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Encyclopedia > Microprocessor
Microprocessor

Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6.75 mm) in its packaging
Date Invented: Late 1960s/Early 1970s (see article for explanation)
Connects to:
Architectures: PowerPC, x86, x86-64, and many others (see below, and article)
Manufacturer: AMD, Analog Devices, Atmel, Cypress, Fairchild, Fujitsu, Hitachi, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Intersil, ITT, Maxim, Microchip, Mitsubishi, Mostek, Motorola, National, NEC, NXP, OKI, Renesas, Samsung, Sharp, Siemens, Signetics, STM, Synertek, Texas, Toshiba, TSMC, UMC, Winbond, Zilog, and others.

A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). [1] The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators, using BCD arithmetics on 4-bit words. Other embedded uses of 4 and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals, printers, various kinds of automation etc, followed rather quickly. Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the first general purpose microcomputers in the mid-1970s. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1341x1002, 803 KB) Summary Macro shot of an Intel 80486DX2 die in its packaging. ... An Intel i486DX2-66 Microprocessor, top view ... and bottom view with gold plated pins. ... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ... The Socket 370 processor socket, a ZIF type PGA socket A CPU socket or CPU slot is a connector on a computers motherboard that accepts a CPU and forms an electrical interface with it. ... (De)soldering a contact from a wire. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Analog Devices (NYSE: ADI) is an American multinational producer of semiconductor devices. ... Atmel ATMEGA32 microcontroller Atmel AT90S2333 microcontroller Atmel Corporation (NASDAQ: ATML) is a manufacturer of semiconductors, founded in 1984. ... Cypress Semiconductor began operations in 1982 and listed publicly in 1986. ... 1944 Fairchild Argus III (G-BCBH) Fairchild were an aerospace manufacturing company based at various times in Farmingdale, New York, Hagerstown, Maryland, and San Antonio, Texas. ... For the district in Saga, Japan, see Fujitsu, Saga. ... It has been suggested that Hitachi Works be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Infineon Technologies is a German manufacturer of integrated circuits and related products. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Intersil Corporation NASDAQ: ISIL produces integrated circuits and semiconductors. ... For other uses, see ITT (disambiguation). ... Dallas Semiconductor, now a subsidiary of Maxim Integrated Products, designs and manufactures analog, digital, and mixed-signal semiconductors (integrated circuits, or ICs). ... Microchip Technology (NASDAQ: MCHP) is a manufacturer of semiconductors, founded in ??. Its products include microcontrollers (PICmicro, dsPIC, PIC24), EEPROM and Flash memory devices, KEELOQ devices, radio frequency (RF) devices, battery management devices, interface devices, analog devices and many others. ... Mitsubishi Electric Corporation ) (TYO: 6503 ) is a Japanese company based in the Tokyo Building in Tokyo, manufactures electric and architectural equipment, as well as a major worldwide producer of photovoltaic panels. ... MOS Technology, Inc. ... Motorola Inc. ... Categories: Electronics companies of the United States | Companies based in California | Corporation stubs ... For other uses, see NEC (disambiguation). ... For other uses of NXP, see NXP (disambiguation). ... Oki Electric Industry Co. ... Renesas Technology Corporation ) is a Japanese semiconductor manufacturer. ... Samsung Group is one of the largest South Korean business groupings. ... Sharp Corporation ) (TYO: 6753 , LuxSE: SRP) is a Japanese electronics manufacturer, founded in 1912. ... Siemens has the following uses: Siemens is a German family name carried by generations of the telecommunications industrialists, including Werner von Siemens, Sir William Siemens, Wilhelm von Siemens and Peter von Siemens Siemens AG is a German electrical and telecommunications company, founded as a telegraph equipment manufacturer by Werner von... Signetics, once a major player in semiconductor manufacturing, made a variety of devices which included integrated circuits, bipolar and MOS, the Dolby circuit, logic, memory and analog circuits and Motorola clone CPUs, some of which were included in the first Atari video games. ... Formerly SGS-Thomson, STMicroelectronics (abbreviated to ST in microchip designations) is a manufacturer of a wide variety of integrated circuits (ICs) and chipsets designed for GPS receivers, DBS receivers and DVD players, and biometric identification systems, among others. ... Synertek was founded in 1973 as a masked ROM house that branched out into a fairly broad offering of MOS/LSI circuits (Static RAMs, ROMs, EPROMS, Dynamic and Static Shift Registers) and then sometime before 1979 became a second source to MOS Technologys 6502 microprocessor. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Limited (Traditional Chinese: 台灣積體電路製造股份有限公司, abbrev. ... UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation) was founded in 1980, as Taiwans first Semiconductor company. ... Winbond Electronics Corporation is a Taiwan-based corporation which was founded in 1987 and is a producer of semiconductors and several types of integrated circuits, most notably Dynamic RAM, Static RAM and microcontrollers. ... Zilog, often seen as ZiLOG, is a manufacturer of 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit CPUs, and is most famous for its Intel 8080-compatible Z80 series. ... CPU redirects here. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... For other uses, see Calculator (disambiguation). ... Binary-coded decimal (BCD) is a numeral system used in computing and in electronics systems. ... In computing, word is a term for the natural unit of data used by a particular computer design. ... A router, an example of an embedded system. ... A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling model of home computer of all time. ...


Processors were for a long period constructed out of small and medium-scale ICs containing the equivalent of a few to a few hundred transistors. The integration of the whole CPU onto a single VLSI chip therefore greatly reduced the cost of processing capacity. From their humble beginnings, continued increases in microprocessor capacity has rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessor as processing element in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and super computers. Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Computing hardware has been an important component of the process of calculation and computer data storage since it became useful for numerical values to be processed and shared. ... A router, an example of an embedded system. ... This article or section reads like an advertisement. ... Mainframe may refer to one of the following: Mainframe computer, large data processing systems Mainframe Entertainment, a Canadian computer animation and design company. ... For other uses, see Supercomputer (disambiguation). ...


