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Encyclopedia > Midas

In Greek mythology, Midas or King Midas (in Greek Μίδας) is popularly remembered for his ability to turn everything he touched into gold: the Midas touch. In alchemy, the transmutation of an object into gold is known as chrysopoeia. MIDAS or Midas may refer to: Midas, King of Pessinus, Phrygia Motorway Incident Detection and Automatic Signalling (MIDAS) Mixed data sampling (MIDAS) Minibus Driver Awareness Scheme (MiDAS) 1981 Midas, an asteroid Midas Interactive Entertainment Midas Consoles DataSnap (formally called Midas), part of Borland Delphis software development environment. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Midas was king[1] of Pessinus, a city of Phrygia, who as a child was adopted by the king Gordias and Cybele, the goddess whose consort he was, and who by some accounts was the goddess-mother of Midas himself.[2] Some accounts place the youth of Midas in Macedonian Bermion[3] In Mygdonia[4] Midas was known for his garden of roses: Herodotus[5] remarks on the settlement of the ancient kings of Macedon on the slopes of Mount Bermion "the place called the garden of Midas son of Gordias, where roses grow of themselves, each bearing sixty blossoms and of surpassing fragrance. In this garden, according to the Macedonian story, Silenos was taken captive."[6] According to Iliad (v.860), he had one son, Lityerses, the demonic reaper of men; but in some variations of the myth he had a daughter, Zoë or "life" instead. Pessinus was the city in Asia Minor (presently Anatolia, the Asian part of Turkey) on the upper course of the river Sangarios (modern day Sakarya River), 120 SW of Akara, from which the mythological King Midas is said to have ruled a greater Phrygian realm. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... ... A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... Mygdonia was an ancient territory, later conquered by Macedon, which comprised the plains around Therma (Thessalonica) together with the valleys of Klisali and Besikia, including the area of the Axios river mouth and extending as far east as Lake Bolbe. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... In Greek mythology, sileni were a race of half-horse, half-humans, unlike the satyrs, who were half-goat. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... In Greek mythology, Lityerses was a son of Midas. ...


For the legend of Gordias, a poor countryman who was taken by the people and made king, in obedience to the command of the oracle, see Gordias. ...

 Tomb of King Midas Reconstruction in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara, Turkey
Tomb of King Midas

Reconstruction in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations, Ankara, Turkey

For the son of Midas, see Adrastus. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 643 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1191 × 1110 pixel, file size: 550 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 643 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1191 × 1110 pixel, file size: 550 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Anatolian Civilizations Museum of Ankara, has been elected as the European Museum of the Year in 1997. ... In Greek mythology, Adrastus, or Adrastos (he who stands his ground, son of Talaus) was one of the three kings at Argos, along with Iphis and Amphiaraus, who was married to Adrastus sister Eriphyle. ...

Contents

Historical context

Historically, it is known that a Midas was king of Phrygia in the late eighth century BCE. Phrygia had many kings who bore the name Midas. He may be identical with Mita, a king of the Mushki who is known from a list of allies of Sargon II of Assyria, dated to 709 BCE. Herodotus[7] recorded the votive offerings at Delphi of Gyges and of his predecessor Midas "son of Gordias king of Phrygia... who dedicated for an offering the royal throne on which he sat before all to decide causes; and this throne, a sight worth seeing, stands in the same place with the bowls of Gyges. This gold and silver which Gyges dedicated is called Gygian by the people of Delphi, after the name of him who offered it." The Mushki (Muški) were an Iron Age people of Anatolia, known from and Assyrian sources. ... Sargon II (right), king of Assyria (r. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... A votive deposit or votive offering is an object left in a sacred place for ritual purposes. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Gyges can be: A figure from Greek mythology, one of the Hecatonchires. ...


Pausanias was aware that Midas, son of Gordias, was venerated as city founder at Phrygian Ancyra (Ankara).[8] Ankara from the Atakule Tower, looking N-NE Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Istanbul. ...


The great tumulus

In 1957 archaeologists connected with the University of Pennsylvania opened a chamber tomb at the heart of the Great Tumulus (height : 53 m, diameter : about 300 m) on the site of ancient Gordion (modern Yassihöyük, Turkey), where there are located more than 100 tumuli of different sizes and of different periods. They discovered an early eighth century royal burial, complete with remains of the funeral feast and "the best collection of Iron Age drinking vessels ever uncovered"[9]. This inner chamber was rather large : 5.15 by 6.20 m. The height of the ceiling was 3.25 m. On a wooden bedstead in the corner of the chamber lay a skeleton of a man of 1.59 m height and about 60 years old. In the room there were decorated tables and panels, and many vessels with grave offerings. Though no identifying texts were associated with the site, it is popularly dubbed the "Tomb of Midas" (Penn). But later investigations showed that this funerary monument couldn't have been constructed after the Cimmerian invasion in the early seventh century BCE. Therefore it is now believed to be the monument for an earlier king than Midas. This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ... Gordium was the capital of ancient Phrygia, modern Yassihüyük. ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is...


