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Encyclopedia > Middle East Theatre of World War II
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The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. From 1943, most of the action and forces concerned were in the adjoining Mediterranean Theatre Image File history File links Download high resolution version (642x801, 114 KB) Egypt-Libya 11 June 1942-12 February 1943 was prepared in the U.S. Army Center of Military History by Clayton R. Newell File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (642x801, 114 KB) Egypt-Libya 11 June 1942-12 February 1943 was prepared in the U.S. Army Center of Military History by Clayton R. Newell File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... During World War II The British Middle East Command was based in Cairo with responsibility for the Middle East theatre which included North Africa, East Africa, Persia, the Middle East, and the British forces in the Balkans and Greece. ... The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II, was those nations opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... The Mediterranean region. ...


The region was quiet for the first few months of the war, until Fascist Italy declared war against France and Britain[1] on June 10, 1940. It remained a major active theatre for two and a half years until the British Commonwealth Eighth Army crossed the border from Libya into Tunisia. In February 1943, command of the Eighth Army passed from the Middle East Command to the Allied Joint command for the Mediterranean, AFHQ. The Middle East Theatre remained quiet for the remainder of the war. Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... The Commonwealth of Nations, usually known as The Commonwealth, is an association of 53 independent sovereign states, almost all of which are former territories of the British Empire. ... The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy. ... Allied Forces Headquarters was the headquarters that controlled all Allied forces in the Mediterranean theatre from late 1943 to the end of the war. ...

Contents


Overview

The Allies initially believed that the Middle East (Southwest Asia) could become a major operational theatre, because they thought that the Germans might invade the area. This did not materialise, although when Allied forces occupied much of the area, in anticipation of such an invasion, there was fighting against Vichy French forces in Lebanon and Syria, and against Iraq in the Anglo-Iraqi War. Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ... The Syria-Lebanon campaign was the Allied invasion of Vichy French-controlled Syria and Lebanon in 1941, during World War II. The Allied offensive, also known as Operation Exporter, was aimed at preventing Nazi Germany from using Vichy territory as a springboard for attacks on the Allied stronghold of Egypt... Combatants Iraq United Kingdom Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 1,200 The Anglo-Iraqi War was a short war fought between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist government, from April 18 to May 30, 1941. ...


The Italian forces in North Africa greatly outnumbered the Allies. However, Allied forces were able to not only defend against Italian attacks but also to defeat the Italians and occupy their colonies in Ethiopia and Somaliland. By February 1941, Commonwealth forces appeared to be on the verge of overrunning the last Italian forces in Libya, which would have ended Axis control in all of Africa. Motto: Justice, Peace, Freedom, Democracy and Success for All Anthem: dum ala khair, dum ala khair, Samo ku waar Samo ku waar Saamo ku waar Capital Hargeisa Largest city Hargeisa Official language(s) Arabic, Somali Government President Republic Dahir Riyale Kahin Independence  - Declared  - Recognition From Somalia  - May 18, 1991  - none...


While the fighting was taking place in Libya, Axis forces were attacking Greece. The Allied commander, General Archibald Wavell, was ordered to halt his advance against Libya and sent troops to Greece. He disagreed with this decision but followed his orders. Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 _ May 24, 1950) was a British General and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ...


The Allies were unable to stop Greece falling to the Axis forces and before they could retake the initiative in the Western Desert the German Afrika Korps had entered the theatre. It would not be until early in 1943, after another year and a half of hard fighting and mixed fortunes, that the Axis forces would be finally driven out of Libya and the theatre would again become a backwater. The seal of Afrikakorps The German Afrika Korps (German:Deutsches Afrikakorps ( (help· info)) (DAK)) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypt during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps, the...