Since the early 1970s, the increase in processing capacity of evolving microprocessors has been known to generally follow Moore's Law. It suggests that the complexity of an integrated circuit, with respect to minimum component cost, doubles every 18 months. In the late 1990s, heat generation (TDP), due to current leakage and other factors, emerged as a leading developmental constraint[2]. Gordon Moores original graph from 1965 Growth of transistor counts for Intel processors (dots) and Moores Law (upper line=18 months; lower line=24 months) For the observation regarding information retrieval, see Mooers Law. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ...

Contents

History

// Each of the computer designs of the early 1950s was a unique design; there were no upward-compatible machines or computer architectures with multiple, differing implementations. ...

First types

The 4004 with cover removed (left) and as actually used (right).
The 4004 with cover removed (left) and as actually used (right).

Three projects arguably delivered a complete microprocessor at about the same time, namely Intel's 4004, the Texas Instruments (TI) TMS 1000, and Garrett AiResearch's Central Air Data Computer (CADC). Image File history File linksMetadata C4004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata C4004. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... My father Robert VanNimwegen, worked for Garrett for many many years. ... The Central Air Data Computer is the integrated flight control system used in the early versions of the US Navys F-14 Tomcat fighter. ...


In 1968, Garrett AiResearch, with designer Ray Holt and Steve Geller, were invited to produce a digital computer to compete with electromechanical systems then under development for the main flight control computer in the US Navy's new F-14 Tomcat fighter. The design was complete by 1970, and used a MOS-based chipset as the core CPU. The design was significantly (approximately 20 times) smaller and much more reliable than the mechanical systems it competed against, and was used in all of the early Tomcat models. This system contained a "a 20-bit, pipelined, parallel multi-microprocessor". However, the system was considered so advanced that the Navy refused to allow publication of the design until 1997. For this reason the CADC, and the MP944 chipset it used, are fairly unknown even today. (see First Microprocessor Chip Set.) TI developed the 4-bit TMS 1000, and stressed pre-programmed embedded applications, introducing a version called the TMS1802NC on September 17, 1971, which implemented a calculator on a chip. The Intel chip was the 4-bit 4004, released on November 15, 1971, developed by Federico Faggin and Marcian Hoff, the manager of the designing team was Leslie L. Vadász. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In engineering, electromechanics combines electromagnetism and mechanics. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, variable geometry wing aircraft. ... The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is by far the most common field-effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Federico Faggin (born December 1, 1941) is an Italian-born physicist/electrical engineer, principally responsible for the design of the first microprocessor and responsible for leading the 4004 (MCS-4) project to its successful outcome and for promoting its marketing. ... Dr. Marcian Edward Ted Hoff Jr. ...


TI filed for the patent on the microprocessor. Gary Boone was awarded U.S. Patent 3,757,306  for the single-chip microprocessor architecture on September 4, 1973. It may never be known which company actually had the first working microprocessor running on the lab bench. In both 1971 and 1976, Intel and TI entered into broad patent cross-licensing agreements, with Intel paying royalties to TI for the microprocessor patent. A nice history of these events is contained in court documentation from a legal dispute between Cyrix and Intel, with TI as intervenor and owner of the microprocessor patent. is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


Interestingly, a third party (Gilbert Hyatt) was awarded a patent which might cover the "microprocessor". See a webpage claiming an invention pre-dating both TI and Intel, describing a "microcontroller". According to a rebuttal and a commentary, the patent was later invalidated, but not before substantial royalties were paid out.


A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor which combines the microprocessor core (CPU), some memory, and I/O (input/output) lines, all on one chip. The computer-on-a-chip patent, called the "microcomputer patent" at the time, U.S. Patent 4,074,351 , was awarded to Gary Boone and Michael J. Cochran of TI. Aside from this patent, the standard meaning of microcomputer is a computer using one or more microprocessors as its CPU(s), while the concept defined in the patent is perhaps more akin to a microcontroller. Energy Input: The energy placed into a reaction. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... The Commodore 64 was one of the most popular microcomputers of its era, and is the best selling model of home computer of all time. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ...


According to A History of Modern Computing, (MIT Press), pp. 220–21, Intel entered into a contract with Computer Terminals Corporation, later called Datapoint, of San Antonio TX, for a chip for a terminal they were designing. Datapoint later decided to use the chip, and Intel marketed it as the 8008 in April, 1972. This was the world's first 8-bit microprocessor. It was the basis for the famous "Mark-8" computer kit advertised in the magazine Radio-Electronics in 1974. The 8008 and its successor, the world-famous 8080, opened up the microprocessor component marketplace. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Datapoint Corporation, originally known as Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC), was a computer company based in San Antonio, Texas. ... Mark 8 is the eighth chapter of the Gospel of Mark in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ...


Notable 8-bit designs

The 4004 was later followed in 1972 by the 8008, the world's first 8-bit microprocessor. These processors are the precursors to the very successful Intel 8080 (1974), Zilog Z80 (1976), and derivative Intel 8-bit processors. The competing Motorola 6800 was released August 1974. Its architecture was cloned and improved in the MOS Technology 6502 in 1975, rivaling the Z80 in popularity during the 1980s. Intel 8008 The Intel 8008 was an early microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April, 1972. ... 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... AMD clone NEC 8080AF (2nd-source). ... One of the first Z80 microprocessors manufactured; the date stamp is from June 1976. ... Motorola 6800 Microprocessor The 6800 is a microprocessor produced by Motorola and released shortly after the Intel 8080 in 1975. ... The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975. ...