A "tomb of Midas" identified in the nineteenth century at Midas Sehri on the basis of the word "Mida", identified in incompletely translated Phrygian inscriptions, is not today interpreted as a tomb, but instead a site sacred to Cybele. The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people of the central Asia Minor. ... A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ...


Myth

Once, as Ovid relates in Metamorphoses X[10] Dionysus found his old schoolmaster and foster father, the satyr Silenus, missing.[11] The old satyr had been drinking wine, and had wandered away drunk, and was found by some Phrygian peasants, who carried him to their king, Midas (alternatively, he passed out in Midas' rose garden). Midas recognized him, and treated him hospitably, entertaining him for ten days and nights with politeness, while Silenus entertained Midas and his friends with stories and songs.[12] On the eleventh day he brought Silenus back to Dionysus in Lydia. Dionysus offered Midas his choice of whatever reward he wanted. Midas asked that whatever he might touch should be changed into gold. Midas rejoiced in his new power, which he hastened to put to the test. He touched an oak twig and a stone and both turned to gold. Overjoyed, as soon as he got home, he ordered the servants to set a feast on the table. "So Midas, king of Lydia, swelled at first with pride when he found he could transform everything he touched to gold: but when he beheld his food grow rigid and his drink harden into golden ice then he understood that this gift was a bane and in his loathing for gold cursed his prayer" (Claudian, In Rufinem). In a version told by Nathaniel Hawthorne,[13] he found that when he touched his daughter, she turned into a statue as well. For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... A bald, bearded, horse-tailed satyr balances a winecup on his erect penis, a trick worthy of note, on an Attic red-figured psykter, ca. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... Claudius Claudianus, Anglicized as Claudian, was the court poet to the Emperor Honorius and Stilicho. ... Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ...


Now he hated the gift he had coveted. He prayed to Dionysus, begging to be delivered from starvation. Dionysus heard and consented; he told Midas to wash in the river Pactolus. He did so, and when he touched the waters, the power passed into the river, and the river sands became changed into gold. This explained why the river Pactolus was so rich in gold and the wealth of the dynasty claiming Midas as forefather, no doubt the impetus for this etiological myth. (Graves). Gold was perhaps not the only metallic source of Midas' riches: "King Midas, a Phrygian, son of Cybele, first discovered black and white lead."[14] Pactolus is a river, now in modern Turkey. ... This article is about the medical term. ...


Midas, now hating wealth and splendor, moved to the country and became a worshipper of Pan, the god of the fields and satyr.[15] Roman mythographers[16] asserted that his tutor in music was Orpheus. Once Pan had the audacity to compare his music with that of Apollo, and to challenge Apollo, the god of the lyre, to a trial of skill (also see Marsyas). Tmolus, the mountain-god, was chosen as umpire. Pan blew on his pipes, and with his rustic melody gave great satisfaction to himself and his faithful follower, Midas, who happened to be present. Then Apollo struck the strings of his lyre. Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and all but Midas agreed with the judgment. He dissented, and questioned the justice of the award. Apollo would not suffer such a depraved pair of ears any longer, and caused them to become the ears of a donkey.[17]. The myth is illustrated by two paintings "Apollo and Marsyas" by Palma il Giovane (1544-1628), one depicting the scene before, and one after the punishment. Marble sculpture of Pan copulating with a goat, recovered from Herculaneum Pan (Greek Παν, genitive Πανος) is the Greek god who watches over shepherds and their flocks. ... For other uses, see Orpheus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... “Lyres” redirects here. ... In Greek mythology, Marsyas was a satyr who challenged Apollo to a contest of music. ... In Greek mythology, Tmolus was a mountain god and husband to Omphale (but see below). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Giaele uccide Sisara Palma il Giovane, Italian for Palma the Younger, is the common nickname of the Italian painter Jacopo Palma il Giovane (1544-1628), used to distinguished him from his more reputed uncle Palma il Vecchio. ...


Midas was mortified at this mishap. He attempted to hide his misfortune with an ample turban or headdress. But his hairdresser of course knew the secret. He was told not to mention it. He could not keep the secret; so he went out into the meadow, dug a hole in the ground, whispered the story into it, and covered the hole up. A thick bed of reeds sprang up in the meadow, and began whispering the story and saying "King Midas has a donkey's ears."


Sarah Morris demonstrated (Morris 2004) that donkeys' ears were a Bronze Age royal attribute, borne by King Tarkasnawa (Greek Tarkondemos) of Mira, on a seal inscribed in both Hittite cuneiform and Luwian hieroglyphs: in this connection the myth would appear to justify for Greeks the exotic attribute. Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern BoÄŸazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ... Luwian (sometimes spelled Luwiyan) is an Anatolian language known in three forms: (1) Cuneiform Luwian, (2) Hieroglyphic-Luwian and (3), the somewhat later Lycian. ...