Balkans and Greek islands campaign

Main article: Balkans Campaign

The Italians attacked Greece from Albania in late 1940. Not only did the Greeks stop the attack, they forced the Italians back. Eventually, in the spring of 1941, the Germans intervened in Greece. They also invaded Yugoslavia concurrently. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Greeks had been reluctant to allow Commonwealth ground forces into the country, because Britain could not spare enough forces to guarantee victory. They had, however, accepted aid from the RAF in their war with the Italians in Albania. The trigger for Commonwealth forces moving to Greece in large numbers was the entry of German forces into Bulgaria, which made clear the German intent to invade Greece.


Commonwealth forces took position on a defensive line running from north-west to south-east across the northern part of Greece. However, there were critical weaknesses in the defences. The Greek forces in the area were further forward than the Commonwealth forces, and the Greek Government ignored suggestions that they should withdraw to a common line. The Greek forces were thus defeated in detail. There was also a large gap between the left flank of Commonwealth forces and the right flank of the Greek forces in Albania. That was exploited to the full by the Germans.


After being thrown off the Greek mainland, Commonwealth forces retreated to Crete. There, the Germans again exploited weaknesses in the defences with a bold invasion plan. In the largest and last German airborne assault, paratroops landed at several points on the island and the Battle of Crete began. In all but one location, they were cut off and destroyed, and the follow-on seaborne forces were dispersed by the Allied navies. However, that one location was enough, and reinforcements were flown in to the point where the Germans were strong enough to break out and take the rest of the island. Combatants Greece New Zealand Australia United Kingdom Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength 43,000 45,000 Casualties 3,500 dead 1,900 wounded 17,500 captured 6,200–22,000 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Crete (German Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta; Greek Μάχη της Κρήτης) began on the morning...


Command in London eventually decided the cause was hopeless, and ordered a withdrawal from Sfakia. Over the next four nights 16,000 troops were taken off Crete to Egypt. A smaller number was withdrawn on a separate mission from Heraklion, but these ships were attacked en-route by Luftwaffe dive bombers and suffered serious losses. On 1 June the remaining 5,000 defenders at Sfakia surrendered, although many took to the hills and caused the German occupation problems for years. London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England and is the most populous city in the European Union. ... The village of Hóra Sfakíon Sfakiá (Greek Σφακιά) is a beautiful, traditional, mountainous area to the South West of the island of Crete, in the Chania prefecture. ... A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ...


During the evacuation of Crete Admiral Andrew Cunningham was determined that the "navy must not let the army down", when British generals stated their fears that too many ships would be lost, Cunningham said that "It takes three years to build a ship, it takes three centuries to build a tradition". Nevertheless large numbers of Allied soldiers were taken prisoner on Crete. Bronze bust of Lord Cunningham, looking at Nelsons column and Whitehall Sir Andrew Browne Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope (7 January 1883–12 June 1963), familiarly known as ABC, was the most famous British admiral of World War II, winning distinction in Mediterranean battles in 1940 and 1941...


East Africa

Main article: East African Campaign (World War II)

On August 4, 1940, Italian forces stationed in Italian East Africa invaded British Somaliland, taking the capital Berbera on August 19. The success was short-lived, however, as Commonwealth forces counter-attacked from Sudan in the north and Kenya in the south. The attacks were of great success and resulted in total Italian defeat only 94 days after the initial invasion. Image File history File links An Italian Second World War map of Italys possessions in East Africa This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links An Italian Second World War map of Italys possessions in East Africa This work is copyrighted. ... The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought between British Empire and Commonwealth forces and Italian Empire forces in Italian East Africa during World War II. This campaign is often seen as part of the North African Campaign. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... Italian East Africa (Italian: Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in Africa. ... The British Somaliland Protectorate was a British protectorate in the north part of the Horn of Africa, later part of Somalia. ... Berbera is a city in the Saaxil region (gobolka) of Somalia, and is currently part of the internationally unrecognized Republic of Somaliland. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Middle East Campaign

