FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Middle kingdoms of India
History of South Asia
Indus Valley Civilization
Vedic civilization
Middle kingdoms
Islamic empires
Mughal era
Company rule
British Raj
Independence
History of India
History of Pakistan
History of Bangladesh

Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. This article is about the History of South Asia. ... The Indus Valley Civilization existed along the Indus River and the Hakra-Ghaggar river and their tributaries. ... The Vedic civilisation is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas, the earliest known records of Indian history. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in India. ... // The Mughal empire Main article: Mughal empire India in the 16th century presented a fragmented picture of rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, who lacked concern for their subjects and who failed to create a common body of laws or institutions. ... // Company Rule, 1757-1857 Expansion and territory It was not until the middle of the 19th century that almost all of the territory that now constitutes Bangladesh, India and Pakistan came under the rule of the British East India Company. ... The British Raj was a historical period during which the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh were under the colonial authority of the British; also included from 1886 was Burma. ... The History of India covers the birth of humanity as long as 700,000 years ago, to the birth of human civilization 5,000 years ago. ... The History of Pakistan for times preceding 1947 overlaps with that of the history of the Indian subcontinent, Afghanistan, and Iran. ... This article contains information that has not been verified. ... (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of South Asia. ... Buddhism was initially established in India and it flourished there during the early phases of its history. ... // Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Syria, Iraq, Persia, North Africa and Central Asia convert to Islam. ...

Contents


Kingdoms and Empires

The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and settled originally in the Punjab region. From there, according to this theory, they gradually penetrated eastward, clearing dense forests and establishing 'tribal' settlements along the Ganga and Yamuna (Jamuna) plains between 1500 BCE and 800 BCE; they ruled over this area after forming the basis of the three upper castes. This period corresponds to the Vedic Sanskrit language, and is also referred to as Vedic civilization. Aryan is an English word derived from the Indo-Aryan Vedic Sanskrit and Iranian Avestan terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Old Persian (Iranian) ariya- is a cognate as well. ... Aryan invasion theory, often abbreviated to AIT, is a term now mostly used by Hindu nationalists in India to refer, in opposition, to the theory that the Vedic culture of India arose after the migration of or invasion by peoples who originated outside of India itself. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers; also Panjab, Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬ, Shahmukhi: پنجاب) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) is a major river in northern India. ... Yamuna is a major river of northern India, with a total length of around 1370 km. ... (Redirected from 1500 BCE) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... (9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC - other centuries) (800s BC - 790s BC - 780s BC - 770s BC - 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC - 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Golden age in Armenia Assyria... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, the earliest sacred texts of India. ... The Vedic civilisation is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas, the earliest known records of Indian history. ...


By around 500 BCE, most of northern India was inhabited and had been brought under cultivation, facilitating the increasing knowledge of the use of iron implements, including ox-drawn plows, and spurred by the growing population that provided voluntary and forced labor. As riverine and inland trade flourished, many towns along the Ganga became centers of trade, culture, and luxurious living. Increasing population and surplus production provided the bases for the emergence of independent states with fluid territorial boundaries over which disputes frequently arose. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created...


The rudimentary administrative system headed by tribal chieftains was transformed by a number of regional republics or hereditary monarchies that devised ways to appropriate revenue and to conscript labor for expanding the areas of settlement and agriculture farther east and south, beyond the Narmada River. These emergent states collected revenue through officials, maintained armies, and built new cities and highways. By 600 BCE, sixteen such territorial powers—including the Magadha, Kosala, Kuru, and Gandhara—stretched across the North India plains from modern-day Afghanistan to Bangladesh. The right of a king to his throne, no matter how it was gained, was usually legitimized through elaborate sacrifice rituals and genealogies concocted by priests who ascribed to the king divine or superhuman origins. The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Kosala was an ancient Indian kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Oudh. ... Kuru can mean: Kuru, a disease, related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), affecting cannibals. ... Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara) is the name of an ancient country in eastern Afghanistan and north-west province of Pakistan. ...


