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Encyclopedia > Middle Ages in history
"Murder of Przemysław II in Rogoźno" by Wojciech Gerson: a 19th century painting of a medieval subject
"Murder of Przemysław II in Rogoźno" by Wojciech Gerson: a 19th century painting of a medieval subject

The Middle Ages in history is an overview of how previous periods have both romanticised and disparaged the Middle Ages. After the period came to an end with the Renaissance, subsequent cultural movements such as the Enlightenment and Romantics created images of the Middle Ages that say as much about their own time as actual Medieval history. The modern world is the inheritor of the images and ideas in the form of film, architecture, literature, art and the folk history of popular culture. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Przemysł II Przemysł II (October 14, 1257 – February 8, 1296), was Duke of Poznań, Greater Poland, Kraków and Pomerania, and King of Poland from 1295 until his death. ... Wojciech Gerson (1831-1901) was a Polish painter and professor. ... [<br /> ---- Julius Caesar was born in the year 100 BC] Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... // The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the industrial revolution. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, a master builder, from αρχι- chiefs, leader , builder, carpenter)[1] is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Popular culture, sometimes called pop culture, (literally: the culture of the people) consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ...

Contents

Renaissance

Main article: Dark Ages

No one living in the Middle Ages knew they were in the Middle Ages. The origin of the term "Middle Ages" comes from Italian Renaissance humanists in the 15th century. Humanists at the time believed that since the fall of Rome in the 5th century, culture had stagnated, owing to the loss of many classical Latin texts, and the nearly thousand year intervening period was a Dark Age, a term first coined by Petrarch in the 1330s. A generation after Petrarch, Leonardo Bruni (the first modern historian) logically defined this Dark Age as part of a three tier outline of history composed of Ancient, Middle and Modern, and based on that Flavio Biondo first coined the term "Middle Age" in 1442. The terms Dark Age and Middle Age are not neutral historical descriptions; rather, it was a humanists' ideological campaign to foster one cultural ideal over another and paint the period in a negative pejorative light. While humanism was the first movement to do so, it would not be the last dark image of the Middle Ages. Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... Humanism[1] is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationalism. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Romulus Augustus was deposed as Western Roman Emperor in 476 while still young. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Dark Ages (or Dark Age) is a metaphor with multiple meanings and connotations. ... From the c. ... Leonardo Bruni Leonardo Bruni (c. ... Periodization is the attempt to categorize or divide time into discrete named blocks. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Flavio Biondo (Latin Flavius Blondus) (1392 – June 4, 1463) was an Italian Renaissance humanist historian. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ...


Reformation and Enlightenment

Erasmus by Holbein (1523). Erasmus supported the Catholic Church, but made widely popular satirical criticisms of its superstitions, clerical follies and abuses, most famously in Praise of Folly.

Between 1500 and 1800 the image of the Middle Ages was mostly seen in a negative light, attacked separately or simultaneously, by the three powerful forces of humanism, the Reformation and the Enlightenment. File links The following pages link to this file: Erasmus Middle Ages in history ... File links The following pages link to this file: Erasmus Middle Ages in history ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... A 1543 portrait miniature of Hans Holbein the Younger by Lucas Horenbout Holbeins 1533 painting The Ambassadors Hans Holbein the Younger (c. ... Hans Holbeins witty marginal drawing of Folly (1515), in the first edition, a copy owned by Erasmus himself (Kupferstichkabinett, Basle) The Praise of Folly (Latin title: Moriae Encomium, sometimes translated as In Praise of Folly, Dutch title: Lof der Zotheid) is an essay written in 1509 by Erasmus of...


Protestant reformation

Main article: Protestant Reformation

During the Protestant Reformations of the 16th and 17th Century, Protestants generally agreed with the humanists view but for additional reasons. They saw classical antiquity as a golden time, not only because of the Latin literature, but because it was the early beginnings of Christianity. They saw the intervening 1000 year Middle Age as a time of darkness, not only because of lack of secular Latin literature, but because of corruption within the Church such as Popes who ruled as kings, pagan superstitions with saints relics, celibate priesthood, and institutionalized moral hypocrisy. The Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... The Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ...


An example of how Protestant views shaped views of the past can be seen in the example of King John of England. In modern times King John is seen as a tyrant whose failed leadership resulted in the forced signing of the Magna Carta and loss of English holdings in Normandy. However, because King John opposed papal authority during the crisis over the appointment of Stephen Langton the Archbishop of Canterbury, Protestants saw him as a hero against the oppressive force of the Pope. In support of the Protestant interpretation of history, playwright John Bale in his 1530s drama King Johan called him "a faithful Moses" who '"withstood proud Pharaoh [the pope] for his poor Israel". This pro-John sentiment continued and eventually found its most popular voice in Shakespeare's play King John. John deer hunting, from a manuscript in the British Library. ... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ... Stephen Langton (c. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... John Bale John Bale (21 November 1495–November, 1563) was an English churchman, historian and controversialist, Bishop of Ossory. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... The Death and Death of Queen John is one of the Shakespearean histories, plays written by William Shakespeare and based on the history of England. ...