Main article: Middle East Campaign

The Allies were wary of ties between Germany and the regime in Iraq. In early 1940 the regime ordered the withdrawal of British bases in Iraq. There were two main British bases in Iraq, around Basra and at Habbaniya north east of Baghdad. British forces in the country and others Allied units, including the Arab Legion, were hastily assembled as Iraqforce, to take control of Iraq. Little resistance was encountered. The Middle East Campaign was a part of the Middle East Theatre of World War II. // Overview This campaign included: The British police actions in Palestine. ... Location of Basra Basra (also spelled Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes written Busra, Busrah, and the early form Bassorah; Arabic: , Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of c. ... The Habbaniya, or Habbania, are a Sunni Muslim tribe of the nomadic Bedouin Baggara people in the plains of Sudans Darfur, North Kordofan, and South Kordofan provinces. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ translit: , Kurdish: Bexda, from Persian Baagh-daad or Bag-Da-Du meaning “Garden of God” [1]) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Arab Legion (Al-jaish Al-arabi) was Transjordans and later on also Jordans regular army. ...


Similarly, the Vichy French authorities in Syria and Lebanon had allowed Luftwaffe planes to refuel on their territory. On June 7, 1941, a corps-sized Allied force based in Palestine launched three thrusts into Vichy territory. A vigorous resistance was mounted and the bitter fighting lasted more than a month. However, the weight of numbers eventually told, especially when combined with an advance on Damascus by part of Iraqforce, the French surrendered. Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later in Algiers. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or (German: Air Arm, IPA: [luftvafÉ™]) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic: ‎ translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. ...


The final major military operation in the war in the Middle East Campaign took place shortly thereafter. The Soviet Union desperately needed supplies for its war against Germany. Supplies were being sent round the North Cape convoy route to Murmansk and Archangel, but the capacity of that route was limited and subject to enemy action. Supplies were also sent from American to Vladivostok in Soviet-flagged ships. However, yet more capacity was needed, the obvious answer was to go through Persia. The Shah of Persia was somewhat pro-German, and so would not allow this. Consequently Commonwealth and Soviet forces invaded and occupied Persia. The Shah was deposed and his son put on the throne. North Cape is the name of several capes: North Cape is a cape in Prince Edward Island, Canada North Cape is a cape in northern New Zealand North Cape is a cape in northern Norway, also known as Nordkapp The North Cape was a barge which ran aground in Rhode... Murmansk, Archangelsk, Dikson, Tiksi, on the Arctic Ocean Murmansk coin Murmansk (Му́рманск) is a city in the extreme northwest of Russia (north of the Arctic circle) with a seaport on the Kola Gulf, 20 miles from the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, not far from Russia... An Archangel is a superior or higher-ranking angel. ... City and harbor of Vladivostok with the Statue to the fighters for Soviet power in the Far East (bottom right) Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Chinese border and North Korea. ... Shah is an Iranian term (Persian and Kurdish) for king, and has also been adopted in many other languages. ... Combatants United Kingdom Indian Empire Soviet Union Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ...


Western Desert Campaign

Main article: Western Desert Campaign

After the fall of France and before United States land forces entered the war in Operation Torch, the north African campaign in the Sahara desert and Mediterranean coastal plains of Tunisia, Libya and western Egypt was the major land front between Western Allied and Axis forces. The Western Desert Campaign was the primary early theatre of the North African Campaign of World War II. It is sometimes referred to as the Egypt-Libya Campaign. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower François Darlan Strength 73,500 ? Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign, started November...


On September 13th, Italian forces stationed in Libya launched a small invasion into Egypt and set up defensive forts at Sidi Barrani. Sidi Barrani is a village in Egypt, ~95km from the border with Libya, and ~240km from Tobruk. ...


Allied forces, though greatly outnumbered, launched the counter-attack Operation Compass. It was more successful than planned and resulted in massive numbers of Italian prisoners and the advance of the Allied forces up to El Agheila. This stunning defeat of Italian forces did not go unnoticed and soon the Deutsches Afrikakorps, commanded by Erwin Rommel, were sent in to reinforce them. Operation Compass was a World War II Allied military operation in the Western Desert Campaign. ... Operation Crusader November 18, 1941 - December 31, 1941 El Agheila is on the lower left (Click to enlarge) El Agheila is a coastal city on the Gulf of Sidra in far southwestern Cyrenaica, Libya. ... The Deutsches Afrikakorps (often just Afrika Korps or DAK) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypts Western Desert during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps the term is... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (November 15, 1891–October 14, 1944) was one of the most distinguished German Field Marshals of World War II and one of the greatest military leaders of his time. ...