See also

  • The tales of King Midas have been told by others with some variations: John Dryden; in the Wife of Bath's Tale, by Geoffrey Chaucer, making Midas' queen Demodike (or Hermodike) of Kymi; Aristotle, Eudemus fr. 611, 37; Pollux 9, 83,[18]) the betrayer of the secret.
  • Berecynthian Hero (after Mt. Berecynthus in Phrygia)
  • Midas touch, see Grey goo effect and Ice-nine

John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... The opening page of The Wife of Baths Tale from the Ellesmere manuscript of The Canterbury Tales, circa 1405-1410. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... For Cuma, near Naples, Italy, see Cumae. ... Grey goo is a hypothetical end-of-the-world scenario involving molecular nanotechnology in which out-of-control self-replicating robots consume all living matter on Earth while building more of themselves (a scenario known as ecophagy). ... Cats Cradle (ISBN 038533348X) is a 1963 science fiction novel by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The reign-names Midas and Gordias alternate in historic Phrygia: Herodotus (i.14) tells an anecdote of Adrastus "the son of Gordias, son of Midas" at the court of Croesus.
  2. ^ "King Midas, a Phrygian, son of Cybele" (Hyginus, Fabulae 274).
  3. ^ "Bromium" in Graves 1960:83.a; Greek traditions of the migration from European Macedon to Anatolia are examined— as purely literary constructions— in Peter Carrington, "The Heroic Age of Phrygia in Ancient Literature and Art" Anatolian Studies 27 (1977:117-126).
  4. ^ Mygdonia was part of Macedon in historical times.
  5. ^ Herodotus, Histories 8.138.1
  6. ^ Herodotus' place is identified with Aegae by many readers, such as N.G.L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia I (Oxford 1972) p. 410, and Panayiotis B. Faklaris, "Aegae: Determining the Site of the First Capital of the Macedonians" American Journal of Archaeology 98.4 (October 1994, pp 609-616) p. 613 and note. Are the "rose gardens" a late interpolation? Though the rose was associated with Aphrodite in Rhodes and Cyprus, roses do not figure otherwise in Greek myth, and Greek rose gardens were adopted from Persian models: not Macedon, however, but Midas' other domain, Phrygia, became a Persian satrapy in 546 BCE.
  7. ^ Histories i.14.
  8. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.4.1. Ancyra was actually older even than that.
  9. ^ Science News, "King Midas' modern mourners"
  10. ^ On-line text at Theoi.com
  11. ^ This myth appears in a fragment of Aristotle, Eudemus, (fr.6); Pausanias was aware that Midas mixed water with wine to capture Silenus (Description of Greece 1.4.1); a muddled version is recounted in Flavius Philostratus' Life of Apollonius of Tyana, vi.27: "Midas himself had some of the blood of satyrs in his veins, as was clear from the shape of his ears; and a satyr once, trespassing on his kinship with Midas, made merry at the expense of his ears, not only singing about them, but piping about them. Well, Midas, I understand, had heard from his mother that when a satyr is overcome by wine he falls asleep, and at such times comes to his senses and will make friends with you; so he mixed wine which he had in his palace in a fountain and let the satyr get at it, and the latter drank it up and was overcome."
  12. ^ Aelian, Varia Historia iii.18 relates some of Silenus' accounts (Graves 1960:83.b.3).
  13. ^ Hawthorne, Twice-Told Tales.
  14. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae274
  15. ^ This myth sets Midas in another setting. "Midas himself had some of the blood of satyrs in his veins, as was clear from the shape of his ears" was the assertion of Flavius Philostratus, in his Life of Apollonius of Tyana (vi.27), not always a dependable repository of myth (on-line).
  16. ^ Cicero On Divinationi.36; Valerius Maximus, i.6.3; Ovid, Metamorphoses, xi.92f.
  17. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 191.
  18. ^ Greek language reference

Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Croesus Croesus (IPA pronunciation: , CREE-sus) was the king of Lydia from 560/561 BC until his defeat by the Persians in about 547 BC. The English name Croesus come from the Latin transliteration of the Greek , in Arabic and Persian قارون, Qârun. ... Hyginus can refer to: Gaius Julius Hyginus (c. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... The entrance to the Great Tumulus Museum at Vergina Vergina (in Greek Βεργίνα; also spelled Verghína and Veryína) is a small town in northern Greece, located at coordinates , in the prefecture of Imathia in the region of Central Macedonia. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Satrap (Greek σατράπης satrápēs, from Old Persian xšaθrapā(van), i. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The name Aelian may refer to one of two people: Aelianus Tacticus, a Greek military writer of the 2nd century, who lived in Rome Claudius Aelianus, a Roman teacher and historian of the 3rd century, who wrote in Greek This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... Gaius Julius Hyginus, (c. ... Gaius Julius Hyginus, (c. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Apollonius of Tyana (Greek: ; 16—ca. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Valerius Maximus was a Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ...

References

Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ...

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