Enlightenment

Main article: Enlightenment

During the 17th and 18th century, in the Age of Enlightenment, religion was seen as antithetical to reason. Because the Middle Ages was an "Age of Faith" when religion reigned, it was seen as a period contrary to reason, and thus contrary to the Enlightenment. For them the Middle Ages was barbaric and priest-ridden. They referred to "these dark times", "the centuries of ignorance", and "the uncouth centuries". // The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... // The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ...


Voltaire was an Enlightenment writer who was particularly energetic in attacking the religiously dominated Middle Ages as a period of social stagnation and decline. His essay Essay on the Customs and Spirit of Nations (1750s) has over one-hundred chapters on the Middle Ages. He saw it as time of political failure because Europe "was divided among a countless number of petty tyrants". Feudalism was a catalyst for endless civil war. His vision of the period was barbaric. "Picture yourself", he says, "in a wilderness where wolves, tigers and foxes slaughter straggling timid cattle -- that is the portrait of Europe over the course of many centuries." Scholasticism was "systems of absurdity". The Catholic Church "has always come down in favor of crushing reason completely". Of the crusades, the fourth crusade in particular, he said "the only fruit of the Christians in their barbarous crusades was to exterminate other Christians.. led by leaders without experience or skill." For the sport horse, see Voltaire (horse). ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ...


In summary, between 1500 and 1800 the Middle Ages were viewed negatively for three reasons: it failed to meet humanists (and thus classic) standards of literature and learning, it failed to meet Protestant religious judgments, and it failed to meet Enlightenment standards.


Romantics

Main article: Romanticism
"Alain Chartier" by Edmund Blair Leighton: Pre-Raphaelite use of medieval motifs
"Alain Chartier" by Edmund Blair Leighton: Pre-Raphaelite use of medieval motifs

The "uncouth times that one calls the Middle Ages" (Voltaire) was followed by a revolutionary change in perspective, a change which still exists in large part to this day, and of which we are still the direct heirs. During the later 18th and 19th century the movement known as Romanticism began. One of its practitioners, poet Heinrich Heine, defined Romanticism as "nothing but the reawakening of the poetry of the Middle Ages, as it manifested itself in songs, pictures and works of art, in art and life." The Romantic image of the Middle Ages was a reaction to a world dominated by Enlightenment rationalism in which reason trumped emotion. The Romantics viewed the Middle Ages nostalgically as an era of emotion and mystery, the simple and natural--a period of social and environmental harmony and spiritual inspiration, in contrast to the excesses of the French Revolution and most of all to the environmental and social upheavals of the emerging industrial revolution. Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the industrial revolution. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 409 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (955 × 1400 pixel, file size: 727 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alain Chartier Middle Ages in history... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 409 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (955 × 1400 pixel, file size: 727 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) +/- File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alain Chartier Middle Ages in history... Alain Chartier (c. ... The Accolade Edmund Blair Leighton (September 21, 1853—September 1, 1922) was a British painter of medieval scenes of chivalry. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the industrial revolution. ... Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (born Chaim Harry Heine, December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ...

Cologne Cathedral was started in 1248 and remained mostly unfinished for over 500 years while Gothic architecture sunk in popularity. By the 1820s the Romantic movement brought back interest and work was started again in 1824 and completed in 1880, symbolically marking the return of Gothic architecture.
Cologne Cathedral was started in 1248 and remained mostly unfinished for over 500 years while Gothic architecture sunk in popularity. By the 1820s the Romantic movement brought back interest and work was started again in 1824 and completed in 1880, symbolically marking the return of Gothic architecture.