The spirit of the era prior to the formation of the sixteen powers described above is captured by the Indian epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The Ramayana (Sanskrit: march or journey (ayana) of Rama) is part of the Hindu smriti, written by Valmiki. ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is one of the two major ancient Sanskrit epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. ...


The Mauryan Empire

By the end of the 6th century BCE, India's northwest was integrated into the Persian Achaemenid Empire and became one of its satrapies. This integration marked the beginning of administrative contacts between Central Asia and India. (7th century BC - 6th century BCE - 5th century BCE - other centuries) (600s BCE - 590s BCE - 580s BCE - 570s BCE - 560s BCE - 550s BCE - 540s BCE - 530s BCE - 520s BCE - 510s BCE - 500s BCE - other decades) (2nd millennium BCE - 1st millennium BCE - 1st millennium) The 5th and 6th centuries BCE were... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Although Indian accounts to a large extent ignored Alexander the Great's Indus campaign in 326 BC probably because it affected only the northwestern parts, Greek writers recorded their impressions of the general conditions prevailing in South Asia during this period. Thus, the year 326 BCE provides the first clear and historically verifiable date in Indian history. A two-way cultural fusion between several Indo-Greek elements—especially in art, architecture, and coinage—occurred in the next several hundred years. North India's political landscape was transformed by the emergence of Magadha in the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain. In 322 BCE, Magadha, under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya, began to assert its hegemony over neighboring areas. Chandragupta, who ruled from 324 to 301 BCE, was the architect of the first Indian imperial power—the Mauryan Empire (326–184 BCE)—whose capital was Pataliputra, near modern-day Patna, in Bihar. Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king Darius (Pompeii mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost). ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... It has been suggested that Chandragupta Maurya be merged into this article or section. ... ... Patna is the capital of the state of Bihar, in north-eastern India. ...


Situated on rich alluvial soil and near mineral deposits, especially iron, Magadha was at the center of bustling commerce and trade. The capital was a city of magnificent palaces, temples, a university, a library, gardens, and parks, as reported by Megasthenes, the third-century BC Greek historian and ambassador to the Mauryan court. Legend states that Chandragupta's success was due in large measure to his adviser Kautilya, the Brahman author of the Arthashastra (Science of Material Gain), a textbook that outlined governmental administration and political strategy. There was a highly centralized and hierarchical government with a large staff, which regulated tax collection, trade and commerce, industrial arts, mining, vital statistics, welfare of foreigners, maintenance of public places including markets and temples, and prostitutes. A large standing army and a well-developed espionage system were maintained. The empire was divided into provinces, districts, and villages governed by a host of centrally appointed local officials, who replicated the functions of the central administration. Megasthenes (c. ...

Silver punch-mark coin of the Mauryan empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BCE.
Silver punch-mark coin of the Mauryan empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century BCE.

Ashoka, grandson of Chandragupta, ruled from 269 to 232 BCE and was one of India's most illustrious rulers. Ashoka's inscriptions chiseled on rocks and stone pillars located at strategic locations throughout his empire—such as Lampaka (Laghman in modern Afghanistan), Mahastan (in modern Bangladesh), and Brahmagiri (in Karnataka)—constitute the second set of datable historical records. According to some of the inscriptions, in the aftermath of the carnage resulting from his campaign against the powerful kingdom of Kalinga (modern Orissa), Ashoka renounced bloodshed and pursued a policy of nonviolence or ahimsa, espousing a theory of rule by righteousness. His toleration for different religious beliefs and languages reflected the realities of India's regional pluralism although he personally seems to have followed Buddhism. Early Buddhist stories assert that he convened a Buddhist council at his capital, regularly undertook tours within his realm, and sent Buddhist missionary ambassadors to Sri Lanka. Coin of the Mauryan empire, c. ... Coin of the Mauryan empire, c. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BC), at its largest extent around 230 BC. The Mauryan Empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Please see Ashoka (disambiguation) for other uses of the word Ashoka Ashoka the Great (also Asoka, अशोक AÅ›oka;) was the emperor of the Mauryan empire from 273 BC to 232 BC. After a number of military conquests, Ashoka reigned over most of South Asia and beyond, from present day Afghanistan... Kalinga is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found from Sarnath, near Varanasi Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. Buddhism gradually spread from India...


