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Encyclopedia > Middle Eastern theatre of World War I
Middle Eastern theatre
Part of World War I

Date Oct 24, 1914-Aug 10, 1920
Location Middle East
Result Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of Batum, Treaty of Sèvres.
Territorial
changes
Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire
Combatants
Ottoman Empire,
Military Mission of the German Empire
Russian Empire,
Armenia,

Flag of United Kingdom British Empire,
This article is becoming very long. ... Image File history File links Middle_Eastern_data_form_middle_eastern_studies_web. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... Treaty of Batum, June 4, 1918, a treaty between Democratic Republic of Armenia and Ottoman Empire. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... Image File history File links Ottoman_Flag. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia_(bordered). ... Anthem: God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...

Flag of France France
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Image File history File links Newfoundland_Red_Ensign. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ...

Strength
2,850,000 2,
max strength: 800,000
Casualties
550,000 KIA 3,
891,000 WIA,
240,000 sick,
103,731 MIO,
239,000-250,000 POW 1,
tens of thousands AWOL4
Turkish peasantry of Anatolia drops to 40% of the pre-war levels.[1]
1 Ottoman casualties are from Republic of Turkey gov. resources.
2 Not active soldiers, but total number registered during the war. Includes units like Kuva-i İnzibatiye that had never fought against the Triple Entente.
3Total (KIA+WIA): 253,000 Gallipoli, 270,000 Caucasus Campaign which 80,000 Sarikamis, 220,000 Mesopotamian Campaign, 200,000 Sinai and Palestine Campaign, 20,000 Aden and Persia.
4 Very high in Caucasus Campaign, MIO was reported.
Theatres of World War I
European (Balkans – Western Front – Eastern Front – Italian Front) – Middle Eastern (Caucasus – Mesopotamia – Sinai and Palestine – Gallipoli – Aden – Persia) – African (South-West Africa – West Africa – East Africa) – Asian and Pacific (German Samoa and New Guinea – Tsingtao) – Other (Atlantic Ocean – Mediterranean – Naval – Aerial)
Caucasus Campaign
SarikamisMalazgirtVanKoprukoyErzurumErzincanBitlisKara KillisseSardarapatBash AbaranBaku
Gallipoli Campaign
Naval operationsAnzacHelles1st Krithia2nd Krithia3rd KrithiaGully RavineSari BairKrithia VineyardLone PineSuvlaThe NekChunuk BairScimitar HillHill 60
Mesopotamian Campaign
Fao LandingBasraQurna – Es Sinn – Ctesiphon – Umm-at-Tubal –1st Kut –Shiekh Sa'ad – Wadi – Hanna – Dujaila2nd KutBaghdadSamarrah Offensive – Jebel Hamlin – Istabulat – RamadiSharqat
Sinai and Palestine Campaign
SuezRomaniMagdhabaRafa1st Gaza2nd GazaBeersheba3rd GazaMughar RidgeJerusalemAbu TellulMegiddo