The Romantics not only longed for the Middle Ages but endeavored to recreate it in art, literature and architecture. Painters such as the German Nazarenes (1809) or English Pre-Raphaelites (1848) advocated a return to a previous era in art. The Romantics also invented the historical novel and its foremost practitioner was Sir Walter Scott who wrote Ivanhoe (1819), a Medieval drama of knights and fair maidens and chivalry. Ivanhoe was a 19th century best seller, nine operas were based on it, and in 1820 six different versions were playing on stage in London at the same time[1]. In 1839, the Earl of Eglinton actually held a great tournament, the notorious Eglinton Tournament of 1839. 19th century poetry was also heavily influenced by re-discovered and newly popular literature from the Middle Ages including the famous Brothers Grimm, who inspired Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley to write Frankenstein (1818), a classic Romantic reaction to the potential horrors of scientific discovery. Download high resolution version (480x640, 98 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 98 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom, official name: ) is one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany and has been Colognes most famous landmark since its completion in the late 19th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1240s and 13th century. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic Revival was an architectural movement which originated in mid-18th century England. ... -1... The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. ... A historical novel is a novel in which the story is set among historical events, or more generally, in which the time of the action predates the lifetime of the author. ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ... For other uses, see Ivanhoe (disambiguation). ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Archibald William Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton and 1st Earl of Winton, (September 29, 1812 - October 4, 1861), was born at Palermo. ... The Eglinton Tournament of 1839 was a reenactment of a medieval joust and revel held in Scotland by Archibald William Montgomerie, thirteenth Earl of Eglinton, widely publicized and open to the public. ... Wilhelm (left) and Jacob Grimm (right) from an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann The Brothers Grimm were Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, German professors who were best known for publishing collections of folk tales and fairy tales,[1] and for their work in linguistics, relating to how the sounds in... Mary Shelley Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley née Godwin (August 30, 1797&#8211;February 1, 1851) was an English writer who is, perhaps, equally-famously remembered as the wife of Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley and as the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ...


Perhaps the greatest lasting impact of the Romantics vision of the Middle Ages is in Architecture. Vast amounts of pseudo-medieval architecture were built during the 19th and 20th centuries Gothic revival. The completion of the Cologne Cathedral (1880) in Gothic style marked a new era in bringing the Medieval world into the modern. Some of the leaders of this pseudo-medieval architectural movement included Englishman August Pugin who asserted that Gothic architecture was true Christian architecture, boldly saying "The pointed arch was produced by the Catholic faith". He went on to produce important Gothic buildings such as Cathedrals at Burmingham and Southwark and the British House of Parliament in the 1840s. Viollet-le-Duc was a leading Medieval restorer in France who restored the entire walled city of Carcassonne as well as Notre-Dame and Sainte Chapelle. In America Ralph Adams Cram was a leading force in American Gothic, with his most ambitious project the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in New York (claimed to be the largest Cathedral in the world), as well as Collegiate Gothic buildings at Princeton Graduate College. Cram said "the style hewn out and perfected by our ancestors [has] become ours by uncontested inheritance."

Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... The Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom, official name: ) is one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany and has been Colognes most famous landmark since its completion in the late 19th century. ... Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (March 1, 1812 _ September 14, 1852) was an English-born architect, designer and theorist of design now best remembered for his work on churches and on the Houses of Parliament. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Birmingham, England, has three cathedrals. ... St Georges Cathedral St Georges Cathedral Southwark is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Southwark, South London. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (Paris, January 27, 1814 - Lausanne 1879) was a French architect, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... Carcassonne (Carcassona in Occitan) is a fortified French town, in the Aude département of which it is the préfecture, in the former province of Languedoc. ... Notre Dame de Paris: Western Facade For the novel by Victor Hugo, see The Hunchback of Notre Dame. ... La Sainte-Chapelle (French for The Holy Chapel) is a Gothic chapel on the Ile de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France. ... Cover of Time Magazine (December 13, 1926) Ralph Adams Cram, (December 16, 1863 - September 22, 1942), was an American architect of collegiate and ecclesiastical buildings, often in the gothic style. ... The Cathedral of St. ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin The Gothic revival was a European architectural movement with origins in mid-18th century England. ... Princeton University is a coeducational private university located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States of America. ...


Romantic Nationalism

King Ludwig II of Bavaria built a fairy-tale castle at Neuschwanstein in 1868 (later modeled by Walt Disney), a symbolic merger of art and politics. (Photochrom from the 1890s.)
King Ludwig II of Bavaria built a fairy-tale castle at Neuschwanstein in 1868 (later modeled by Walt Disney), a symbolic merger of art and politics. (Photochrom from the 1890s.)
Main article: Romantic nationalism