Contacts established with the Hellenistic world during the reign of Ashoka's predecessors served him well. According to the Edicts of Ashoka, set in stone, he sent diplomatic-cum-religious missions to the rulers of Syria, Macedon, and Epirus, who learned about India's religious traditions, especially Buddhism. India's northwest retained many Persian cultural elements, which might explain Ashoka's rock inscriptions—such inscriptions were commonly associated with Persian rulers. Ashoka's Greek and Aramaic inscriptions found in Kandahar in Afghanistan may also reveal his desire to maintain ties with people outside of India. The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan... Vergina Sun - The symbol of Macedon under King Philip II Macedon (or Macedonia from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) in Classical Antiquity was the ancient state of Macedonia on the margins of Ancient Greece, bordering with the Greek state of Epirus on the west and with... Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípeiros; see also List of traditional Greek place names), is a province or periphery in northwestern Greece, bounded by West Macedonia and Thessaly to the east, by the province of Sterea Ellada (Central Greece) to the south, the Ionian Sea and the Ionian Islands to the west and... Kandahār (or Qandahār) is a city in southern Afghanistan, the capital of Kandahar province. ...


Foreign kingdoms

After the disintegration of the Mauryan Empire in the 2nd century BCE, South Asia became a collage of regional powers with overlapping boundaries. India's unguarded northwestern border again attracted a series of invaders between 200 BCE and CE 300. As the Aryans had done, the invaders became "Indianized" in the process of their conquest and settlement. Also, this period witnessed remarkable intellectual and artistic achievements inspired by cultural diffusion and syncretism.

Silver coin of the founder of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, Demetrius (r.c. 205-171 BCE).
Silver coin of the founder of the Indo-Greek Kingdom, Demetrius (r.c. 205-171 BCE).

From 180 BCE, the Indo-Greeks, from neighbouring Bactria, ruled the northwestern part of the subcontinent for about two centuries. They contributed to the development of visual arts, religion and numismatics. They were followed by another group, the Shakas (or Indo-Scythians), from the steppes of Central Asia, who settled in western India. After a brief rule of the Indo-Parthians, the Yuezhi, still another nomadic people who were forced out of the Inner Asian steppes of Mongolia, drove the Shakas out of northwestern India and established the Kushana Kingdom (first century BC–third century CE). This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BC. ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Silver coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius (r. ... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now Afghanistan. ... Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... The migrations of the Yuezhi through Central Asia, from around 176 to 30 BCE. Yuezhi (Chinese:月氏, also 月支, Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) or Da Yuezhi (Chinese:大月氏, also 大月支, Great Yuezhi) is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. ...

Gold coin of the Kushan emperor Kanishka I (c.100-126).
Gold coin of the Kushan emperor Kanishka I (c.100-126).