The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between Allied Powers, mostly of the British and Russian Empires, which also included Arab Revolt under Sinai and Palestine Campaign, Democratic Republic of Armenia after Russian Revolution of 1917 and Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire and a Military Mission of the German Empire. The war began on October 29, 1914, hostilities ended on October 30, 1918 and a peace treaty was signed on August 10, 1920. This theatre was the biggest one among all, which was performed within four main campaigns (Sinai and Palestine Campaign, Mesopotamian Campaign, Caucasus Campaign and Dardanelles Campaign) and the minor campaigns of Arabia and Southern Arabia, Aden, and Persia. Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... WIA is a three letter abbreviation meaning Wounded in action. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... AWOL (pronounced a-wall) is an acronym for the United States and other armed forces expression Absent WithOut Leave or Absence Without Official Leave. The United States Marine Corps and the United States Navy use the term Unauthorized Absence (UA) instead. ... The Kuvâ-i Ä°nzibâtiyye (Ottoman Turkish: , literally Forces of Order; Turkish: Hilafet Ordusu, or Caliphate Army) was an army established on 18 April 1920 by the imperial government of the Ottoman Empire in order to fight against the Turkish National Movement in the aftermath of World War I. It... European military alliances in 1915. ... Battle of Gallipoli Conflict First World War Date 19 February 1915 - 9 January 1916 Place Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey Result Ottoman victory The Battle of Gallipoli took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli in 1915 during the First World War. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the... This article is becoming very long. ... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Triple Entente, United States, Italy, Serbia, Romania, Greece The European Theater of World War I was the primary site of the fighting of this great war. ... Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western... Combatants German Empire Austria-Hungary Russian Empire Romania Commanders Paul von Hindenburg Erich Ludendorff Conrad von Hötzendorf Nikolay II Grand Duke Nicholas Constantin Prezan The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and, primarily, Eastern Europe. ... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 141,109 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... Persia was neutral in World War I, but was affected by the rivalry between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers. ... Combatants United Kingdom ‎South Africa ‎ France ‎Belgium ‎Portugal German Empire The African Theater of World War I comprises geographically distinct campaigns around the German colonies scattered in Africa: the German colonies of Cameroon, Togo, South-West Africa, and German East Africa. ... This article describes the conquest and occupation of German held South-West Africa, now called Namibia, by forces from the Union of South Africa acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government at the start of World War I. The outbreak of hostilities in Europe in August 1914 had long... Combatants Great Britain, France, Belgium Germany The West Africa Campaign of World War I consisted of two small and fairly short military operations to capture the German colonies in West Africa: Togoland and Kamerun. ... Combatants Great Britian, South Africa, France, Belgium, Portugal Germany Commanders Jan Smuts Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck Strength 40,000 15,500 // Introduction German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania, Burundi, and Rwanda) was a large territory with complex geography (including the massive Rift Valley and Lake Victoria). ... Combatants Empire of Japan British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand German Empire The Asian and Pacific Theater of World War I was a largely bloodless conquest of a number of German controlled islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Pacific Campaign of World War I saw limited action by the forces of Australia, New Zealand and Japan. ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Combatants Allied Powers Cemtral Powers Some limited sea combat took place between the Central Powers navies of Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire and the Allied navies of France, Italy, Greece, Japan and the British Empire. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Color Autochrome Lumière of a Nieuport Fighter in Aisne, France 1917 One of the many innovations of World War I, aircraft were first used for reconnaissance purposes and later as fighters and even bombers. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Background by April 1915, the Armenians had already donated their grains, their food, their warehouse supplies, money and men to the Ottoman war effort. ... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Casualties  ?  ? In the Battle of Koprukoy the Russians advance to Erzurum. ... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders Nikolai Yudenich Karim Pasha Strength Russian Caucasus Army Turkish Third Army Casualties ? 25,000 dead or wounded, 9,000 prisoners The Erzurum Campaign was a modest Russian victory over the Turks along the Caucasus Front during World War I. the Erzurum campaign is often known... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders Nikolai Yudenich Vehip Pasha Strength Russian Caucasus Army Turkish Third Army Casualties ? 34,000 The Battle of Erzincan was a Russian victory over the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. ... Combatants Russian Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Tovmas Nazarbekian, Andranik Toros Ozanian Ali Çetinkaya, Mustafa Kemal Strength Russian Caucasus Army Third Army Battle of Bitlis was a battle between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I. The first conflict was in July 1915... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Vahib Pasha Movses Silikian Strength Third Army 100,000 [2] 40,000 Casualties 30,000 30,000 30,000 Armenian civilian casualties The Battle of Sardarabad was a battle of the Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the... Combatants Ottoman Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders  ? Drastamat Kanayan Strength Third Army  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Battle of Bash Abaran was a battle of Caucasus Campaign of World War I that took place in the vicinity of Bash Abaran, in 1918. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Azerbaijan Democratic Republic British Empire United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya White Russians Commanders Nuri Pasha Lionel Dunsterville Strength 12,000 Ottoman and Azerbaijani troops of the Army of Islam. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 141,109 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... Combatants British Empire France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sackville Carden John de Robeck Otto Liman von Sanders Strength 31 battleships 3 battlecruisers 24 cruisers 25 destroyers 8 monitors 14 submarines 50+ transports Various mines and forts; otherwise Unknown Casualties 6 battleships sunk 3 battleships damaged 1 battlecruiser damaged 1 destroyer sunk... Combatants Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders William Birdwood Mustafa Kemal Strength 2 divisions 1 battalion 1 div. ... Landing at Cape Helles Conflict First World War Date 25 April 1915 Place Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result British victory The Landing at Cape Helles was part of the amphibious invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula by British and French forces on April 25, 1915 during World War I. Helles, at... First Battle of Krithia Conflict First World War Date 28 April 1915 Place Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result Turkish victory The First Battle of Krithia was the first Allied advance of the Battle of Gallipoli during World War I. Starting at Helles on April 28, three days after the initial landings... Second Battle of Krithia Conflict First World War Date 6–8 May 1915 Place Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result Turkish victory The Second Battle of Krithia continued the Allies attempts