One of the major themes of the Romantics was Romantic nationalism, and the image of the Middle Ages was closely tied with its rise and dominance. Theorist Johann Gottfried von Herder, an important Romantic leader, defined nationalism in ethnic terms as communities of common language. He said "Language is the principal sign of a nation [it is] the true national history of a people". To that end national epics such as The Song of Roland, Beowulf and Nibelungenlied were published for the first time and were widely read and influential. For example at one point during Germany's so-called "War of Liberation" against Napoleon in 1813-1814, at the "Battle of the Nations", the German army handed out copies of Nibelungenlied to its troops as a morale booster. From de:Bild:00179r. ... From de:Bild:00179r. ... Ludwig (Louis) II, King of Bavaria, Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm; sometimes known in English as Ludwig the Mad and as the Märchenkönig (Fairy-tale King) in German. ... Neuschwanstein seen from the Marienbrücke. ... This photochrom illustrates Hildesheim town hall in the 1890s, and shows the evocative coloration characteristic of the process. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 - December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his concept of the Volk and is generally considered the father of ethnic nationalism. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... A national epic is an epic poem or similar work which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation-state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy. ... The Song of Roland (French: ) is the oldest major work of French literature. ... The first page of Beowulf This article is about the epic poem. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Map of battle by 18 October 1813, from Meyers Encyclopaedia The Battle of Leipzig (October 16-19, 1813), also called the Battle of the Nations, was the largest conflict in the Napoleonic Wars and one of the worst defeats suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte. ...


By the late 19th century pseudo-medieval symbols were the currency of European monarchal state propaganda. German emperors dressed up in and proudly displayed medieval costumes in public, and they rebuilt the great medieval castle and spiritual home of the Teutonic Order at Marienburg. Mad King Ludwig II of Bavaria built a fairy-tale castle at Neuschwanstein and decorated it with scenes from Wagner's operas, another major Romantic image maker of the Middle Ages. In England, the Middle Ages were trumpeted as the birthplace of Nations because of the Magna Carta of 1215. enlightened desportism is the act when a prist lies in order to become better in the eyes of the churchEnlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period. ... Malbork Castle 2003. ... Ludwig (Louis) II, King of Bavaria, Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm, also known as Ludwig the Mad, and Mad King Ludwig (August 25, 1845 - June 13, 1886) was king of Bavaria from 1864 until his death. ... Neuschwanstein seen from the Marienbrücke. ... Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as he later came to call them). ... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ...


Twentieth century

See also Medieval film
El Cid (1961) starring Charlton Heston, a movie with direct heritage to the Romantics, it helped mold popular perceptions of the Middle Ages in the middle 20th century.

In the 20th century there were two forces which shaped the image of the Middle Ages: Academia and, most significantly, Film. El Cid (1961) starring Charleton Heston, a movie with direct heritage to the Romantics, it helped mold popular perceptions of the Middle Ages in the middle 20th century. ... El Cid, 1961, Charlton Heston & Sophia Loren, DVD Cover This work is copyrighted. ... El Cid, 1961, Charlton Heston & Sophia Loren, DVD Cover This work is copyrighted. ... El Cid is a 1961 historical epic film made by Samuel Bronston Productions in association with The Rank Organisation and released by Allied Artists. ... Charlton Heston (born John Charles Carter on October 4, 1924) is an iconic Academy Award-winning American film actor, best known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ...


Academia

Universities experienced a steep rise in interest in Medieval studies, both in funding and numbers of students and teachers and programs. There were roughly three generations of Medieval historians in the 20th century, each focusing on different aspects of Medieval history which reflected the interests of their own time. In the early part of the 20th century the academic focus was on political and constitutional history as part of a drive to train governmental workers to fill the Great Society programs, which was believed to be the path to a better future for the best and brightest of society. Charles H. Haskins was a leader in the USA and was called Americas first Medievalist. In the middle part of the 20th century medievalists focused more on social and economic factors, reflecting the issues of that time. Marc Bloch was a leader in this area famously re-defining Feudalism as a social system. Finally in the later part of the century historians began to focus on more diverse areas, such as peasants, feminism and private lives. The microhistory school pioneered by Carlo Ginzburg with his The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth Century Miller (1980) is a good example of the diversity of this research, reflecting the general trends toward diversity and choice in the later part of the 20th century. Charles Homer Haskins (1870-1937) was an American historian of the Middle Ages, and advisor to US President Woodrow Wilson. ... Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch (July 6, 1886 - June 16, 1944) was a French historian of medieval France in the period between the First and Second World Wars, and a founder of the Annales School. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Feminism is a collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies largely motivated by or concerned with the social, political and economic equality of the sexes. ... Microhistory is a branch of the study of history. ... Carlo Ginzburg is a noted historian and pioneer of microhistory. ...