Although ordered to simply hold the line, Rommel launched an offensive from El Agheila which, with the exception of Tobruk, managed to press the Allies beyond Salum, effectively putting both sides back at their approximate original positions. Combatants United Kingdom Australia Poland Czechoslovakia Germany Italy Commanders Leslie Morshead Erwin Rommel Strength 14,000 - Casualties Britain: 9009 killed 941 captured estimated 12,000 total 8,000 The Siege of Tobruk was a lengthy confrontation between Axis and Allied forces, mostly Australian, in the North African Campaign of World... The Kingdom of Saloum in Senegal is a traditional kingdom which was founded in the late 15th century by the Gelwaar or nobles from the Kingdom of Gaabu to the south. ...


During the following stalemate, the Allied forces reorganised as the Eighth Army, which was made up of units from the armies of several countries, especially the Australian Army and the Indian Army, but also including divisions from the South African Army, the New Zealand Army and a brigade of Free French under Marie-Pierre Koenig. The new formation launched a new offensive and recaptured almost all of the territory recently acquired by Rommel, failing only to take the garrison forces at Bardia and Salum. Once again, the frontline was at El Agheila. The Australian Army Emblem The Australian Army is Australias military land force. ... The Indian Army in the time of the British Raj (1857–1947) // Administrative Name The Indian Army is the name for the Indian Armed forces of that country; the meaning of that name changed over time: History The Indian Army was formed after the Indian Mutiny in 1857 by the... The South African Army is the army of South Africa, also known in Afrikaans as the Suid-Afrikaanse Leër. ... The New Zealand Army (or NZ Army) is the land armed force of the New Zealand military and comprises around 4,500 regular personnel and 2,500 non-regulars and civilians. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet in... Marie Pierre Koenig (October 10, 1898—September 2, 1970) was a French general. ... Bardia is a seaport in eastern Libya. ... A frontline is a line of confrontation in an armed conflict, most often a war. ...


After receiving supplies from Tripoli, Rommel again attacked. Defeating the Allies at Gazala and capturing Tobruk, he drove them back to the border of Egypt where he was stopped by the First Battle of El Alamein. Tripoli Tripoli (population 1. ... The Battle of Gazala was an important battle of the World War II Western Desert Campaign, fought around the port of Tobruk in Libya from May 26 to June 21, 1942. ... The First Battle of El Alamein 1–July 27, 1942 was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of World War II, fought between the German–Italian Afrika Korps commanded by Erwin Rommel and the British Eighth Army, commanded by Claude Auchinleck. ...


At this point General Bernard Montgomery took over as commander of Allied forces in North Africa and, after victory in the battles of Alam Halfa and Second El Alamein, began to the push the Axis forces back, going as far as capturing Tripoli. Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... Battle of Alam Halfa Conflict World War II Date August 30–September 6, 1942 Place El Alamein, Egypt Result Allied strategic victory Axis tactical victory The Battle of Alam el Halfa took place between August 30 and September 6, 1942 during the Western Desert Campaign of World War II. The... Combatants British Commonwealth Poland Free French Forces Greece Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 250,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 90,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 23,500 dead or wounded 500 tanks 13,000 dead 46,000 wounded or...


After the successful Allied Operation Torch and the advance of the 8th Army into Tunisia, strategic command of the campaign passed from C-in-C Middle East to the Joint Allied Commander of AFHQ. Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower François Darlan Strength 73,500 ? Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign, started November... The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy. ... Allied Forces Headquarters was the headquarters that controlled all Allied forces in the Mediterranean theatre from late 1943 to the end of the war. ...


