing that gives them significant political credibility. Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Civil society is composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society as opposed to the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that states political system) and commercial institutions. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... ICC may refer to: // ICC Bank, Ireland ICC Productions, hip-hop record label International Chamber of Commerce, supporting global trade and globalisation Internet Chess Club, a commercial Internet site on which to play chess International Christian Communications Media Group International Code Council Membership association dedicated to building safety and fire... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... The Middle Powers Initiative (MPI), a program of the Global Security Institute, is dedicated to the worldwide reduction and elimination of nuclear weapons, in a series of well-defined stages accompanied by increasing verification and control. ... // Global Security Institute The Global Security Institute is dedicated to strengthening international cooperation and security based on the rule of law with a particular focus on nuclear arms control, non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament. ...


History of the term

The concept of the ‘middle power’ dates back to the origins of the European state system. In the 15th century, the Mayor of Milan, Giovanni Botero, divided the world into three types of states – grandissime (empires), mezano (middle powers) and piccioli (small powers). Giovanni Botero (c. ...


According to Botero, a mezano or middle power “has sufficient strength and authority to stand on its own without the need of help from others”.[6]


The term entered Canadian political discourse after the Second World War. Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent, for example called Canada "a power of the middle rank" and helped to lay out the classical definition of Canadian middle power diplomacy. When he was advocating for Canada's election to the United Nations Security Council, he said that while "the special nature of [Canada's] relationship to the United Kingdom and the United States complicates our responsibilities", Canada was not a "satellite" of either but would "continue to make our decisions objectively, in the light of our obligations to our own people and their interest in the welfare of the international community."[7] Canadian leaders believed Canada was a middle power because it was a junior partner in larger alliances (e.g. NATO, NORAD), was actively involved in resolving disputes outside its own region (e.g. Suez Crisis), was not a former colonial power and therefore neutral in anti-colonial struggles, worked actively in the United Nations to represent the interests of smaller nations and to prevent the dominance of the superpowers (often being elected to the United Nations Security Council for such reasons), and because it was involved in humanitarian and peacekeeping efforts around the world. Louis Stephen St. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... NORAD is short for: North American Aerospace Defense Command Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ...


Current Middle powers

The following is a list of countries that have been called middle powers by academics or other experts.


Some academics believe that China, France, and the United Kingdom are Great Powers not middle powers, due to their position on the UN Security Council, military expenditure and their nuclear stockpile.[8] Others also include Germany, and Japan due to their economic strengths and global influence.[9] The overlap between the list of middle powers and Great Powers shows that there is no unanimous agreement among authorities. In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ...

The Middle powers of the world.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nigeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ...

See also

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics) refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations, rather than ideological notions. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. ... This article is about powerful states. ... There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ... A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ... Geopolitics is the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales (ranging from home, city, region, state to international and cosmopolitics). ... The African Century is a term that has a variety of meanings. ... ... Asia is the largest continent on Earth with 60% of the human population. ... The Chinese Century (Simplified Chinese 中国世纪) refers to the growing power of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in the 21st century. ... The European Century is a term, which was first used by Mark Leonard in his book Perpetual Power: Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century and is used to describe the belief that the 21st century will become a century in which the current European way of doing things will... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pacific Century is a term that has been used to describe the 21st century through analogy with the term American Century. ... This article deals with the world most powerful nations and empires before the Congress of Vienna. ... Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ... The Power transition theory is a theory about the cyclic nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations. ... The Second Superpower is a term used to conceptualize a global civil society (including the anti-globalization movement or global justice movement) as a counterpoint to the United States of America. ... Superpower collapse, that is, the political collapse of a superpower nation-state, is a term used to describe the actual political collapse of the Soviet Union, and by extension, the theoretical collapse of the other recognized superpower, the United States. ... Superpower Disengagement refers to the German reunification plan proposed by Stalin in 1952. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ... Location of the five BRIMC countries BRIMC is a relatively new term used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico and China. ... The four BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China BRIC or BRICs are terms used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. ... A Map of the nations in the list. ...  Member states  Observer states  Taiwan (Disputed) Secretariat RATS Beijing, China (PRC) Tashkent, Uzbekistan Working languages Russian, Chinese Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Bolat Nurgaliyev Establishment 15 June 2001 Website http://www. ...

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External links

  • post.queensu.ca The Middle Power.
  • books.google.com Weak States in the International System. By Michael I. Handel.
  • www.cpsa-acsp.ca Middle Power Leadership on Human Security. By Ronald M. Behringer, Department of Political Science, University of Florida
  • Middle Power. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2006-04-06.
  • Middle Powers Initiative
  • Government of Canada
  • University of British Columbia
  • South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership
  • Relocating Middle Powers: Australia and Canada in a Changing World Order
  • Middle Power Internationalism (Book info)
  • From Middle to Model Power: Recharging Canada's Role in the World (PDF)
  • Canada in Transition Facing the Shift from Global Middle Power to Senior Regional Power (PDF)
  • Emerging Powers: Governance in a Changing Global Order, a Queen’s Centre for International Relations annual report
The University of Florida (Florida, UFL, or UF) is a public land-grant, research university located in Gainesville, Florida. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ... Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Power politics is a state of international relations in which sovereigns protect their own interests by threatening one another with military, economic, or political aggression. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics) refers to politics or diplomacy based primarily on practical considerations, rather than ideological notions. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. ... This article is about powerful states. ... There is as yet no consensus as to what an energy superpower is exactly, or how to define it apart from other large resource-producing states. ... A hyperpower is a state that is militarily, economically, and technologically dominant on the world stage. ... Geopolitics is the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales (ranging from home, city, region, state to international and cosmopolitics). ... The African Century is a term that has a variety of meanings. ... ... Asia is the largest continent on Earth with 60% of the human population. ... The Chinese Century (Simplified Chinese 中国世纪) refers to the growing power of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) in the 21st century. ... The European Century is a term, which was first used by Mark Leonard in his book Perpetual Power: Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century and is used to describe the belief that the 21st century will become a century in which the current European way of doing things will... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Pacific Century is a term that has been used to describe the 21st century through analogy with the term American Century. ... This article deals with the world most powerful nations and empires before the Congress of Vienna. ... Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system. ... USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ... The Power transition theory is a theory about the cyclic nature of war, in relation to the power in international relations. ... The Second Superpower is a term used to conceptualize a global civil society (including the anti-globalization movement or global justice movement) as a counterpoint to the United States of America. ... Superpower collapse, that is, the political collapse of a superpower nation-state, is a term used to describe the actual political collapse of the Soviet Union, and by extension, the theoretical collapse of the other recognized superpower, the United States. ... Superpower Disengagement refers to the German reunification plan proposed by Stalin in 1952. ... Group of Eight redirects here. ... The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ... Location of the five BRIMC countries BRIMC is a relatively new term used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico and China. ... The four BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India and China BRIC or BRICs are terms used to refer to the combination of Brazil, Russia, India, and China. ... A Map of the nations in the list. ...  Member states  Observer states  Taiwan (Disputed) Secretariat RATS Beijing, China (PRC) Tashkent, Uzbekistan Working languages Russian, Chinese Membership 6 member states 4 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Bolat Nurgaliyev Establishment 15 June 2001 Website http://www. ...

 
 

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