The Kushana Kingdom controlled parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and in India the realm stretched from Purushapura (modern Peshawar, Pakistan) in the northwest, to Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) in the east, and to Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh) in the south. For a short period, the kingdom reached still farther east, to Pataliputra. The Kushana Kingdom was the crucible of trade among the Indian, Persian, Chinese, and Roman empires and controlled a critical part of the legendary Silk Road. Kanishka, who reigned for two decades starting around 78 CE, was the most noteworthy Kushana ruler. He converted to Buddhism and convened a great Buddhist council in Kashmir. The Kushanas were patrons of Gandharan art, a synthesis between Greek and Indian styles, and Sanskrit literature. They initiated a new era called Shaka in 78 CE, and their calendar, which was formally recognized by India for civil purposes starting on March 22, 1957, is still in use. This image from [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This image from [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... -1... Events First year of the Yongjian era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Peshāwar (translates to City on the Frontier from Persian; known as Pai-khawar in Pashto; in ancient times known as Purushapura in Sanskrit) is a city in Pakistans North-West Frontier Province (pop. ... Sanchi is a small village of India, located 46 km north east of Bhopal, in the central part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. ... The Silk Road (Traditional Chinese: 絲綢之路; Simplified Chinese: 丝绸之路; pinyin: sī chóu zhī lù, Persian راه ابریشم Râh-e Abrisham) was an interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel, and connecting Changan (todays Xian), China, with Antioch, Syria, as well as other points. ... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found from Sarnath, near Varanasi Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. Buddhism gradually spread from India... Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. ... Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara) is the name of an ancient country in eastern Afghanistan and north-west province of Pakistan. ...


The Deccan and the south

Silver coin of king Vasishtiputra Satakarni (c. 160 CE) of the Satavahana.
Silver coin of king Vasishtiputra Satakarni (c. 160 CE) of the Satavahana.

During the Kushana Dynasty, an indigenous power, the Satavahana Kingdom (first century BC–3rd century CE), rose in the Deccan in southern India. The Satavahana, or Andhra, Kingdom was considerably influenced by the Mauryan political model, although power was decentralized in the hands of local chieftains, who used the symbols of Vedic religion and upheld the varnashramadharma. The rulers, however, were eclectic and patronized Buddhist monuments, such as those in Ellora (Maharashtra) and Amaravati (Andhra Pradesh). Thus, the Deccan served as a bridge through which politics, trade, and religious ideas could spread from north to south and vice-versa. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1202x596, 90 KB)Satavahana king Vasishtiputra Sri Satakarni. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1202x596, 90 KB)Satavahana king Vasishtiputra Sri Satakarni. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates are of... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ... Kailasanatha Temple Ellora is an ancient village 30 km from the city of Aurangabad in the Indian state of Maharashtra famous for its magnificent rock cut architecture comprising of Buddhist, Hindu and Jaina cave temples and monasteries built between the 6th and 10th century A.D. These structures were excavated... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశం in Telugu) (Ä€ndhra Prādesh), is a state in south-eastern India and is part of the linguistic-cultural region of South India. ...


Farther south were three ancient Tamil kingdoms—Chera (on the west), Chola (on the east), and Pandya (in the south)—frequently involved in internecine warfare to gain regional supremacy. They are mentioned in Greek and Ashokan sources as important Indian kingdoms outside the Mauryan Empire. A corpus of ancient Tamil literature, known as Sangam (academy) works, including the Tolkappiam, a manual of Tamil grammar by Tolkappiyar, provides much useful information about life in these kingdoms in the era 300 BCE to 200 CE. There is clear evidence of encroachment by Aryan traditions from the north into a predominantly indigenous Dravidian culture in transition. The Cheras were one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern peninsula of India at the beginning of its recorded history. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu in India and some parts of Kerala, Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... Tamil is a classical language and one of the major languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. ...


Dravidian social order was based on different ecoregions rather than on the Aryan varna paradigm, although the Brahmans had a high status at a very early stage. Segments of society were characterized by matriarchy and matrilineal succession—which survived well into the nineteenth century—cross-cousin marriage, and strong regional identity. Tribal chieftains emerged as "kings" just as people moved from pastoralism toward agriculture, sustained by irrigation based on rivers, small-scale tanks (as man-made ponds are called in India) and wells, and brisk maritime trade with Rome and Southeast Asia.