to advance on the Helles battlefield during the Battle of Gallipoli of World War I. The village of Krithia and... Third Battle of Krithia Conflict First World War Date 4 June 1915 Place Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result Turkish victory The Third Battle of Krithia, fought on the Gallipoli peninsula during World War I, was the final in a series of Allied attacks against the Turkish defences aimed at capturing the... Battle of Gully Ravine Conflict First World War Date 28 June - 5 July 1915 Place Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result Allied victory The Battle of Gully Ravine was a World War I battle fought at Cape Helles on the Gallipoli peninsula. ... // Combatants British Empire Australia India New Zealand United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Commanders Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 4 divisions (initial) 8 divisions (final) Unknown Casualties Suvla: 8,155 Anzac: 12,000+ Total: 20,155+ 12,000 The Battle of Sari Bair, also known as the August Offensive... Battle of Krithia Vineyard Conflict First World War Date 6–13 August 1915 Place Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey Result Turkish victory Gallipoli Campaign Naval operations – Anzac – Helles – 1st Krithia – 2nd Krithia – 3rd Krithia – Gully Ravine – August Offensive – Krithia Vineyard – Lone Pine... Combatants Australia Ottoman Empire Commanders Harold Walker Unknown Strength 1 division Unknown Casualties 2,300 6,000 The Battle of Lone Pine, which took place during the Gallipoli campaign, was the only successful Australian attack against the Turkish trenches within the original perimeter of the ANZAC battlefield, and yet it... Landing at Suvla Bay Conflict First World War Date 6–15 August 1915 Place Suvla, Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey Result Turkish victory The landing at Suvla Bay was an amphibious landing made at Suvla on the Aegean coast of Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey as part of the August Offensive, the... // Combatants Australia Ottoman Empire Commanders Col. ... The Battle of Chunuk Bair was a World War I battle fought between the Turkish defenders and troops of New Zealand and Britain on Turkeys Gallipoli peninsula in August 1915. ... Combatants Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Beauvoir De Lisle Mustafa Kemal Strength 14,300 Unknown Casualties 5,300 2,600 The Battle of Scimitar Hill(Yusufçuk Tepe) was the last offensive mounted by the British at Suvla during the Battle of Gallipoli in World War I. It was also the... Battle of Hill 60 Conflict First World War Date 21–29 August 1915 Place Gallipoli, Turkey Result Turkish victory The Battle of Hill 60 was the last major assault of the Battle of Gallipoli. ... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Fao Landing occurred on November 6, 1914 with British forces attacking the Ottoman fortress of Fao. ... The Battle of Basra was a battle of World War I which took place in the city of Basra (modern-day Iraq) between British and Ottoman troops on December 10, 1914. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants British Empire, British India Ottoman Empire Commanders General Townshend Baron von der Goltz Strength 11,000 troops, two warships around 30,000 Casualties 4,500 9,600 British Expeditionary Force D, mostly made up of Indians and under the command of Gen. ... Combatants Britain, British India Ottoman Empire Commanders General Townshend Baron von der Goltz†, Khalil Pasha Strength 30,000 50,000 Casualties 23,000 10,000 The Siege of Kut-al-Amara (December 7, 1915 – April 29, 1916) was part of the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I. The British Mesopotamian... The Battle of Dujaila was fought on March 8, 1916, between British and Ottoman forces. ... The Second Battle of Kut was fought on February 23, 1917, between British and Ottoman forces. ... Combatants The Tigris Corps of British India Sixth Army of the Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Frederick Stanley Maude Khalil Pasha Strength 50,000 men 25,000 men Casualties unknown unknown, more than 9,000 were taken prisoner Baghdad was the southern capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1917. ... Combatants British Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Frederick Stanley Maude Khalil Pasha Ali Ishan Bey Strength 45,000 10,000 (Khalil) 15,000 (Ali Ishan) Casualties 18,000 (+ 40,000 sick) ? The Samarrah Offensive was launched by the British against the Ottomans in mid-March 1917 as part of the Mesopotamian... Combatants British Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Frederick Stanley Maude ? Strength One division 5,000 Casualties ? ? The Battle of Ramadi was fought in central Iraq late in September 1917 between the British and the Ottomans; it was part of the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War One. ... Combatants British Empire Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir William Raine Marshall Sir Alexander Cobbe Ismail Hakki Bey Strength ? Ottoman 6th Army Casualties 1,800 18,000 POW The Battle of Sharqat was the final action between the British and the Ottomans during the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War One. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... The first Suez Offence was an offence in 1915 in World War One. ... Battle of Romani Conflict First World War Date 3– 5 August 1916 Place Sinai peninsula, Egypt Result Allied victory The Battle of Romani took place near the Egyptian town of Romani which lies 23 miles east of the Suez Canal near the Mediterranean shore of the Sinai peninsula. ... Battle of Magdhaba Conflict First World War Date 23 December 1916 Place Sinai peninsula, Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Gen. ... Battle of Rafa Conflict First World War Date 9 January 1917 Place Rafa, Sinai-Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Philip Chetwode Unknown Strength 5 mounted brigades 2,000 Casualties 71 killed 415 wounded 200 killed 168 wounded 1,434 prisoners The Battle of Rafa was a World War I... First Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 26 March 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The First Battle of Gaza was a World War I battle on the southern border of Palestine. ... Second Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 19 April 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The Second Battle of Gaza, fought in southern Palestine during World War I, was the second attempt mounted by the British to break the Turkish defences along the Gaza-Beersheba line. ... The Battle of Beersheba took place on October 31, 1917, as part of the Sinai and Palestine campaign during World War I. The Australian 4th Light Horse Brigade, under Brigadier General William Grant, charged more than four miles at the Turkish trenches, overran them and captured the wells at Beersheba. ... Third Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 31 October–7 November 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Allied victory The Third Battle of Gaza was fought in 1917 in southern Palestine during World War I. The British forces under the command of General Edmund Allenby successfully broke... Combatants Australia, United Kingdom New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Kress von Kressenstein The Battle of El Mughar Ridge on 13 November 1917 took place at Junction Station, where the Haifa-Jerusalem line branches to Beersheba. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Edmund Allenby Erich von Falkenhayn Strength Egyption Expeditionary Force Seventh Army Casualties 18,000 (for entire campaign) 25,000 (for entire cmpaign) {{{notes}}} The Battle of Jerusalem resulted in the city of Jerusalem falling to British forces in December 1917. ... The Battle of Abu Tellul July 14, 1918 occurred during World War I between British and Ottoman forces fighting for the village of Abu Tellul. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India New Zealand United Kingdom France Arab insurgents Ottoman Empire German Empire Commanders Edmund Allenby Otto Liman von Sanders Strength 12,000 mounted troops 57,000 infantry 540 guns 3,000 mounted troops 32,000 infantry 402 guns Casualties 782 killed 382 missing 4,179 wounded... This article is becoming very long. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 141,109 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to...

