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Encyclopedia > Microsoft Office Excel
Microsoft Excel (Windows)

A typical blank Microsoft Excel 2007 spreadsheet running on Windows Vista.
Developer: Microsoft
Latest release: 12.0.6014.5000 / 2007
OS: Microsoft Windows
Genre: Spreadsheet
License: Proprietary EULA
Website: www.microsoft.com
Microsoft Excel (Mac OS X)
Developer: Microsoft
Latest release: 2004 v11.3.3 / January 9, 2007
OS: Mac OS X
License: Proprietary EULA
Website: www.microsoft.com

Microsoft Excel (full name Microsoft Office Excel) is a spreadsheet application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS. It features calculation and graphing tools which, along with aggressive marketing, have made Excel one of the most popular microcomputer applications to date. It is overwhelmingly the dominant spreadsheet application available for these platforms and has been so since version 5 in 1993 and its bundling as part of Microsoft Office. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1080x634, 132 KB) Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Part of my Office 2007 Screenshots Project. ... Software development is the translation of a user need or marketing goal into a software product. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... A software release is the distribution, whether public or private, of an initial or new and upgraded version of a computer software product. ... It has been suggested that Maintenance OS be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Computer software can be organized into categories based on common function, type, or field of use. ... Screenshot of a spreadsheet made with OpenOffice. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... It has been suggested that closed source be merged into this article or section. ... A software license is a type of proprietary or gratiuitious license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software — sometimes called an End User License Agreement (EULA) — that specifies the perimeters of the permission granted by the owner to the... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Image File history File links Microsoft_Excel_10_icon. ... Software development is the translation of a user need or marketing goal into a software product. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... A software release is the distribution, whether public or private, of an initial or new and upgraded version of a computer software product. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... --> Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... It has been suggested that Maintenance OS be merged into this article or section. ... Mac OS X (official IPA pronunciation: ) is a line of proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... It has been suggested that closed source be merged into this article or section. ... A software license is a type of proprietary or gratiuitious license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software — sometimes called an End User License Agreement (EULA) — that specifies the perimeters of the permission granted by the owner to the... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Screenshot of a spreadsheet made with OpenOffice. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Microsoft Office is an office suite from Microsoft, which is available on the Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X operating systems. ...

Contents

History

Microsoft originally marketed a spreadsheet program called Multiplan in 1982, which was very popular on CP/M systems, but on MS-DOS systems it lost popularity to Lotus 1-2-3. This promoted development of a new spreadsheet called Excel which started with the intention to, in the words of Doug Klunder, 'do everything 1-2-3 does and do it better' . The first version of Excel was released for the Mac in 1985 and the first Windows version (numbered 2.0 to line-up with the Mac and bundled with a run-time Windows environment) was released in November 1987. Lotus was slow to bring 1-2-3 to Windows and by 1988 Excel had started to outsell 1-2-3 and helped Microsoft achieve the position of leading PC software developer. This accomplishment, dethroning the king of the software world, solidified Microsoft as a valid competitor and showed its future of developing graphical software. Microsoft pushed its advantage with regular new releases, every two years or so. The current version for the Windows platform is Excel 12, also called Microsoft Office Excel 2007. The current version for the Mac OS X platform is Microsoft Excel 2004. Categories: Computer stubs | Spreadsheets | Domain-specific programming languages | Numerical programming languages ... CP/M was an operating system originally created for Intel 8080/85 based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc. ... Microsofts disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsofts implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. ... Lotus 1-2-3 is a spreadsheet program from Lotus Software (now part of IBM). ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...

Microsoft Excel 2.1 included a run-time version of Windows 2.1
Microsoft Excel 2.1 included a run-time version of Windows 2.1

Early in its life Excel became the target of a trademark lawsuit by another company already selling a software package named "Excel" in the finance industry. As the result of the dispute Microsoft was required to refer to the program as "Microsoft Excel" in all of its formal press releases and legal documents. However, over time this practice has been ignored, and Microsoft cleared up the issue permanently when they purchased the trademark to the other program. Microsoft also encouraged the use of the letters XL as shorthand for the program; while this is no longer common, the program's icon on Windows still consists of a stylized combination of the two letters, and the file extension of the default Excel format is .xls. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Windows 2. ... Nuvola icons for KDE are available in PNG format, which come in six sizes, and SVG format, which is scalable On computer displays, a computer icon is a small pictogram. ... A filename extension or filename suffix is an extra set of (usually) alphanumeric characters that is appended to the end of a filename to allow computer users (as well as various pieces of software on the computer system) to quickly determine the type of data stored in the file. ...