Command Structure

Main article: Middle East Command

The British Middle East Command was based in Cairo with responsibility for Commonwealth operations in the Middle East and North Africa, and also those in East Africa, Persia, and the Balkans, including Greece. During World War II The British Middle East Command was based in Cairo with responsibility for the Middle East theatre which included North Africa, East Africa, Persia, the Middle East, and the British forces in the Balkans and Greece. ... Modern Cairo Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Motto: Persian: Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« (English: Independence, freedom, (the) Islamic Republic) Anthem: SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Capital Tehran Largest city Tehran Official language(s) Persian Government Supreme Leader President Islamic republic Ali Khamenei Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Revolution Declared Overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The Commanders-in-Chief (C-in-C)s were A Commander-in-Chief is the commander of a nations military forces or significant element of those forces. ...

Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 - May 24, 1950) was a British Field Marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. // Early life and career Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis (December 10, 1891 - June 16, 1969) was a British military commander and Field Marshal, notably during World War II as the commander of the 15th Army Group. ... This article is about the year. ...

Notes

  1.   Chronology of World War II Diplomacy 1939 - 1945 Italy did not declare war on all the Allied nations. For example after Italy's declaration of war on France and Britain on June 10, the next day France declares war on Italy and Great Britain, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa state that they are at war with Italy.


Campaigns and theatres of World War II
European Theatre
Poland | Phony War | Denmark & Norway | France & Benelux countries | Britain
Eastern Front 1941-45 | Continuation War | Western Front 1944-45
Asian and Pacific Theatres
China | Pacific Ocean | South-East Asia | South West Pacific | Manchuria 1945
The Mediterranean, Africa and Middle East
Mediterranean Sea | East Africa | North Africa | West Africa | Balkans
Middle East | Madagascar | Italy
Other
Atlantic Ocean | Strategic bombing | Bombing of the Continental United States
Contemporary wars
Chinese Civil War | Soviet-Japanese Border War | Winter War | Anglo-Iraqi War
History of World War II
Theaters Key events (1939-1942) Key events (1943-1945) Subtopics Participants See also

Prelude: Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini The European Theatre was an area of heavy fighting from 1939 to 1945 during World War II. // Preceding events Main articles: Events preceding World War II in Europe, Causes of World War II After Germany was defeated in World War I, the Treaty of Versailles... British Ministry of Home Security Poster The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland. ... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign led to the first direct confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Germanys... Combatants Allies (France, Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Poland, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) Germany, Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di Savoia (Army... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern European regions from June 1941 to May 1945. ... The Continuation War or War of Continuation (Finnish: , Swedish: ) was the war that was fought between Finland and the Soviet Union during World War II, from the Finland-based hostile activities against the Soviet Union on June 21 and June 22[1], and Soviet bombing attacks on June 25, 1941... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemberg, and Denmark. ... US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in Asia. ... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ... Combatants Soviet Union Japan Commanders Alexandr Vasilevskij Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... The Mediterranean region. ... The name African Theatres of World War II encompasses actions which took place in World War II between Allied forces and Axis forces, between 1940 and 1943 both on the African mainland and in nearby waters and islands. ... Battle of Mediterranean Conflict World War II Date Place Mediterranean Sea Result Allied victory The Naval Battle of the Mediterranean was waged during World War II, to attack and keep open the respective supply lines of Allied and Axis armies, and to destroy the opposing sides ability to wage... The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought between British Empire and Commonwealth forces and Italian Empire forces in Italian East Africa during World War II. This campaign is often seen as part of the North African Campaign. ... During World War II the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 (The USA started to directly supply the British in this effort on May 11, 1942) to May 13, 1943. ... The name West African campaign refers to two battles during World War II: the Battle of Dakar (also known as Operation Menace) and the Battle of Gabon, both of which were in late 1940. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Middle East Campaign was a part of the Middle East Theatre of World War II. // Overview This campaign included: The British police actions in Palestine. ... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... Attacks on United States territory in North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to North Americas geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... Combatants Chinese Nationalist Party Chinese Communist Party Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 3,600,000 circa June 1948 2,800,000 circa June 1948 The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: 國共内戰; Simplified Chinese: 国共内战; Pinyin: guógòng neìzhàn; literally Nationalist-Communist Civil War) was a conflict in... Combatants Soviet Red Army Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 Casualties 6,831 killed, 15,952 wounded 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded The Battle of Khalkhin Gol, sometimes spelled Halhin Gol or Khalkin Gol and known in Japan as the Nomonhan Incident... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 180,000 450,000 Casualties 22,830 dead 43,557 wounded c. ... Combatants Iraq United Kingdom Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 1,200 The Anglo-Iraqi War was a short war fought between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist government, from April 18 to May 30, 1941. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II...