Film

Film has been the most significant creator of images of the Middle Ages in the 20th century. The first Medieval film was also one of the earliest films ever made, about Joan of Arc in 1899, while the first Robin Hood dates to as early as 1908. Just as most peoples perceptions of the American Wild West were drawn mostly from film, versus source material or academic research, so too most peoples perceptions of the Middle Ages were shaped by film. Influential European films included the German Nibelungenlied (1924), Eisenstein's Alexander Nevsky (1938) and Bergman's The Seventh Seal (1957), while in France there were many Joan of Arc sequels. Probably most influential of all were Hollywood films. The Romantic historical novels were adapted to the screen such as Ivanhoe (1952) by MGM and El Cid (1961). Like the works of Romantic artists, painters, novelists, and operas, the films were direct historic links to the Romantic movement. The exact same Romantic style exists in the films in music, imagery and themes. The films reached a far wider audience than academic works and were further reinforced by fantasy literature. El Cid (1961) starring Charleton Heston, a movie with direct heritage to the Romantics, it helped mold popular perceptions of the Middle Ages in the middle 20th century. ... a film which removes the viewer from spatial relations and institutionalized the use of the close up ... It has been suggested that Name of Joan of Arc be merged into this article or section. ... Robin Hood memorial statue in Nottingham. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (Russian: Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн, Latvian: Sergejs EizenÅ¡teins) (January 23, 1898 – February 11, 1948) was a revolutionary Soviet film director and film theorist noted in particular for his silent films Strike, Battleship Potemkin and Oktober. ... Alexander Nevsky is a film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and Dmitry Vasiliev released in 1938, during the Stalin era, with Nikolai Cherkasov in the title role. ... Ingmar Bergman   (IPA: in Swedish) (born July 14, 1918) is a Swedish stage and film director who is one of the key film auteurs of the twentieth century. ... The Seventh Seal (Swedish: Det sjunde inseglet) is an existential 1957 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman about the journey of a medieval knight (Max von Sydow) across a plague-ridden landscape. ... ... For other uses, see Ivanhoe (disambiguation). ... El Cid is a 1961 historical epic film made by Samuel Bronston Productions in association with The Rank Organisation and released by Allied Artists. ...


Fantasy

Fantasy's medieval debts predated film. While the folklore that fantasy drew on for its magic and monsters was not exclusively medieval, elves, dragons, and unicorns, among many other creatures, were drawn from medieval folklore and romance. Perhaps even more important was setting. Such earlier writers as William Morris (in The Well at the World's End) and Lord Dunsany (in The King of Elfland's Daughter) set their tales in fantasy worlds clearly derived from medieval sources, though often filtered through later views. J.R.R. Tolkien set the type even more clearly for high fantasy, normally based in such a pseudo-medieval setting. Other fantasy writers have emulated him, and role-playing and computer games also took up this tradition, which continued with strength in to the 21st century. Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... William Morris, socialist and innovator in the Arts and Crafts movement William Morris (March 24, 1834 – October 3, 1896) was an English artist, writer, socialist and activist. ... The Well at the Worlds End is a fantasy book by British artist and author William Morris, published in 1896. ... Best known as Lord Dunsany, Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett, 18th Baron of Dunsany (July 24, 1878–October 25, 1957) was an Irish writer and dramatist notable for his work in fantasy and horror. ... The King of Elflands Daughter is a 1924 fantasy novel written by Lord Dunsany. ... A fantasy world is a type of fictional universe in which magic or other similar powers work. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... In role-playing, participants adopt characters, or parts, that have personalities, motivations, and backgrounds different from their own. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Ian Anstruther,The Knight and the Umbrella: An Account of the Eglinton Tournament -- 1839, Geoffrey Bles Ltd, London, 1963, pp. 122-123

See also

Byzantine monumental Church mosaics are a crowning glory of Medieval Art. ... Neo-medievalism is a theory that suggests political power, in some modern societies, is more akin to the political arrangements that existed in Medieval Europe. ...

External links

  • "Medieval Historiography: Selected Readings"

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Exhibits Collection -- The Middle Ages (106 words)
Designed by and for principals working to improve student achievement in mathematics and science, this workshop addresses the specific issues faced by administrators.
edium aevum -- Medieval or The Middle Ages.
In reality, life in the Middle Ages, a period that extended from approximately the fifth century to the fifteenth century in Western Europe, was sometimes all these things, as well as harsh, uncertain, and often dangerous.
Middle Ages in history - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2132 words)
The terms Dark Age and Middle Age are not neutral historical descriptions; rather, it was a humanists' ideological campaign to foster one cultural ideal over another and paint the period in a negative pejorative light.
The Romantics viewed the Middle Ages nostalgically as an era of emotion and mystery, the simple and natural--a period of social and environmental harmony and spiritual inspiration, in contrast to the excesses of the French Revolution and most of all to the environmental and social upheavals of the emerging industrial revolution.
In England, the Middle Ages were trumpeted as the birthplace of Nations because of the Magna Carta of 1215.
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