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Encyclopedia > Microscope
Microscope

Robert Hooke's microscope
Uses Small sample observation
Notable experiments
Discovery of cells
Inventor Hans Lippershey
Hans Janssen
Related items Electron microscope
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A microscope (Greek: μικρόν (micron) = small + σκοπεῖν (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy. The term microscopic means minute or very small, not visible with the eye unless aided by a microscope. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Image File history File links Microscope_de_HOOKE.png La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:fr. ... Robert Hooke, FRS (July 18, 1635 – March 3, 1703) was an English polymath who played an important role in the scientific revolution, through both experimental and theoretical work. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Hans Lippershey (1570–September 1619), also known as Johann Lippershey, was a Dutch lensmaker. ... Hans Jannsen (1590-?) was the father of Zacharias Jansen, a spectacle manufacturer who, while playing with his fathers lenses, created the first crude microscope. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Microscopy is any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye, using a microscope or other magnification tool. ...


The microscopes used in schools and homes trace their history back almost 1200 years with Abbas Ibn Firnas's corrective lenses,[1] and it was Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics — which was written when he was under house arrest from 1011 to 1021 — that laid the foundation for optical technology. [2] For other uses, see History (disambiguation). ... Abbas Ibn Firnas, or Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas (Unknown- 887 A.D.) was a Spanish-Arab humanitarian, technologist, and chemist. ... This article is about the scientist. ... Events Emperor Sanjo ascends to the throne of Japan. ... // Events Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, sixth Fatimid Caliph of Egypt disappears on a trip to al-Muqattam hills. ...


The first useful microscope was developed in the Netherlands in the early 1600s.[3] Three different eyeglass makers have been given credit for the invention: Hans Lippershey (who also developed the first real telescope); Hans Janssen; and his son, Zacharias. The coining of the name "microscope" has been credited to Giovanni Faber, who gave that name to Galileo Galilei's compound microscope in 1625,[4]. (Galileo had called it the "occhiolino" or "little eye".) Hans Lippershey (1570–September 1619), also known as Johann Lippershey, was a Dutch lensmaker. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hans Jannsen (1590-?) was the father of Zacharias Jansen, a spectacle manufacturer who, while playing with his fathers lenses, created the first crude microscope. ... Zacharias Janssen (ca. ... Galileo redirects here. ...


The most common type of microscope—and the first to be invented—is the optical microscope. This is an optical instrument containing one or more lenses that produce an enlarged image of an object placed in the focal plane of the lens(es). There are, however, many other microscope designs. An 1879 Carl Zeiss Jena Optical microscope. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... Captain Nemo and Professor Aronnax contemplating measuring instruments in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A Love Meter at a Framingham, Massachusetts Rest Stop. ... This article is about the optical device. ...

Contents

Types

Several types of microscopes
Several types of microscopes

"Microscopes" can largely be separated into three classes, optical theory microscopes, electron microscopes and scanning probe microscopes. See also list of optical topics. ...


Optical theory microscopes are microscopes which function through the optical theory of lenses in order to magnify the image generated by the passage of a wave through the sample. The waves used are either electromagnetic in optical microscopes or electron beams in electron microscopes. The types are the Compound Light, Stereo, and the electron microscope. See also list of optical topics. ... Surface waves in water This article is about waves in the most general scientific sense. ... Electromagnetic radiation or EM radiation is a combination (cross product) of oscillating electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to each other, moving through space as a wave, effectively transporting energy and momentum. ... An 1879 Carl Zeiss Jena Optical microscope. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ...


Optical microscopes

Main article: Optical microscope

Optical microscopes, through their use of visible wavelengths of light, are the simplest and hence most widely used type of microscope. An 1879 Carl Zeiss Jena Optical microscope. ... An 1879 Carl Zeiss Jena Optical microscope. ...


Optical microscopes use refractive lenses, typically of glass and occasionally of plastic, to focus light into the eye or another light detector. Typical magnification of a light microscope is up to 1500x with a theoretical resolution of around 0.2 micrometres or 200 nanometers. Specialised techniques (e.g., scanning confocal microscopy) may exceed this magnification but the resolution is an insurmountable diffraction limit. For the property of metals, see refraction (metallurgy). ... This article is about the material. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Resolving power is the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer), symbol µm, is an SI unit of length. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM or LSCM) is a valuable tool for obtaining high resolution images and 3-D reconstructions. ... The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ...