Discoveries of Roman gold coins in various sites attest to extensive South Indian links with the outside world. As with Pataliputra in the northeast and Taxila in the northwest (in modern Pakistan), the city of Madurai, the Pandyan capital (in modern Tamil Nadu), was the center of intellectual and literary activity. Poets and bards assembled there under royal patronage at successive concourses to composed anthologies of poems and expositions on Tamil grammar. By the end of the first century BCE, South Asia was crisscrossed by overland trade routes, which facilitated the movements of Buddhist and Jain missionaries and other travelers and opened the area to a synthesis of many cultures. A map of South India, its rivers, regions and water bodies. ... Madurai (மதுரை in Tamil) is situated on the banks of Vaigai River in Tamil Nadu, a southern Indian state. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Tamil is a classical language and one of the major languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. ... Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura Jainism (pronounced in English as //), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म) , is a classical religion with its origins in the prehistory of India. ...


Gupta and Harsha

Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455).
Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455).

The Classical Age refers to the period when most of North India was reunited under the Gupta Empire (ca. 320CE–550). Because of the relative peace, law and order, and extensive cultural achievements during this period, it has been described as a "golden age" that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture with all its variety, and synthesis. The golden age was confined to the north, and the classical patterns began to spread south only after the Gupta Empire had vanished from the historical scene. The military exploits of the first three rulers—Chandragupta I (ca. 319–335), Samudragupta (ca. 335–376), and Chandragupta II (ca. 376–415)—brought all of North India under their leadership. From Pataliputra, their capital, they sought to retain political preeminence as much by pragmatism and judicious marriage alliances as by military strength. Coin of the Gupta king Kumara Gupta I. Obv: Bust of King Kumaragupta with headband decorated with crescents. ... Coin of the Gupta king Kumara Gupta I. Obv: Bust of King Kumaragupta with headband decorated with crescents. ... Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455 CE). ... Silver coin of King Kumaragupta (414-455 CE). ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455) CE. The Gupta Empire was an Indian empire ruled by the Gupta dynasty in ancient India from around 320 to 550 CE. // Origins The origins of the Guptas are shrouded in obscurity. ... Italic textei peOpLe!! .. iF thiS is fOr uR a. ... Samudragupta, ruler of the Gupta Empire (c. ... The period of prominence of the Gupta dynasty is very often referred to as the Golden Age of India. ... ...

Billon drachm of the Huna King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. 475-576).
Billon drachm of the Huna King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. 475-576).

Their overlordship was threatened and by 500, ultimately ruined by the Hunas (a branch of the White Huns emanating from Central Asia), who were yet another group in the long succession of ethnically and culturally different outsiders drawn into India. Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (c. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (c. ... Billon is an alloy of silver (sometimes gold) with a high base metal content (such as copper). ... Drachma, pl. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara) is the name of an ancient country in eastern Afghanistan and north-west province of Pakistan. ... See also 475 (number) Events Orestes forces western Roman emperor Julius Nepos to flee and declares his son Romulus Augustus to be emperor. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 576 ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ...


Under Harsha Vardhana (or Harsha, r. 606–47), North India was reunited briefly, but neither the Guptas nor Harsha controlled a centralized state, and their administrative styles rested on the collaboration of regional and local officials for administering their rule rather than on centrally appointed personnel. The Gupta period marked a watershed of Indian culture: the Guptas performed Vedic sacrifices to legitimize their rule, but they also patronized Buddhism, which continued to provide an alternative to Brahmanical orthodoxy. A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found from Sarnath, near Varanasi Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. Buddhism gradually spread from India...