Main Theaters: This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... This article is concerned with the events that preceded World War II in Asia. ...

1939:
• Polish September Campaign
1940:
• Norwegian Campaign
• Battle of France
• Battle of Britain
1941:
• Operation Barbarossa
• Attack on Pearl Harbor
• Battle of Moscow
• Siege of Leningrad
• Battle of Sevastopol
1942:
• Battle of Stalingrad
• Operation Torch
• Battle of Midway
Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini The European Theatre was an area of heavy fighting from 1939 to 1945 during World War II. // Preceding events Main articles: Events preceding World War II in Europe, Causes of World War II After Germany was defeated in World War I, the Treaty of Versailles... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern European regions from June 1941 to May 1945. ... During World War II the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 (The USA started to directly supply the British in this effort on May 11, 1942) to May 13, 1943. ... The Mediterranean region. ... US landings in the Pacific, 1942–1945 The Pacific War occurred in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in Asia. ... Combatants United Kingdom, Canada, United States of America Germany Commanders Percy Noble, Max Horton, Frederick John Walker, Leonard Warren (L.W.)Murray Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic was the longest... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total: 1,000,000[1] 56 German divisions, 4 brigades... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign led to the first direct confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Germanys... Combatants Allies (France, Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Poland, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg) Germany, Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di Savoia (Army... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Strength Approx. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... Combatants United States of America Imperial Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN) Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9 destroyers, 8 tankers, 23 fleet submarines, 5 midget submarines, 441 planes... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 650,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... Combatants Axis Powers, Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Kuechler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда) was the German... Combatants Germany, Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Filipp Oktyabrskiy, Ivan Petrov Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties 50,000 killed, wounded and captured. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Friedrich Paulus Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Germany Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower François Darlan Strength 73,500 ? Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1346+ dead 1997 wounded Operation Torch was the Anglo-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign, started November... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Chester Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength Three carriers, about 50 support ships 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft Four carriers, about 150 support ships 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier, 1 destroyer sunk...

1943:
• Battle of Kursk
• Italian Campaign
1944:
• Battle of Normandy
• Operation Bagration
• Battle of the Bulge
• Battle of Leyte Gulf
• Operation Market Garden
1945:
• Battle of Berlin
• End in Europe
• Hiroshima & Nagasaki
• Operation August Storm
• Surrender of Japan
Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Günther von Kluge, Walther Model Georgy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Nikolai Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, and captured 500 tanks 200... The Italian Campaign of World War II was the name of Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war. ... Combatants Allied Powers Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B) Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown Casualties 53,700 dead, 18,000 missing, 155,000 wounded About 200... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Gerd von Rundstedt Strength Dec 16 - start of the Battle: about 83,000 men; 242 Sherman tanks, 182 tank destroyers, and 394 pieces of corps and divisional artillery. ... Combatants United States, Australia Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr Jisaburo Ozawa Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers Many other ships, PT boats, and submarines About 1,500 planes 4 aircraft carriers 9 battleships 19 cruisers 34 destroyers About 200 planes Casualties 3,500... Combatants XXX Corps First Allied Airborne Army II SS Panzer Corps Army Group B First Parachute Army Commanders Montgomery von Rundstedt Strength 35,000 airborne, XXX Corps 20,000 (start of the battle) Casualties 18,000 casualties 13,000 casualties Operation Market Garden (September 17-September 25, 1944) was an... Combatants Germany Soviet Union (incl. ... The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II and the German surrender took place in late April and early May 1945. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Combatants Soviet Union Japan Commanders Alexandr Vasilevskij Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... The Surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought World War II to a close. ...