A stereo microscope is often used for lower-power magnification on large subjects.
A stereo microscope is often used for lower-power magnification on large subjects.

Various wavelengths of light are sometimes used for special purposes, for example, in the study of biological tissue.[5] Ultraviolet light is used to illuminate the object being viewed in order to excite a fluorescent dye which then emits visible light. Infrared light is used to study thick slices of biological tissue because infrared light's low diffraction coefficient permits viewing deeper into tissue. For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ...


Other microscopes which use electromagnetic wavelengths not visible to the human eye are often called optical microscopes. The most common of these, due to its high resolution yet no requirement for a vacuum like electron microscopes, is the x-ray microscope. Electromagnetic radiation or EM radiation is a combination (cross product) of oscillating electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to each other, moving through space as a wave, effectively transporting energy and momentum. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An X-ray microscope uses electromagnetic radiation in the soft X-ray band to produce images of very small objects. ...


Electron microscopes

Main article: Electron Microscope
Scanning electron microscope, the column, specimen chamber, and signal detectors
Scanning electron microscope, the column, specimen chamber, and signal detectors

Electron microscopes, which use beams of electrons instead of light, are designed for very high magnification usage. Electrons, which can be accelerated to produce a much smaller wavelength than visible light, allow a much higher resolution. The main limitation of the electron beam is that it must pass through a vacuum as air molecules would otherwise scatter the beam. An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Instead of relying on refraction, lenses for electron microscopes are specially designed electromagnets which generate magnetic fields that are approximately parallel to the direction that electrons travel. The electrons are typically detected by a phosphor screen, photographic film or a charge-coupled device (CCD). For the property of metals, see refraction (metallurgy). ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... Green screen A phosphor is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of phosphorescence (sustained glowing after exposure to light or energised particles such as electrons). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ...


Two major variants of electron microscopes exist:

  • Scanning electron microscope: looks at the surface of bulk objects by scanning the surface with a fine electron beam and measuring reflection. May also be used for spectroscopy.
  • Transmission electron microscope: passes electrons completely through the sample, analogous to basic optical microscopy. This requires careful sample preparation, since electrons are scattered so strongly by most materials.This is a scientific device that allows people to see objects that could normally not be seen by the naked or unaided eye.

SEM Cambridge S150 at Geological Institute, University Kiel, 1980 SEM opened sample chamber The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope capable of producing high-resolution images of a sample surface. ... Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism. ... Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an imaging technique whereby a beam of electrons is focused onto a specimen causing an enlarged version to appear on a fluorescent screen or layer of photographic film (see electron microscope), or can be detected by a CCD camera. ... McClintocks Microscope and Ears of Corn on exhibition at the National Museum of Natural History. ...

Scanning probe microscope

In scanning probe microscopy (SPM), a physical probe is used either in close contact to the sample or nearly touching it. By rastering the probe across the sample, and by measuring the interactions between the sharp tip of the probe and the sample, a micrograph is generated. The exact nature of the interactions between the probe and the sample determines exactly what kind of SPM is being used. Because this kind of microscopy relies on the interactions between the tip and the sample, it generally only measures information about the surface of the sample. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. ... A micrograph is a photograph or similar image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. ...


A variation of the SPM is the SECM (Scanning ElectroChemical Microscope). A SECM images a sample in a similar manner as a SPM but the sample is in an electrolyte solution with the SECM using electrochemically active tip[6].


Other microscopes

Scanning acoustic microscopes use sound waves to measure variations in acoustic impedance. Similar to Sonar in principle, they are used for such jobs as detecting defects in the subsurfaces of materials including those found in integrated circuits. Scanning Acoustic Tomography (SCAT) redirects here. ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ...