Both the Z80 and 6502 concentrated on low overall cost, through a combination of small packaging, simple computer bus requirements, and the inclusion of circuitry that would normally have to be provided in a separate chip (for instance, the Z80 included a memory controller). It was these features that allowed the home computer "revolution" to take off in the early 1980s, eventually delivering such inexpensive machines as the Sinclair ZX-81, which sold for US$99. In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers and typically is controlled by device driver software. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... ZX81 logo The Sinclair ZX81 home computer, released by Sinclair Research in 1981, was the follow up to the companys ZX80. ... USD redirects here. ...


The Western Design Center, Inc. (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65C02 in 1982 and licensed the design to several companies which became the core of the Apple IIc and IIe personal computers, medical implantable grade pacemakers and defibrilators, automotive, industrial and consumer devices.WDC pioneered the licensing of microprocessor technology which was later followed by ARM and other microprocessor Intellectual Property (IP) providers in the 1990’s. If you were looking for the Western Digital Corporation, see Western Digital. ... The 65C02 Microprocessor is a slightly upgraded version of the popular and venerable 6502 microprocessor. ... The Apple IIc, the fourth model in the Apple II series of personal computers, was Apple Computers first endeavor to produce a portable computer. ... The ARM architecture (previously, the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture developed by ARM Limited that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ...


Motorola trumped the entire 8-bit world by introducing the MC6809 in 1978, arguably one of the most powerful, orthogonal, and clean 8-bit microprocessor designs ever fielded – and also one of the most complex hard-wired logic designs that ever made it into production for any microprocessor. Microcoding replaced hardwired logic at about this point in time for all designs more powerful than the MC6809 – specifically because the design requirements were getting too complex for hardwired logic. 1 MHz Motorola 6809E processor, manufactured in 1983. ... In mathematics, orthogonal is synonymous with perpendicular when used as a simple adjective that is not part of any longer phrase with a standard definition. ... A microprogram is a program consisting of microcode that controls the different parts of a computers central processing unit (CPU). ...


Another early 8-bit microprocessor was the Signetics 2650, which enjoyed a brief flurry of interest due to its innovative and powerful instruction set architecture. According to Adam Osbornes classic book An Introduction to Microprocessors Vol 2: Some Real Products, the 2650 was the most minicomputer-like of the 8-bit processors. ... An instruction set is (a list of) all instructions, and all their variations, that a processor can execute. ...


A seminal microprocessor in the world of spaceflight was RCA's RCA 1802 (aka CDP1802, RCA COSMAC) (introduced in 1976) which was used in NASA's Voyager and Viking spaceprobes of the 1970s, and onboard the Galileo probe to Jupiter (launched 1989, arrived 1995). RCA COSMAC was the first to implement C-MOS technology. The CDP1802 was used because it could be run at very low power, and because its production process (Silicon on Sapphire) ensured much better protection against cosmic radiation and electrostatic discharges than that of any other processor of the era. Thus, the 1802 is said to be the first radiation-hardened microprocessor. RCA, formerly an initialism for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark used by two companies for products descended from that common ancestor: Thomson Consumer Electronics, which manufactures RCA-branded televisions, DVD players, video cassette recorders, direct broadcast satellite decoders, camcorders, audio equipment, telephones, and related accessories; and... The RCA (CDP)1802 (aka RCA COSMAC*, COSMAC 1802) is an 8-bit CMOS microprocessor (µP) introduced by RCA in early 1976, and presently being manufactured by Intersil Corporation. ... Voyager Project redirects here. ... Viking mission profile. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... In electronics, the term low-power means one of two things about a device: Said of a radio transmitter, that the power of the broadcast is less, i. ... Silicon on sapphire (SOS) is a hetero-epitaxial process for integrated circuit manufacturing that consists of a thin layer (typically thinner than 0. ... Cosmic rays can loosely be defined as energetic particles originating outside of the Earth. ... Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden and momentary electric current that flows between two objects at different electrical potentials. ...


The RCA 1802 had what is called a static design, meaning that the clock frequency could be made arbitrarily low, even to 0 Hz, a total stop condition. This let the Voyager/Viking/Galileo spacecraft use minimum electric power for long uneventful stretches of a voyage. Timers and/or sensors would awaken/speed up the processor in time for important tasks, such as navigation updates, attitude control, data acquisition, and radio communication. The RCA (CDP)1802 (aka RCA COSMAC*, COSMAC 1802) is an 8-bit CMOS microprocessor (µP) introduced by RCA in early 1976, and presently being manufactured by Intersil Corporation. ... In synchronous digital electronics, such as most computers, a clock signal is a signal used to coordinate the actions of two or more circuits. ... Voyager Project redirects here. ... Viking mission profile. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ...


16-bit designs

The first multi-chip 16-bit microprocessor was the National Semiconductor IMP-16, introduced in early 1973. An 8-bit version of the chipset was introduced in 1974 as the IMP-8. During the same year, National introduced the first 16-bit single-chip microprocessor, the National Semiconductor PACE, which was later followed by an NMOS version, the INS8900. In computer science, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers that are at most two bytes wide, or to describe CPU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... Categories: Electronics companies of the United States | Companies based in California | Corporation stubs ... The IMP-16C, by National Semiconductor, was the the first multi-chip 16-bit microprocessor. ... NMOS logic uses n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. ... The INS8900 was the NMOS version of National Semiconductors PACE 16-bit microprocessor. ...


Other early multi-chip 16-bit microprocessors include one used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the LSI-11 OEM board set and the packaged PDP 11/03 minicomputer, and the Fairchild Semiconductor MicroFlame 9440, both of which were introduced in the 1975 to 1976 timeframe. Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... The PDP-11 was a 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corp. ... The PDP-11 was a 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corp. ... Minicomputer (colloquially, mini) is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (traditionally, mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... Fairchild Semiconductor introduced the first commercially available integrated circuit (although at almost the same time as one from Texas Instruments), and would go on to become one of the major players in the evolution of Silicon Valley in the 1960s. ...