Excel 3.0 logo

Excel offers many user interface tweaks over the earliest electronic spreadsheets; however, the essence remains the same as in the original spreadsheet, VisiCalc: the cells are organized in rows and columns, and contain data or formulas with relative or absolute references to other cells. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... VisiCalc was the first spreadsheet program available for personal computers. ...


Excel was the first spreadsheet that allowed the user to define the appearance of spreadsheets (fonts, character attributes and cell appearance). It also introduced intelligent cell recomputation, where only cells dependent on the cell being modified are updated (previous spreadsheet programs recomputed everything all the time or waited for a specific user command). Excel has extensive graphing capabilities.


When first bundled into Microsoft Office in 1993, Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint had their GUIs redesigned for consistency with Excel, the killer app on the PC at the time. Microsoft Office is an office suite from Microsoft, which is available on the Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X operating systems. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Microsoft Word is a word processing application from Microsoft. ... Bold text “Power point” redirects here. ... GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ... A killer application (commonly shortened to killer app) is a computer program that is so useful that people will buy a particular computer hardware, gaming console, and/or an operating system simply to run that program. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Excel 97 logo

Since 1993, Excel has included Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), a programming language based on Visual Basic which adds the ability to automate tasks in Excel and to provide user defined functions (UDF) for use in worksheets. VBA is a powerful addition to the application which, in later versions, includes a fully featured integrated development environment (IDE). Macro recording can produce VBA code replicating user actions, thus allowing simple automation of regular tasks. VBA allows the creation of forms and in-worksheet controls to communicate with the user. The language supports use (but not creation) of ActiveX (COM) DLL's; later versions add support for class modules allowing the use of basic object-oriented programming techniques. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... // Description Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is an implementation of Microsofts Visual Basic, an event driven programming language and associated development environment which is built into most Microsoft Office applications (including Apple Mac OS versions), some other Microsoft applications such as Microsoft MapPoint and Microsoft Visio - a former independent... Visual Basic (VB) is an event driven programming language and associated development environment from Microsoft for its COM programming model. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Component Object Model (COM) is a Microsoft platform for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. ... Component Object Model (COM) is a Microsoft platform for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. ... Dynamic-link library (also written without the hyphen), or DLL, is Microsofts implementation of the shared library concept in the Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects to design applications and computer programs. ...


The automation functionality provided by VBA has caused Excel to become a target for macro viruses. This was a serious problem in the corporate world until antivirus products began to detect these viruses. Microsoft belatedly took steps to prevent the misuse by adding the ability to disable macros completely, to enable macros when opening a workbook or to trust all macros signed using a trusted certificate. A macro in computer science is an abstraction, that defines how a certain input pattern is replaced by an output pattern according to a defined set of rules. ... A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ...


Versions 5.0 to 9.0 of Excel contain various Easter eggs, although since version 10 Microsoft has taken measures to eliminate such undocumented features from their products. A virtual Easter egg is a hidden message or feature in an object such as a movie, book, CD, DVD, computer program, or video game. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ...


Versions

'Excel 97' (8.0) being run on Windows XP

Versions for Microsoft Windows include: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixelsFull resolution (1032 × 745 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/png) This screenshot shows Microsoft Excel 97 being run on Windows XP. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 578 pixelsFull resolution (1032 × 745 pixel, file size: 48 KB, MIME type: image/png) This screenshot shows Microsoft Excel 97 being run on Windows XP. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ...

  • 1987 Excel 2.0 for Windows
  • 1990 Excel 3.0
  • 1992 Excel 4.0
  • 1993 Excel 5.0 (Office 4.2 & 4.3, also a 32-bit version for Windows NT only)
  • 1995 Excel 7 for Windows 95 - included in Office 95
  • 1997 Excel 97 - included in Office 97
  • 1999 Excel 2000 (9) included in Office 2000
  • 2001 Excel 2002 (10) included in Office XP
Excel 2003 icon
Excel 2003 icon
  • 2003 Excel 2003 (11) included in Office 2003
  • 2007 Excel 2007 (12) included in Office 2007
  • Notice: There is no Excel 1.0, in order to avoid confusion with Apple versions.
  • Notice: There is no Excel 6.0, because the Windows 95 version was launched with Word 7. All the Office 95 products have OLE 2 capacity - moving data automatically from various programmes - and Excel 7 should show that it was contemporary with Word 7.

Versions for the Apple Macintosh include: Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Excel_2003. ... Image File history File links Excel_2003. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... --> Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. ... Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) is a distributed object system and protocol developed by Microsoft. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ...

  • 1985 Excel 1.0
  • 1988 Excel 1.5
  • 1989 Excel 2.2
  • 1990 Excel 3.0
  • 1992 Excel 4.0
  • 1993 Excel 5.0
  • 1998 Excel 8.0 (Office '98)
  • 2000 Excel 9.0 (Office 2001)
  • 2001 Excel 10.0 (Office v. X)
  • 2004 Excel 11.0 (Office 2004)
  • 2007 Excel 12.0 (Office 2008)

Versions for OS/2 include: Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... --> Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...