Contents

Prelude

The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in October–November 1914, pursuant to the secret Ottoman-German Alliance[2] signed on August 2, 1914, threatening Russia's Caucasian territories and Britain's communications with India and the East via the Suez Canal. 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Ottoman-German Alliance was an alliance established between the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on August 2nd, 1914. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ...


The Ottoman Empire's entry into World War I occurred on October 29, 1914 when ships of the Ottoman navy shelled Odessa.[citation needed] October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Odessa (disambiguation). ...


Activities

1914

Mesopotamian Campaign: The first battles were on the Mesopotamian Campaign, which was opened during the 1914. It was fought in Mesopotamia mainly in the Tigris River valley region of what is now Iraq and included battles on the Persian Gulf coast, Basra, numerous struggles around Kut, and Baghdad. The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Location of Basra Basra (Arabic: ‎; BGN: Al Başrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of 2,600,000 (2003). ... Kūt (كوت; also known as Kut-Al-Imara and Kut El Amara) is a city in eastern Iraq, on the left bank of the Tigris River, about 100 miles south east of Baghdad, at 32. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


Caucasus Campaign: Caucasus Campaign campaign was fought in the Caucasus and eastern-Anatolia. The Ottoman Empire in Battle of Sarikamis had a defeat in December-November. Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Russia Ottoman Empire Commanders General Vorontsov General Yudenich Enver Pasha Strength 100,000 90,000 (plus aprox. ...