References

  1. ^ Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0911119434
  2. ^ Richard Powers (University of Illinois),Best Idea; Eyes Wide Open, New York Times, April 18, 1999. (page 4)
  3. ^ Microscopes: Time Line
  4. ^ Stephen Jay Gould(2000). The Lying Stones of Marrakech, ch.2 "The Sharp-Eyed Lynx, Outfoxed by Nature". London: Jonathon Cape. ISBN 0224050443
  5. ^ epi-fluorescence-microscopy
  6. ^ SECM (Scanning ElectroChemical Microscope) - David O. Wipf - Mississippi State University

A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

See also

Different microscopes
Different microscopes
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Microscopes

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (862x1412, 193 KB) Other versions unknown File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (862x1412, 193 KB) Other versions unknown File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This list is outdated. ... Angular resolution describes the resolving power of any optical device such as a telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye. ... McClintocks Microscope and Ears of Corn on exhibition at the National Museum of Natural History. ... Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic physical properties of matter. ... Confocal microscopy is an imaging technique used to increase micrograph contrast and/or to reconstruct three-dimensional images by using a spatial pinhole to eliminate out-of-focus light or flare in specimens that are thicker than the focal plane. ... Dark field microscopy is an optical microscopy illumination technique used to enhance the contrast in unstained samples. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ... Fluorescence interference contrast (FLIC) microscopy is a microscopic technique developed to achieve z-resolution on the nanometer scale. ... A Fluorescence Microscope is a light microscope used to study properties of organic or inorganic substances using the phenomena of fluorescence and phosphorescence instead of, or in addition to, reflection and absorption. ... Microscope image processing is a broad term that covers the use of digital image processing techniques to process, analyze and present images obtained from a microscope. ... Microscopy is any technique for producing visible images of structures or details too small to otherwise be seen by the human eye, using a microscope or other magnification tool. ... An 1879 Carl Zeiss Jena Optical microscope. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... phase contrast microscopy Alternates: phase-contrast microscopy, phase-contrast light microscopy Definition: A form of light microscopy in which small phase shifts in the light passing through a transparent specimen are converted into amplitude or contrast changes in the image. ... Wikibooks Transwiki has more about this subject: Microscope slide Microscope slides and cover slips. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timeline of microscope technology 1590 - Dutch spectacle-makers Hans Janssen and his son Zacharias Janssen, claimed by later writers (Pierre Borel 1620 - 1671 or 1628 - 1689 and Willem Boreel 1591 - 1668) to have invented a compound microscope. ... An X-ray microscope uses electromagnetic radiation in the soft X-ray band to produce images of very small objects. ...