The most significant achievements of this period, however, were in religion, education, mathematics, art, Sanskrit literature and drama, and Kama Sutra, the art of sex. Hinduism witnessed a crystallization of its components: major sectarian deities, image worship, devotionalism, and the importance of the temple. Education included grammar, composition, logic, metaphysics, mathematics, medicine, and astronomy. These subjects became highly specialized and reached an advanced level. The Indian numeral system—sometimes erroneously attributed to the Arabs, who took it from India to Europe where it replaced the Roman system—and the decimal system are Indian inventions of this period. Aryabhatta's expositions on astronomy in 499, moreover, gave calculations of the solar year and the shape and movement of astral bodies with remarkable accuracy. In medicine, Charaka and Sushruta wrote about a fully evolved system, resembling those of Hippocrates and Galen in Greece. Although progress in physiology and biology was hindered by religious injunctions against contact with dead bodies, which discouraged dissection and anatomy, Indian physicians excelled in pharmacopoeia, caesarean section, bone setting, and skin grafting. Kamasutram, generally known to the Western world as Kama Sutra, is an ancient Indian text on human sexual behavior, widely considered to be the standard work on love in Sanskrit literature. ... Astrometry: the study of the position of objects in the sky and their changes of position. ... For a village in Greece, see Charaka (Laconia), Greece Charaka, sometimes spelled Caraka, (perhaps 1st or 2nd century) is one of the founders of Ayurveda. ... Sushruta was an ancient Indian surgeon (datable to between the 2nd century BCE and about the 2nd century CE) and is the author of the book Sushruta Samhita, in which he describes over 120 surgical instruments, 300 surgical procedures and classifies human surgery in 8 categories. ... This topic is considered to be an essential subject on Wikipedia. ... Claudius Galenus of Pergamum (131-201 AD), better known as Galen, was an ancient Greek physician. ...


The southern rivals

When Gupta disintegration was complete, the classical patterns of civilization continued to thrive not only in the middle Ganga Valley and the kingdoms that emerged on the heels of Gupta demise but also in the Deccan and in South India, which acquired a more prominent place in history. In fact, from the mid-seventh to the mid-thirteenth centuries, regionalism was the dominant theme of political or dynastic history of South Asia. Three features, as political scientist Radha Champakalakshmi has noted, commonly characterize the sociopolitical realities of this period. First, the spread of Brahmanical religions was a two-way process of Sanskritization of local cults and localization of Brahmanical social order. Second was the ascendancy of the Brahman priestly and landowning groups that later dominated regional institutions and political developments. Third, because of the seesawing of numerous dynasties that had a remarkable ability to survive perennial military attacks, regional kingdoms faced frequent defeats but seldom total annihilation. A map of South India, its rivers, regions and water bodies. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम्) is a classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ...


Peninsular India was involved in an eighth-century tripartite power struggle among the Chalukyas (556–757) of Vatapi, the Pallavas (300–888) of Kanchipuram, and the Pandyas (seventh through the tenth centuries) of Madurai. The Chalukya rulers were overthrown by their subordinates, the Rashtrakutas, who ruled from 753 to 973. Although both the Pallava and Pandya kingdoms were enemies, the real struggle for political domination was between the Pallava and Chalukya realms. The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... The town of Vatapi, better-known today as Badami, is located at the foot of a rugged, red sandstone outcrop that surrounds Agastyatirth water reservoir - an artificial lake - on three sides. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is the name of a temple town and district in Tamil Nadu, Indias southernmost state. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Madurai (மதுரை in Tamil) is situated on the banks of Vaigai River in Tamil Nadu, a southern Indian state. ...


Despite interregional conflicts, local autonomy was preserved to a far greater degree in the south where it had prevailed for centuries. The absence of a highly centralized government was associated with a corresponding local autonomy in the administration of villages and districts. Extensive and well-documented overland and maritime trade flourished with the Arabs on the west coast and with Southeast Asia. Trade facilitated cultural diffusion in Southeast Asia, where local elites selectively but willingly adopted Indian art, architecture, literature, and social customs.


The interdynastic rivalry and seasonal raids into each other's territory notwithstanding, the rulers in the Deccan and South India patronized all three religions—Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism. The religions vied with each other for royal favor, expressed in land grants but more importantly in the creation of monumental temples, which remain architectural wonders. The cave temples of Elephanta Island (near Mumbai or Bombay, as it was known formerly), Ajanta, and Ellora (in Maharashtra), and structural temples of Kanchipuram (in Tamil Nadu) are enduring legacies of otherwise warring regional rulers. By the mid-seventh century, Buddhism and Jainism began to decline as sectarian Hindu devotional cults of Shiva and Vishnu vigorously competed for popular support. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Mumbai (Marathi: मुंबई ) (pronounced in Marathi, and in English), formerly known as Bombay is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and is the most populous Indian city with a 2005 estimated population of about 13 million. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ...