The first single-chip 16-bit microprocessor was TI's TMS 9900, which was also compatible with their TI-990 line of minicomputers. The 9900 was used in the TI 990/4 minicomputer, the TI-99/4A home computer, and the TM990 line of OEM microcomputer boards. The chip was packaged in a large ceramic 64-pin DIP package, while most 8-bit microprocessors such as the Intel 8080 used the more common, smaller, and less expensive plastic 40-pin DIP. A follow-on chip, the TMS 9980, was designed to compete with the Intel 8080, had the full TI 990 16-bit instruction set, used a plastic 40-pin package, moved data 8 bits at a time, but could only address 16 KB. A third chip, the TMS 9995, was a new design. The family later expanded to include the 99105 and 99110. TMS9900JDL in ceramic package. ... TI-990 programmers panel. ... The Texas Instruments TI-99/4A was an early home computer, released in June 1981, originally at a price of $525. ... ICs in DIP14-Package Several PDIPs and CERDIPS. The large CERDIP in the foreground is an 8080 processor. ... The abbreviation KB or kb can refer to: kilobyte (kB or KB), equal to 1,000 bytes or 1024 bytes depending on context, or kibibyte (KiB), equal to 1,024 bytes. ...


The Western Design Center, Inc. (WDC) introduced the CMOS 65816 16-bit upgrade of the WDC CMOS 65C02 in 1984. The 65816 16-bit microprocessor was the core of the Apple IIgs and later the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, making it one of the most popular 16-bit designs of all time. If you were looking for the Western Digital Corporation, see Western Digital. ... W65C816S microprocessor in a DIP40 package. ... WDC 65C02 Microprocessor // Introduction The W65C02S is a low power, cost effective 8-bit microprocessor. ... The Super Nintendo Entertainment System or Super NES (also called SNES and Super Nintendo) was a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, Australasia, and Brazil between 1990 and 1993. ...


Intel followed a different path, having no minicomputers to emulate, and instead "upsized" their 8080 design into the 16-bit Intel 8086, the first member of the x86 family which powers most modern PC type computers. Intel introduced the 8086 as a cost effective way of porting software from the 8080 lines, and succeeded in winning much business on that premise. The 8088, a version of the 8086 that used an external 8-bit data bus, was the microprocessor in the first IBM PC, the model 5150. Following up their 8086 and 8088, Intel released the 80186, 80286 and, in 1985, the 32-bit 80386, cementing their PC market dominance with the processor family's backwards compatibility. The 8086[1] is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... IBM PC compatible computers are those generally similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT. Such computers used to be referred to as PC clones, or IBM clones since they almost exactly duplicated all the significant features of the PC, XT, or AT internal design, facilitated by various manufacturers... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... The 80186 is a microprocessor that was developed by Intel circa 1982. ... AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ... The Intel386[1] is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 2007. ...


The integrated microprocessor memory management unit (MMU) was developed by Childs et al. of Intel, and awarded US patent number 4,442,484. This 68451 MMU could be used with the Motorola 68010 MMU, short for memory management unit or sometimes called paged memory management unit as PMMU, is a class of computer hardware components responsible for handling memory accesses requested by the CPU. Among the functions of such devices are the translation... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...


32-bit designs

Upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486DX2 die.
Upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486DX2 die.

16-bit designs were in the market only briefly when full 32-bit implementations started to appear. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x1024, 1775 KB) Summary Photograph of the upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486 DX2 taken with an optical microscope at 200x magnification. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x1024, 1775 KB) Summary Photograph of the upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486 DX2 taken with an optical microscope at 200x magnification. ... The Intel486[1] brand refers to Intels family of i486 (incl. ...


The most significant of the 32-bit designs is the MC68000, introduced in 1979. The 68K, as it was widely known, had 32-bit registers but used 16-bit internal data paths, and a 16-bit external data bus to reduce pin count, and supported only 24-bit addresses. Motorola generally described it as a 16-bit processor, though it clearly has 32-bit architecture. The combination of high speed, large (16 megabytes (2^24)) memory space and fairly low costs made it the most popular CPU design of its class. The Apple Lisa and Macintosh designs made use of the 68000, as did a host of other designs in the mid-1980s, including the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga. The Motorola 68000 is a 16/32-Bit [1] CISC microprocessor core designed and marketed by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector). ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... This article is about a unit of data. ... The Apple Lisa was a revolutionary personal computer designed at Apple Computer during the early 1980s. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... Amiga is the name of a range of home/personal computers using the Motorola 68000 processor family, whose development started in 1982. ...


The world's first single-chip fully-32-bit microprocessor, with 32-bit data paths, 32-bit buses, and 32-bit addresses, was the AT&T Bell Labs BELLMAC-32A, with first samples in 1980, and general production in 1982 (See this bibliographic reference and this general reference). After the divestiture of AT&T in 1984, it was renamed the WE 32000 (WE for Western Electric), and had two follow-on generations, the WE 32100 and WE 32200. These microprocessors were used in the AT&T 3B5 and 3B15 minicomputers; in the 3B2, the world's first desktop supermicrocomputer; in the "Companion", the world's first 32-bit laptop computer; and in "Alexander", the world's first book-sized supermicrocomputer, featuring ROM-pack memory cartridges similar to today's gaming consoles. All these systems ran the UNIX System V operating system. This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... Company Masthead Logo Logo until circa 1969, also current logo on company web site Logo 1969–1983 Hi Dan! Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was an American electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995. ... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... It has been suggested that Traditional Unix be merged into this article or section. ...