External links

Brown glass jars with some clear lab glassware in the background Laboratory glassware refers to a variety of equipment, traditionally made of glass, used for scientific experiments and other work in science, especially in chemistry and biology laboratories. ... A beaker is a simple container for liquids, very commonly used in laboratories. ... A Büchner funnel connected to a flask with a tube leading to a vacuum pump Büchner funnel is a piece of laboratory equipment used in suction filtration. ... diagram of modern burette A burette (also buret) is a vertical cylindrical piece of laboratory glassware with a volumetric graduation on its full length and a precision tap, or stopcock, on the bottom. ... Cold fingers. ... Two different condensers are seen here: a Vigreux condenser is used as a fractionating column on left, and a Liebig condenser cools the hot vapors to liquid on right In a laboratory, a condenser is a piece of laboratory glassware used to cool hot vapors or liquids. ... A conical measure is a type of laboratory glassware which consists of a conical cup with a notch on the top to allow for the easy pouring of liquids. ... For other uses, see Crucible (disambiguation). ... This article is about a kind of glassware. ... A eudiometer is a device for measuring the change in volume of a gas mixture following combustion. ... A gas syringe showing its components separate and together A gas syringe also known as glass collecting bottle, is a piece of laboratory glassware used to draw a volume of a gas from a beaker or other closed system, or measure the volume of gas given off in a reaction. ... right|thumb|100px|Graduated cylinder. ... This article is about the laboratory instrument. ... Man looking at fungus inside of petri dishes A Petri dish is a shallow glass or plastic cylindrical dish that biologists use to culture microbes. ... The pycnometer or pyknometer is a device used for measuring fluid density, also known as a specific gravity bottle. ... Separating funnel A separating funnel or separation funnel or separatory funnel is a piece of equipment used in science to separate two immiscible liquids or solutions of different densities. ... A schematic representation of a Soxhlet extractor A Soxhlet extractor is a type of laboratory glassware invented in 1879 by Franz von Soxhlet. ... Caesium fluoride sample on a watch glass A watch glass is a circular, slightly concave piece of glass used in chemistry as a surface to evaporate a liquid, or as a cover for a beaker. ... Erlenmeyer flasks from the Argonne National Laboratory glassblowing shop. ... A Büchner funnel connected to a flask with a tube leading to a vacuum pump A Büchner flask, also known as a vacuum flask, is a thick-walled erlenmeyer flask with a glass tube and hose barb protruding about an inch from its neck, connected to an aspirator. ... Conical flask For the episode of The X-Files, see The Erlenmeyer Flask. ... (left to right) Erlenmeyer flask, Fleaker with upside down lid in front, Fleaker with lid on (all 300 mL), and Beaker (250 mL) A fleaker is a type of container for liquids used in the laboratory. ... Florence flask A Florence flask (also known as a round bottom flask or a boiling flask) is a piece of laboratory glassware. ... A beautiful retort. ... Round-bottom flasks are types of flasks having spherical bottoms used as laboratory glassware, mostly for chemical or biochemical work. ... An selection of Schlenk flasks and a Schlenk tube (bottom right) A Schlenk flask, or Schlenk tube is a reaction vessel typically used in air sensitive chemistry, invented by Wilhelm Schlenk. ... A volumetric flask. ... Glass Tube, a tube made of glass used for carrying gases between pieces of apparatus during a laboratory experiment. ... A large, thick-walled laboratory tube used for strongly heating substances with a Bunsen burner or other heat source. ... An NMR tube filled with a colorless sample, sealed with a green polyethylene cap and Parafilm Left to right: Flame, septum and polyethylene cap sealed NMR tubes Aqua regia has been added to these NMR tubes to remove all traces of organic material. ... A test tube (Sometimes culture tube) is a kind of laboratory glassware, composed of a fingerlike length of glass tubing, open at the top, sometimes with a rounded lip at the top, and a rounded U shaped bottom. ... The Thiele tube, named after the German chemist Johannes Thiele, is a laboratory glassware designed to contain and heat an oil bath. ... A thistle tube is a piece of laboratory glassware consisting mostly of a shaft of tube, with a reservoir and funnel-like section at the top. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms isolated from a deep-water sponge. ... A copper aspirator. ... Front loading autoclaves are common Stovetop autoclaves need to be monitored carefully and are the simplest of all autoclaves Multiple large autoclaves are used for processing substantial quantities of laboratory equipment prior to reuse, and infectious material prior to disposal. ... Look up Bunsen burner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A calorimeter is a device used for calorimetry, the science of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity. ... A chemostat. ... An electronic bacterial colony counter. ... A colorimeter is a device used to measure the absorbance of a specific solution. ... A laboratory tabletop centrifuge A laboratory centrifuge is a piece of laboratory equipment, driven by a motor, which spins liquid samples at high speed. ... A common modern fume hood. ... A glove compartment is a compartment built into the dashboard on the passengers side of an automobile, often used for miscellaneous storage. ... A laboratory equipment for the homogenization of various types of material, such as tissue, plant, food, soil, and many others. ... In microbiology, an incubator is a device for controlling the temperature, humidity, and other conditions in which a microbiological culture is being grown. ... UV light desinfects the sterile laminar flow cabinet when not in use Laminar flow cabinet or laminar flow closet is a carefully enclosed bench designed to prevent contamination of semiconductor wafers, biological samples, or any particle sensitive device. ... A magnetic stirrer is a type of laboratory equipment consisting of a rotating magnet or stationary electomagnets creating a rotating magnetic field. ... A 96-well microtiter plate. ... Plate readers (also know as microplate readers) are laboratory instruments designed to detect biological, chemical or physical events in samples stored in microtiter plates. ... Spectrophotometer In physics, spectrophotometry is the quantitative study of electromagnetic spectra. ... Three static mixers: The top is an alternating spiral with each spiral offset by 90°; the second is the above in a delivery tube, such as for epoxy; the last is a larger metal mixer used to divide a flow into streams that intersect at 90°. - Static Mixers use the... A stir bar (or flea) is a magnetic bar, used to stir a chemical reaction mixture or solution in a laboratory. ... A clinical mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... A Mini-Vortexer with micro-centrifuge tube. ...

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