Although Sanskrit was the language of learning and theology in South India, as it was in the north, the growth of the bhakti (devotional) movements enhanced the crystallization of vernacular literature in all four major Dravidian languages: Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada; they often borrowed themes and vocabulary from Sanskrit but preserved much local cultural lore. Examples of Tamil literature include two major poems, Cilappatikaram (The Jewelled Anklet) and Manimekalai (The Jewelled Belt); the body of devotional literature of Shaivism and Vaishnavism—Hindu devotional movements; and the reworking of the Ramayana by Kamban in the twelfth century. A nationwide cultural synthesis had taken place with a minimum of common characteristics in the various regions of South Asia, but the process of cultural infusion and assimilation would continue to shape and influence India's history through the centuries. Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular - the speech of the common people. ... The Dravidian family of languages includes approximately 26 languages that are mainly spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka, as well as certain areas in Pakistan, Nepal, and eastern and central India. ... Tamil is a classical language and one of the major languages belonging to the Dravidian language family. ... Telugu (తెలుగు) belongs to the family of Dravidian languages and is the official language of the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. ... Note: Malayalam is not the Malay language, which is spoken in Malaysia. ... Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ also, less commonly, Kanarese) is one of the oldest and Well-known Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 120 million people. ... Cilappatikaram (The Ankle Bracelet) also spelled as Cilappadhikaram or Silappadhigaram, is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature. ... Manimekalai is one of the masterpieces of Tamil literature and belongs to The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature. ... Åšaivism, also transliterated Shaivism and Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...




MIDDLE KINGDOMS OF INDIA
Timeline: Northern empires Southern Kingdoms Foreign kingdoms

 6th century BCE
 5th century BCE
 4th century BCE

 3rd century BCE
 2nd century BCE

 1st century BCE
 1st century CE


 2nd century CE
 3rd century CE
 4th century CE
 5th century CE
 6th century CE
 7th century CE
 8th century CE
 9th century CE
10th century CE
11th century CE Coin of the Western Kshatrapas Bhratadaman (278 to 295 CE). ...






Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Nanda dynasty was established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BC), at its largest extent around 230 BC. The Mauryan Empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...



Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455) CE. The Gupta Empire was an Indian empire ruled by the Gupta dynasty in ancient India from around 320 to 550 CE. // Origins The origins of the Guptas are shrouded in obscurity. ... The Pratiharas, also called the Gurjara-Pratiharas were an Indian dynasty who ruled kingdoms in Rajasthan and northern India from the sixth to the eleventh centuries. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... Siddhraj Jaysinh The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ...





Kalinga was an ancient kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... The Cheras were one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern peninsula of India at the beginning of its recorded history. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ...


(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... The Rashtrakutas were a dynasty which ruled the Deccan during the 8th-10th centuries. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greek kingdom



(First Islamic conquests)
Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BC. ‹The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas ( 35- 405 CE). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanian king Varahran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in India. ...

(Islamic invasion of India) Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of South Asia. ...



References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Middle kingdoms of India - Biocrawler (2576 words)
Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India in the 6th century BC through the 6th century AD.
North India's political landscape was transformed by the emergence of Magadha in the eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The Kushana Kingdom controlled parts of Afghanistan and Iran, and in India the realm stretched from Purushapura (modern Peshawar, Pakistan) in the northwest, to Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) in the east, and to Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh) in the south.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Science and technology in ancient India (8885 words)
Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE.
The science of medicine in ancient India is known as "Ayurveda", literally, "the science of life or longevity" in Sanskrit from "ayur" (age or life) and "veda" (knowledge).
The doctors of pre-Christian India shared Aristotle's mistaken conception of the heart as the seat and organ of consciousness, and supposed that the nerves ascended to and descended from the heart.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m