Intel's first 32-bit microprocessor was the iAPX 432, which was introduced in 1981 but was not a commercial success. It had an advanced capability-based object-oriented architecture, but poor performance compared to other competing architectures such as the Motorola 68000. The Intel iAPX 432 was Intels first 32-bit microprocessor design, introduced in 1981 as a set of three integrated circuits. ... Capability-based security is a concept in the design of secure computing systems. ... In strictly mathematical branches of computer science the term object is used in a purely mathematical sense to refer to any thing. While this interpretation is useful in the discussion of abstract theory, it is not concrete enough to serve as a primitive datatype in the discussion of more concrete...


Motorola's success with the 68000 led to the MC68010, which added virtual memory support. The MC68020, introduced in 1985 added full 32-bit data and address busses. The 68020 became hugely popular in the Unix supermicrocomputer market, and many small companies (e.g., Altos, Charles River Data Systems) produced desktop-size systems. Following this with the MC68030, which added the MMU into the chip, the 68K family became the processor for everything that wasn't running DOS. The continued success led to the MC68040, which included an FPU for better math performance. A 68050 failed to achieve its performance goals and was not released, and the follow-up MC68060 was released into a market saturated by much faster RISC designs. The 68K family faded from the desktop in the early 1990s. The Motorola MC68010 processor is a 16/32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1982 [1]. It is largely similar to the Motorola 68000 CPU with the exception of the addition of several instructions for breakpoint and register control (ccr instead of sr), as well as the ability to save... Motorola 68020 The Motorola 68020 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Motorola 68030 Processor from a Macintosh IIsi The Motorola 68030 is a 32-bit microprocessor in Motorolas 68000 family. ... This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ... The Motorola 68040 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... The Motorola 68060 is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, and is the successor to the Motorola 68040. ...


Other large companies designed the 68020 and follow-ons into embedded equipment. At one point, there were more 68020s in embedded equipment than there were Intel Pentiums in PCs (See this webpage for this embedded usage information). The ColdFire processor cores are derivatives of the venerable 68020. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The Motorola Coldfire is a 68k architecture microprocessor manufactured for embedded systems development by Motorola (now Freescale Semiconductor). ...


During this time (early to mid 1980s), National Semiconductor introduced a very similar 16-bit pinout, 32-bit internal microprocessor called the NS 16032 (later renamed 32016), the full 32-bit version named the NS 32032, and a line of 32-bit industrial OEM microcomputers. By the mid-1980s, Sequent introduced the first symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) server-class computer using the NS 32032. This was one of the design's few wins, and it disappeared in the late 1980s. Categories: Electronics companies of the United States | Companies based in California | Corporation stubs ... The 320xx or NS32000 is a series of microprocessors from National Semiconductor (NS, Natsemi). They were likely the first 32-bit general-purpose microprocessors on the market, but due to a number of factors never managed to become a major player. ... Sequent Computer Systems, or Sequent, was a computer company that designed and manufactured multiprocessing computer systems. ...


The MIPS R2000 (1984) and R3000 (1989) were highly successful 32-bit RISC microprocessors. They were used in high-end workstations and servers by SGI, among others. A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... Silicon Graphics, Inc. ...


Other designs included the interesting Zilog Z8000, which arrived too late to market to stand a chance and disappeared quickly. The Z8000 was a 16-bit microprocessor introduced by ZiLOG in 1979. ...


In the late 1980s, "microprocessor wars" started killing off some of the microprocessors. Apparently, with only one major design win, Sequent, the NS 32032 just faded out of existence, and Sequent switched to Intel microprocessors. Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...


From 1985 to 2003, the 32-bit x86 architectures became increasingly dominant in desktop, laptop, and server markets, and these microprocessors became faster and more capable. Intel had licensed early versions of the architecture to other companies, but declined to license the Pentium, so AMD and Cyrix built later versions of the architecture based on their own designs. During this span, these processors increased in complexity (transistor count) and capability (instructions/second) by at least a factor of 1000. Intel's Pentium line is probably the most famous and recognizable 32-bit processor model, at least with the public at large. x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Cyrix was a CPU manufacturer that began in 1988 in Richardson, TX as a specialist supplier of high-performance math co-processors for 286 and 386 systems. ...


64-bit designs in personal computers

While 64-bit microprocessor designs have been in use in several markets since the early 1990s, the early 2000s saw the introduction of 64-bit microchips targeted at the PC market.


With AMD's introduction of the first 64-bit IA-32 backwards-compatible architecture, AMD64, in September 2003, followed by Intel's own x86-64 chips, the 64-bit desktop era began. Both processors can run 32-bit legacy apps as well as the new 64-bit software. With operating systems Windows XP x64, Windows Vista x64, Linux and Mac OS X that run 64-bit native, the software too is geared to utilize the full power of such processors. The move to 64 bits is more than just an increase in register size from the IA-32 as it also doubles the number of general-purpose registers for the aging CISC designs. AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... For the 64-bit Windows XP for Itanium systems, see Windows XP 64-bit Edition. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... A Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) is an instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can indicate several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. ...


The move to 64 bits by PowerPC processors had been intended since the processors' design in the early 90s and was not a major cause of incompatibility. Existing integer registers are extended as are all related data pathways, but, as was the case with IA-32, both floating point and vector units had been operating at or above 64 bits for several years. Unlike what happened with IA-32 was extended to x86-64, no new general purpose registers were added in 64-bit PowerPC, so any performance gained when using the 64-bit mode for applications making no use of the larger address space is minimal. PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ...