File formats

Microsoft Excel up until 2007 version used a proprietary binary file format called Binary Interchange File Format (BIFF) as its primary format. Excel 2007 uses Office Open XML as its primary file format, an XML-based container similar in design to XML-based format called "XML Spreadsheet" ("XMLSS"), first introduced in Excel 2002[1]. The latter format is not able to encode VBA macros. Not to be confused with Open Document Format, the standard used by ISO and by the open source OpenOffice. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ...


Although supporting and encouraging the use of new XML-based formats as replacements, Excel 2007 is still backwards compatible with the traditional, binary, formats. In addition, most versions of Microsoft Excel are able to read CSV, DBF, SYLK, DIF, and other legacy formats. The comma-separated values (or CSV; also known as a comma-separated list or Comma-Separated Variable) file format is a file type that stores tabular data. ... dBASE III The correct title of this article is dBASE. The initial letter is capitalized because of technical restrictions. ... Symbolic Link (SYLK) is a Microsoft file format typically used to exchange data between applications, specifically spreadsheets. ... Is a text file for exchange (import/export) single table oriented data between database programs (Excel, StarCalc, Lotus 1-2-3, FileMaker, dBase, Framework, Multiplan, etc. ...


Microsoft Excel 2007 Office Open XML formats

Main article: Office Open XML

Microsoft Excel 2007, along with the other products in the Microsoft Office 2007 suite, introduces a host of new file formats. These are part of the Office Open XML (OOXML) specification. Not to be confused with Open Document Format, the standard used by ISO and by the open source OpenOffice. ... The 2007 Microsoft Office system (also called Microsoft Office 2007) is the most recent version of Microsofts productivity suite. ... Not to be confused with Open Document Format, the standard used by ISO and by the open source OpenOffice. ...


The new Excel 2007 formats are:

Excel Workbook (.xlsx)
The default Excel 2007 workbook format. In reality a ZIP compressed archive with a directory structure of XML text documents. Functions as the primary replacement for the former binary .xls format, although it does not support Excel macros for security reasons.
Excel Macro-enabled Workbook (.xlsm)
As Excel Workbook, but with macro support.
Excel Binary Workbook (.xlsb)
As Excel Macro-enabled Workbook, but storing information in binary form rather than XML documents for opening and saving documents more quickly and efficiently. Intended especially for very large documents with tens of thousands of rows, and/or several hundreds of columns.
Excel Macro-enabled Template (.xltm)
A template document that forms a basis for actual workbooks, with macro support. The replacement for the old .xlt format.
Excel Add-in (.xlam)
Excel add-in to add extra functionality and tools. Inherent macro support due to the file purpose.

The ZIP file format is a popular data compression and archival format. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... A macro in computer science is an abstraction, that defines how a certain input pattern is replaced by an output pattern according to a defined set of rules. ...

Criticism

The statistical accuracy of Excel has been criticized[2][3][4][5], as has the lack of certain statistical tools. Excel proponents have responded that some of these errors represent edge cases and that the relatively few users who would be affected by these know of them and have workarounds and alternatives.[citation needed] An edge case is a problem or situation that occurs only at an extreme (maximum or minimum) operating parameter. ...


Excel incorrectly assumes that 1900 is a leap year[6][7]. The bug originated from Lotus 1-2-3, and was implemented in Excel for the purpose of backward compatibility[8]. This legacy has later been carried over into Office Open XML file format. Excel also supports the second date format based on year 1904 epoch. A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day (or, in case of lunisolar calendars, an extra month) in order to keep the calendar year synchronised with the astronomical or seasonal year. ... Lotus 1-2-3 is a spreadsheet program from Lotus Software (now part of IBM). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Not to be confused with Open Document Format, the standard used by ISO and by the open source OpenOffice. ... In chronology, an epoch (or epochal date, or epochal event) means an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. ...


See also

The following tables provide a comparison of desktop spreadsheet applications. ... The following is a list of spreadsheets. ... In chronology, an epoch (or epochal date, or epochal event) means an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/~evagold/excel.html
  3. ^ http://www.cof.orst.edu/net/software/excel/no-stats.php
  4. ^ http://www.practicalstats.com/Pages/excelstats.html
  5. ^ http://www.mis.coventry.ac.uk/~nhunt/pottel.pdf
  6. ^ http://support.microsoft.com/kb/214058/EN-US/
  7. ^ http://support.microsoft.com/kb/214326/en-us
  8. ^ http://www.joelonsoftware.com/items/2006/06/16.html

External links

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