1915

Mesopotamian Campaign: Initially the Ottomans were successful in repelling enemy incursions. However after the disastrous Siege of Kut things reversed. The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... Combatants Britain, British India Ottoman Empire Commanders General Townshend Baron von der Goltz†, Khalil Pasha Strength 30,000 50,000 Casualties 23,000 10,000 The Siege of Kut-al-Amara (December 7, 1915 – April 29, 1916) was part of the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I. The British Mesopotamian...


Caucasus Campaign: The Russians went on the offense. The mountains were very high, which made the military movement very difficult, but Russians gained significant achievements. Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the...


Dardanelles Campaign: April 25 sets the Dardanelles Campaign (tr:Çanakkale Savaşlari) which was also known as in Australia, New Zealand and Newfoundland it is known simply as "Gallipoli". A combined British and French operation was mounted in order to eventually capture the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (now Istanbul). The campaign started with a Naval attempt to force the Dardanelles. When this failed the decision was taken by the Allies to seize the European side of the Dardanelles. The land campaign took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli in 1915 during the First World War. The land attempt failed, and an estimated 131,000 soldiers were killed and 262,000 wounded. Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 141,109 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 141,109 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 141,109 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... Map of Constantinople. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula (from the latin words paene insula, almost island) is a geographical landform consisting of an extension of a body of land from a larger body of land, surrounded by water on three sides. ... Gallipoli peninsula (Turkish: , Greek: ) is located in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles straits to the east. ...


Arab Revolt: Starting in 1915, the British based in Egypt tried to incite the Arabs living near the Red Sea and inland (in modern-day Saudi Arabia) to revolt against the Ottoman Empire. Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Islam Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ); is a member of a Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


Sinai and Palestine Campaign: The Ottoman Empire launched an attack across the Sinai with the objective of destroying or capturing the Suez Canal. Attack was unsuccessful. Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


1916

Arab Revolt: In 1916, a combination of diplomacy and genuine dislike of the new leaders of the Ottoman Empire (the Three Pashas) convinced Sherif Hussein ibn Ali of Mecca to begin a revolt. The leadership of this revolt was given to two of his sons: Faisal and Abdullah though the planning and direction for the war was largely the work of Lawrence of Arabia. Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... The Three Pashas are the famous Pashas who enabled the Ottoman Empire to enter the WWI. Talat, along with Enver Pasha and Djemal Pasha formed a group called the three pashas. ... Hussein ibn Ali or Husayn ibn Ali (died 1931) was the Sherif of Mecca, and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself king. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Abdullah I of Jordan King Abdullah I of Jordan (1882 – July 20, 1951) (Arabic: عبد الله الأول), also known as Abdullah bin Husayn (Arabic: عبد الله بن حسين), was, successively, Emir of Trans-Jordan (1921–1946) under a British Mandate, then King of Transjordan (May 25, 1946–1949), and finally King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ...


Sinai and Palestine Campaign: The Ottoman Empire launched two attacks across the Sinai with the objective of destroying or capturing the Suez Canal. Both attacks (1915, 1916) were unsuccessful, though not very costly by the standards of the Great War. The British then went on the offensive and attacked east into Palestine. Two failed attempts to capture the Ottoman fort of Gaza resulted in sweeping changes to the British command and the arrival of General Allenby, along with many reinforcements. Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


1917

Mesopotamian Campaign: British Empire forces reorganized and captured Baghdad in March 1917. The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants The Tigris Corps of British India Sixth Army of the Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Frederick Stanley Maude Khalil Pasha Strength 50,000 men 25,000 men Casualties unknown unknown, more than 9,000 were taken prisoner Baghdad was the southern capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1917. ...


Caucasus Campaign: When Russia withdrew from the war in 1917 the Ottoman Empire managed to regain the prewar territories under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking...


Arab Revolt: The revolt was a success, aided immensely by General Allenby's conquest of Palestine in 1917 (see the Sinai and Palestine Campaign for details). Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of...


Sinai and Palestine Campaign: Late in 1917, Allenby's Egyptian Expeditionary Force smashed the Ottoman defences, captured Gaza and then captured Jerusalem just before Christmas. This victory was widely promoted in the Allied press. Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir John Maxwell Archibald Murray Henry George Chauvel Philip Chetwode Charles Dobell Edmund Allenby Djemal Pasha Kress von Kressenstein Jadir Bey Tala Bey Erich von Falkenhayn Otto Liman von Sanders The Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the Middle Eastern Theatre of... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2...


The British capture Jerusalem and the surrounding area: While strategically of minimal importance, this event was key in the creation of Israel as a separate nation in 1948. Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2...