Multicore designs

AMD Athlon 64 X2 3600 Dual core processor
AMD Athlon 64 X2 3600 Dual core processor
Main article: Multi-core (computing)

A different approach to improving a computer's performance is to add extra processors, as in symmetric multiprocessing designs which have been popular in servers and workstations since the early 1990s. Keeping up with Moore's Law is becoming increasingly challenging as chip-making technologies approach the physical limits of the technology. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 477 KB) AMD X2 3600 Dual core CPU File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Microprocessor Multi-core (computing) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 477 KB) AMD X2 3600 Dual core CPU File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Microprocessor Multi-core (computing) ... Diagram of an Intel Core 2 dual core processor, with CPU-local Level 1 caches, and a shared, on-die Level 2 cache. ... Symmetric multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ... Gordon Moores original graph from 1965 Growth of transistor counts for Intel processors (dots) and Moores Law (upper line=18 months; lower line=24 months) For the observation regarding information retrieval, see Mooers Law. ...


In response, the microprocessor manufacturers look for other ways to improve performance, in order to hold on to the momentum of constant upgrades in the market.


A multi-core processor is simply a single chip containing more than one microprocessor core, effectively multiplying the potential performance with the number of cores (as long as the operating system and software is designed to take advantage of more than one processor). Some components, such as bus interface and second level cache, may be shared between cores. Because the cores are physically very close they interface at much faster clock speeds compared to discrete multiprocessor systems, improving overall system performance.


In 2005, the first mass-market dual-core processors were announced and as of 2007 dual-core processors are widely used in servers, workstations and PCs while quad-core processors are now available for high-end applications in both the home and professional environments.


Sun Microsystems has released the Niagara and Niagara 2 chips, both of which feature an eight-core design. The Niagara 2 supports more threads and operates at 1.6 GHz.


RISC

In the mid-1980s to early-1990s, a crop of new high-performance RISC (reduced instruction set computer) microprocessors appeared, which were initially used in special purpose machines and Unix workstations, but then gained wide acceptance in other roles. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25 MHz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ...


The first commercial design was released by MIPS Technologies, the 32-bit R2000 (the R1000 was not released). The R3000 made the design truly practical, and the R4000 introduced the world's first 64-bit design. Competing projects would result in the IBM POWER and Sun SPARC systems, respectively. Soon every major vendor was releasing a RISC design, including the AT&T CRISP, AMD 29000, Intel i860 and Intel i960, Motorola 88000, DEC Alpha and the HP-PA. MIPS Technologies, formerly MIPS Computer Systems, is most widely known for developing the MIPS architecture and a series of pioneering RISC CPUs. ... MIPS, for Microprocessor without interlocked pipeline stages, is a RISC microprocessor architecture developed by MIPS Computer Systems Inc. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba MIPS, for Microprocessor without interlocked pipeline stages, is a RISC microprocessor architecture developed by MIPS Computer Systems Inc. ... POWER is a RISC instruction set architecture designed by IBM. The name is a acronym for Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC. POWER is also the name of a series of microprocessors that implements the instruction set architecture. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... The Hobbit was a microprocessor design of the early 1990s from AT&T. It developed from their CRISP (C-language Reduced Instruction Set Processor) design that was in turn developed from the C Machine experimental efforts in the late 1980s at Bell Labs. ... AMD 29000 Microprocessor The AMD 29000, often simply 29k, was a popular family of RISC-based 32-bit microprocessors and microcontrollers from Advanced Micro Devices. ... The Intel i860 (also 80860, and code named N10) was a RISC microprocessor from Intel, first released in 1989. ... Intels i960 (or 80960) was a RISC-based microprocessor design that became popular during the early 1990s as an embedded microcontroller, becoming a best-selling CPU in that field, along with the competing AMD 29000. ... The 88000 (m88k for short) is a microprocessor design produced by Motorola. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... PA-RISC is a microprocessor architecture developed by Hewlett-Packards Systems & VLSI Technology Operation. ...


Market forces have "weeded out" many of these designs, with almost no desktop or laptop RISC processors and with the SPARC being used in Sun designs only. MIPS is primarily used in embedded systems, notably in Cisco routers. The rest of the original crop of designs have disappeared. Other companies have attacked niches in the market, notably ARM, originally intended for home computer use but since focussed on the embedded processor market. Today RISC designs based on the MIPS, ARM or PowerPC core power the vast majority of computing devices. “Cisco” redirects here. ... The entrance to ARMs headquarters in Cherry Hinton, Cambridge ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) Ltd is a microprocessor design company headquartered in England, founded in 1990 by Hermann Hauser. ...


As of 2007, two 64-bit RISC architectures are still produced in volume: SPARC and Power Architecture. The RISC-like Itanium is produced in smaller quantities. The vast majority of 64-bit microprocessors are now x86-64 CISC designs from AMD and Intel. Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... The Power Architecture logo Power Architecture is a broad term to describe similar instruction sets for RISC microprocessors developed and manufactured by such companies as IBM, Freescale, AMCC, Tundra and P.A. Semi. ... 2007 Itanium logo Itanium is the brand name for 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64). ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ...


Special-purpose designs

Though the term "microprocessor" has traditionally referred to a single- or multi-chip CPU or system-on-a-chip (SoC), several types of specialized processing devices have followed from the technology. The most common examples are microcontrollers, digital signal processors (DSP) and graphics processing units (GPU). Many examples of these are either not programmable, or have limited programming facilities. For example, in general GPUs through the 1990s were mostly non-programmable and have only recently gained limited facilities like programmable vertex shaders. There is no universal consensus on what defines a "microprocessor", but it is usually safe to assume that the term refers to a general-purpose CPU of some sort and not a special-purpose processor unless specifically noted. System-on-a-chip (SoC or SOC) is an idea of integrating all components of a computer system into a single chip. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ... A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ... “GPU” redirects here. ... Vertex and pixel (or fragment) shaders are shaders that run on a graphics card, executed once for every vertex or pixel in a specified 3D mesh. ...