Civilian impact & atrocities: Yugoslav partisans entering Belgrade, October, 1944. ... During the war, women worked in factories throughout much of the West and East. ... German Enigma encryption machine. ... // Aircraft List of aircraft of World War II List of World War II military aircraft of Germany List of aircraft of the Armée de lAir, World War II List of aircraft of the USAAF, World War II List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force, World War II... Cryptography was used extensively during World War II, with a plethora of code and cipher systems fielded by the nations involved. ... Blitzkrieg relies on close co-operation between infantry and panzers (tanks). ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland. ...

Aftermath: Selection at the Auschwitz camp in 1944, where the Nazis chose whom to kill immediately and whom to use as slave labor or for medical experimentation. ... The term Japanese war crimes refers to events which occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries. ... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ...

Participants Note: This section was copied from the article World War II and removed from that article in order to reduce the size of the article. ... Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world had ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths and many millions of wounded. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная война , Kholodna-ya voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their alliance partners. ... Participants in World War II involves all nations who either participated directly or were affected by any of the theatres or events of World War II. // Alliances World Map with the participants in World War II. The Allies depicted in green (those in light green entered after the Attack on...


The Allies
•  Soviet Union
•  United States
•  United Kingdom
•  China
•  France
•  Poland
•  Greece
•  Yugoslavia
•  Czechoslovakia
•  Canada
•  Egypt
•  Australia
•  New Zealand
•  India
•  Brazil
• more...
The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II, was those nations opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages, in Serbian and Macedonian Cyrillic Југославија) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign_1921. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt_1922. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II, was those nations opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ...


The Axis
•  Germany
•  Japan
•  Italy
• more... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Japanese-War-Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...

More information on World War II:

 World War II from Wiktionary
 WWII Textbooks from Wikibooks
 WWII Quotations from Wikiquote
 WWII Source texts from Wikisource
 WWII Images and media from Commons
 WWII News stories from Wikinews
For events preceding September 1, 1939, see the timeline of events preceding World War II. 1939 September September 1, 1939 The Polish September Campaign begins as Poland is attacked by Germany at 4:30 am with Luftwaffe air attacks against several targets. ... // Military engagements For military topics (land, naval, and air engagements as well as campaigns, operations, defensive lines and sieges), please see List of military engagements of World War II. Political and social aspects of the war Causes of World War II Appeasement Occupation of Denmark Netherlands in World War II... German soldiers during the Battle of Stalingrad. ... List of World War II conferences of the Allied forces In total Churchill attended 14 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 5. ... This article is about Total War. ... The influence of World War II has been profound and diverse, having an impact on many parts of life. ... Military awards of World War II were presented by most of the combatants. ... Attacks on United States territory in North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to North Americas geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Europe, Africa, and the Middle East [Archive] - World War II Zone Forums (43 words)
Europe, Africa, and the Middle East [Archive] - World War II Zone Forums
World War II Zone Forums > Europe, Africa, and the Middle East
European War, September 1, 1939 through VE Day
World War II (3785 words)
World War II World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the world's nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing approximately 55.5 million lives (see below).
The war was fought mainly between an alliance of the British Commonwealth, France, the United States, the Soviet Union, and China—collectively known as the Allies; and the Axis Powers, an alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan.
The war also saw the re-emergence of the United States from its isolationism, the destruction and rebuilding of Germany and Japan into major industrial powers, the advent of the atomic bomb, and the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as global superpowers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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