End of hostilities, October 30, 1918

Main article: Armistice of Mudros

The activity in this campaign was ended with the sign of the Armistice of Mudros was signed in aboard of HMS Agamemnon in Mudros port on the island of Lemnos on October 30, 1918. The Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire (represented by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Beg) and the Allies (represented by the British Admiral Arthur Calthorpe), in the Mudros port in the island of Lemnos on 30 October 1918. ... The Armistice of Mudros was signed between the Ottoman Empire (represented by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Beg) and the Allies (represented by the British Admiral Arthur Calthorpe), in the Mudros port in the island of Lemnos on 30 October 1918. ... Four ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Agamemnon, after the legendary Greek king Agamemnon. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Peace Treaty, August 10, 1920

Main article: Treaty of Sèvres

The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Government. However, it was rejected by the Turkish national movement, and never came into effect. The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Turkish National Movement is the political and military activities of Turkish revolutionaries aftermath of the World War I that resulted in decleration of the Republic of Turkey. ...


Command Structures

Ottoman

The Ottoman Empire fielded a large but ineffective army during World War I. Their offensive operations were failures, their best Generals were in fact Germans (e.g. Liman von Sanders, Baron von der Goltz, Erich von Falkenhayn and Kress von Kressenstein), with only one effective Turkish Commander, Mustafa Kemal (later Ataturk), and just about all their modern war equipment (war ships, heavy artillery, machine guns, railroads, and air-planes) were built by Germans or Austrians and were maintained by German and Austrian engineers. Otto Liman von Sanders (February 17, 1855 - August 22, 1929) was a German general who served as adviser to the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed V during World War I. He was born in Stolp in Pomerania. ... Warning: this article is based primarily on information from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica and does not reflect modern scholarship. ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (1870 - 1948) was a German General and a member of the group of German officers who directed the Ottoman Army during World War I. Von Kressenstein was part of Otto Liman von Sanders military mission to Turkey. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ...


When holding defensive fortified positions the Ottoman Army was often able to beat back major attacks, and tens of thousands of British and Russian soldiers died making fruitless assaults on Turkish positions. However, the only successful Ottoman military operations were defensive and they suffered many defeats when attacking and defending.


Unlike the army of Austria-Hungary which essentially fell apart in 1918, the Ottoman Army was still partially intact and partially effective all the way to the end of the war. While it is true they lost both their armies in Palestine and Mesopotamia in the fall of 1918, there was still a core army based around Istanbul which was combat effective. Also in 1918, the Ottoman Army was able to recapture all their lost territory in Armenia (admittedly against very weak opposition). In fact, the Ottoman Army even managed to reach Baku just before the war ended (the strategic value of this operation is highly questionable, but still, it was a demonstration of some military power). Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Municipality: Baku Area: 1000 km² Altitude: -28 m Population: 2,074,300 census 2003 Population density: 1280 persons/km² Postal Code: AZ10 Area code: +99412 Municipality code: BA Latitude: 41° 01 52 N Longitude: 21° 20 25 E Weather types: 9 of 11 Mayor: Hajibala Abutalybov The Baku region. ...


Despite the occasional successes and sometimes capable leaders, on the whole the Ottoman Army was a weak partner to the German Army during World War I. The Ottoman Empire almost certainly would have been defeated by the middle of 1915 without German military leadership and aid. The German Army (German: Heer, [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


British

The Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (MEF) was a World War I British Army headquarters formed in March 1915 that commanded all Allied forces at Gallipoli and Salonika. ... The British Dardanelles Army was formed in late 1916 and comprised the three army corps operating at Gallipoli. ...

Russian

Casualties

Ottoman Muslim casualties during the WWI, 1914–1918, was estimated to be approaching (high value) to 4,000,000 within the boarders of 1914, which 2,500,000 (confines of the Anatolia) was verified by official records. ...

Timeline

Footnotes

  1. ^ Zurcher, 'Between Death and Desertion"
  2. ^ The Treaty of Alliance Between Germany and Turkey 2 August, 1914
World War I Portal

August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

Further reading

  • The Anglo-Russian Entente:Agreement concerning Persia 1907
  • The French, British and Russian joint declaration over the situation in Armenia published on May 24, 1915
  • Sykes-Picot Agreement 15 & 16 May 1916.
  • The Middle East during World War I By Professor David R Woodward for the BBC

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