Market statistics

In 2003, about $44 billion (USD) worth of microprocessors were manufactured and sold. [1] Although about half of that money was spent on CPUs used in desktop or laptop personal computers, those count for only about 0.2% of all CPUs sold.


Silicon Valley has an old saying: "The first chip costs a million dollars; the second one costs a nickel." In other words, most of the cost is in the design and the manufacturing setup: once manufacturing is underway, it costs almost nothing.[citation needed] For the Nintendo 64 game, see Space Station Silicon Valley. ...


About 55% of all CPUs sold in the world are 8-bit microcontrollers. Over 2 billion 8-bit microcontrollers were sold in 1997. [2] CPU redirects here. ... 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ...


Less than 10% of all the CPUs sold in the world are 32-bit or more. Of all the 32-bit CPUs sold, about 2% are used in desktop or laptop personal computers, the rest are sold in household appliances such as toasters, microwaves, vacuum cleaners and televisions. "Taken as a whole, the average price for a microprocessor, microcontroller, or DSP is just over $6." [3] 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ... A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ...


Architectures

The MOS Technology 6502 is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology in 1975. ... If you were looking for the Western Digital Corporation, see Western Digital. ... ARMs headquarters in Cambridge The ARM architecture (originally the Acorn RISC Machine) is a RISC processor architecture that is widely used in a number of applications. ... Nios is a soft configurable 16-bit processor designed to target FPGAs from Altera. ... Nios II is the second-generation soft-core embedded processor after Nios from Altera. ... Atmel AVR ATmega8 PDIP. The AVR is a Modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single chip microcontroller (µC) which was developed by Atmel in 1996. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... The RCA (CDP)1802 (aka RCA COSMAC*, COSMAC 1802) is an 8-bit CMOS microprocessor (µP) introduced by RCA in early 1976, and presently being manufactured by Intersil Corporation. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... Intel redirects here. ... The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. ... Intel D4040 Microprocessor The Intel 4040 microprocessor was the successor to the Intel 4004. ... AMD clone NEC 8080AF (2nd-source). ... The Intel 8085 was an 8-bit microprocessor made by Intel in the mid-1970s. ... The Intel 8048 microcontroller (µC), Intels first µC, was used in the Magnavox Odyssey² video game console, the Roland Jupiter-4 and Roland ProMars analog synthesizers, and (in its 8042 variant) in the original IBM PC keyboard. ... Pin diagram of 40 pin Intel 8051 Microcontroller The Intel 8051 was a Harvard architecture single chip microcontroller (µC) developed by Intel in 1980 for use in embedded systems. ... The Intel iAPX 432 was Intels first 32-bit microprocessor design, introduced in 1981 as a set of three integrated circuits. ... The Intel i860 (also 80860, and code named N10) was a RISC microprocessor from Intel, first released in 1989. ... Intels i960 (or 80960) was a RISC-based microprocessor design that became quite popular during the early 1990s as an embedded microcontroller, for some time likely the best-selling CPU in that field, pushing the AMD 29000 from that spot. ... 2007 Itanium logo Itanium is the brand name for 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64). ... LatticeMico32 is a 32-bit microprocessor soft core from Lattice Semiconductor optimized for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). ... The Renesas M32R is a 32-bit embedded RISC microcontroller originally developed and manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, succeeded by a FPGA-implemented MMUed M32R variant named mappi which runs Debian/GNU Linux, and is supported by the GNU Compiler Collection. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... Motorola Inc. ... Motorola 6800 Microprocessor The 6800 is a microprocessor produced by Motorola and released shortly after the Intel 8080 in 1975. ... 1 MHz Motorola 6809E processor, manufactured in 1983. ... The Motorola 680x0, 0x0, m68k, or 68k family of CISC microprocessor CPU chips were 32-bit from the start, and were the primary competition for the Intel x86 family of chips. ... The Motorola Coldfire is a 68k architecture microprocessor manufactured for embedded systems development by Motorola (now Freescale Semiconductor). ... PowerPC G4 is a designation used by Apple Computer to describe a fourth generation of PowerPC microprocessors. ... PowerPC 970FX Processor In computing, the PowerPC 970, PowerPC 970FX, PowerPC 970GX, and PowerPC 970MP, are 64-bit processors in the PowerPC family from IBM. The PowerPC 970 was introduced in 2002. ... The 320xx is a series of microprocessors from National Semiconductor (NS, Natsemi). The 320xx processors have a coprocessor interface which allows coprocessors such as FPUs and MMUs to be attached in a chain. ... OpenCores is a loose community of people who are interested in developing open source hardware (digital hardware) through electronic design automation, with a similar ethos to the free software movement. ... OpenRISC is an open source hardware RISC CPU design by OpenCores released under the GNU Lesser General Public License. ... HP PA-RISC 7300LC Microprocessor PA-RISC is a microprocessor architecture developed by Hewlett-Packards Systems & VLSI Technology Operation. ... The SC/MP from National Semiconductor was an early microprocessor, becoming available in early 1974. ... According to Adam Osbornes classic book An Introduction to Microprocessors Vol 2: Some Real Products, the 2650 was the most minicomputer-like of the 8-bit processors. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... The SuperHichem (or SH) is brandname of a certain microcontroller and microprocessor architecture. ... Transmeta NASDAQ: TMTA develops computing technologies with a focus on reducing power consumption in electronic devices. ... Crusoe is a family of x86-compatible microprocessors from Transmeta. ... The Efficeon processor is Transmetas second-generation 256-bit VLIW design which employs a software engine to convert code written for x86 processors to the native instruction set of the chip (Code Morphing Software, aka CMS). ... A Very Long Instruction Word or VLIW CPU architecture implements a form of instruction level parallelism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... This article is about emulators in computer science. ... The INMOS Transputer was a pioneering parallel computing microprocessor design of the 1980s from INMOS, a small English company. ... Intel Pentium 4 (Northwood version), one example out of a huge number of x86 implementations from Intel, AMD, and others. ... The 8086[1] is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel in 1978, which gave rise to the x86 architecture. ... The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... An Intel 80186 Microprocessor The 80186 architecture. ... The Intel 80188 is a version of the Intel 80186 microprocessor with an 8 bit external data bus, instead of 16 bit. ... Real mode (also called real address mode in Intels manuals) is an operating mode of 80286 and later x86-compatible CPUs. ... AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ... Protected mode is an operational mode of x86-compatible CPUs of the 80286 series or later. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... A XAP® processor provides the computation element within an Integrated Circuit that has to process digital data. ... Xilinx, Inc. ... The MicroBlaze is a soft processor core from Xilinx for use in Xilinx FPGAs. ... Virtex is a series of FPGAs produced by Xilinx. ... Zilog, often seen as ZiLOG, is a manufacturer of 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit CPUs, and is most famous for its Intel 8080-compatible Z80 series. ... The Zilog Z80 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Zilog from 1976 onwards. ... The Zilog Z180 processor is the successor of the Z80. ... The ZiLOG eZ80 is an 8-bit microprocessor which is essentially an updated version of the companys earlier Z80 8-bit microprocessor. ... Z8 can refer to: BMW Z8 - Car Zilog Z8 - Microprocessor This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Z8 can refer to: BMW Z8 - Car Zilog Z8 - Microprocessor This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

See also

CPU redirects here. ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... Addressing modes, a concept from computer science, are an aspect of the instruction set architecture in most central processing unit (CPU) designs. ... A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ... This is a list of microprocessors. ... // Categories: | | ... ALU redirects here. ... A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a microprocessor instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can execute several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... The clock rate is the fundamental rate in cycles per second (measured in hertz) at which a computer performs its most basic operations such as adding two numbers or transferring a value from one processor register to another. ... In computer architecture, a bus is a subsystem that transfers data or power between computer components inside a computer or between computers and typically is controlled by device driver software. ... Computer engineering (also called electronic and computer engineering) is a discipline that combines elements of both electrical engineering and computer science. ... A fan blowing at a CPU heatsink. ... The CPU core voltage (VCore) is the power supply voltage supplied to the CPU (which is a digital circuit). ... CPU design is the hardware design of a central processing unit. ... CPU locking is the process of permanently setting a CPUs clock multiplier. ... Modern personal computer CPUs (central processing units) consume a considerable amount of electric power. ... A microcontroller, like this PIC18F8720 is controlled by firmware stored inside on FLASH memory In computing, firmware is a computer program that is embedded in a hardware device, for example a microcontroller. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... A typical north/southbridge layout In personal computers, the Front Side Bus (FSB) is the data transfer bus that carries information between the CPU and the northbridge of the Motherboard. ... Basic five-stage pipeline in a RISC machine (IF = Instruction Fetch, ID = Instruction Decode, EX = Execute, MEM = Memory access, WB = Register write back) An instruction pipeline is a technique used in the design of computers and other digital electronic devices to increase their instruction throughput (the number of instructions that... An instruction set is (a list of) all instructions, and all their variations, that a processor can execute. ... In computer engineering, microarchitecture (sometime abbreviated to µarch or uarch) is a description of the electrical circuitry of a computer, central processing unit, or digital signal processor that is sufficient for completely describing the operation of the hardware. ... A microprogram is a program consisting of microcode that controls the different parts of a computers central processing unit (CPU). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ... The Microprocessor Chronicles is a documentary by filmmaker Rob Walker. ... A motherboard is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ... Simple superscalar pipeline. ... Term referring to a CPU architecture which further divides each of the traditional pipeline stages (see Pipeline_(computer), Classic RISC pipeline) to obtain improved thruput and higher clock rates. ... A wait state is a delay experienced by a computer processor when accessing external memory or another device that is slow to respond. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Major designers

Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... AMD redirects here. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... Freescale sign Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. ... The entrance to ARMs headquarters in Cherry Hinton, Cambridge, UK ARM Holdings plc is a technology company headquartered in England, founded in 1990. ... MIPS Technologies, formerly MIPS Computer Systems, is most widely known for developing the MIPS architecture and a series of pioneering RISC CPUs. ... Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... Renesas Technology Corporation ) is a Japanese semiconductor manufacturer. ... VIA Technologies logo VIA Technologies is a Taiwanese manufacturer of integrated circuits, mainly motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and memory, and is part of the Formosa Plastics Group. ... If you were looking for the Western Digital Corporation, see Western Digital. ... STMicroelectronics is an international leading supplier of semiconductors. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ...

References

  1. ^ Adam Osborne, An Introduction to Microcomputers Volume 1 Basic Concepts,2nd Edition, Osborne-McGraw Hill, Berkely California, 1980, ISBN 0-931988-34-9 pg1-1
  2. ^ Hodgin, Rick. "Six fold reduction in semiconductor power loss, a faster, lower heat process technology", TG Daily, TG Publishing network, 2007-12-03. Retrieved on 2007-12-03. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Microprocessors

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

General

For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Jonathan P. Bowen FBCS FRSA (born 1956) is a British computer scientist and is Professor of Computing at London South Bank University where he heads the Centre for Applied Formal Methods in the Institute for Computing Research. ...

Historical documents

is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with embedded microprocessor. ... CPU redirects here. ... “GPU” redirects here. ... Network Processing Unit or NPU is a CPU whose instructions are specialized to handle networking-related functions. ... A sound card (also known as an audio card) is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under control of computer programs. ... A Physics Processing Unit (PPU) is a dedicated microprocessor designed to handle the calculations of physics, especially in the physics engine of video games. ... A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
In-Stat - Microprocessor Forum 2007 (448 words)
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