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Encyclopedia > Microorganism
A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times.
A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times.

A microorganism (also spelled as microrganism) or microbe is an organism that is microscopic (too small to be seen by the human eye). The study of microorganisms is called microbiology. Microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, archaea or protists, but not viruses and prions, which are generally classified as non-living. Most microorganisms are single-celled, or unicellular, but some are microscopic, and some unicellular protists are visible to the average human. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2598x1889, 899 KB) Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2598x1889, 899 KB) Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (), or archaebacteria, are a major group of microorganisms. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... A prion (IPA: [1] ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle (-on by analogy to virion) — is a type of infectious agent composed only of protein. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... This article is about modern humans. ...


Microorganisms live almost everywhere on Earth where there is liquid water, including hot springs, on the ocean floor, and deep inside rocks within the Earth's crust. Microorganisms are critical to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers. As some microorganisms can also fix nitrogen, they are also an important part of the nitrogen cycle. However, pathogenic microbes can invade and grow within other organisms and cause diseases that kill millions of people and other animals every year.[1] Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Look up Crust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ... For the Matches album of the same name, see Decomposer (album). ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... This article is about the medical term. ...

Contents

History

Evolution

Further information: Timeline of evolution

Single-celled microorganisms were the first forms of life to develop on earth, approximately 3–4 billion years ago.[2][3][4] Further evolution was slow,[5] and for about 3 billion years in the Precambrian eon, all organisms were microscopic.[6] So, for most of the history of life on Earth the only form of life were microorganisms.[7] Bacteria, algae and fungi have been identified in amber that is 220 million years old, which shows that the morphology of microorganisms have changed little since the triassic period.[8] Life on Earth  â€¢  â€¢  | Axis scale: millions of years ago. ... For the definition, see Life. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 1017 seconds and 1018 seconds (3. ... The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... In general usage, an eon (sometimes spelled aeon) is a very long period of time. ... This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ...


Most microorganisms can reproduce rapidly and microbes such as bacteria can also freely exchange genes by conjugation, transformation and transduction between widely-divergent species.[9] This horizontal gene transfer, coupled with a high mutation rate and many other means of genetic variation, allows microorganisms to swiftly evolve (via natural selection) to survive in new environments and respond to environmental stresses. This rapid evolution is important in medicine, as it has led to the recent development of 'super-bugs' — pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to modern antibiotics.[10] Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell-to-cell contact. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Transfection. ... Transduction is the process by which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a virus. ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


Discovery

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the first person to observe microorganisms using a microscope
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, the first person to observe microorganisms using a microscope

The existence of microorganisms was hypothesized during the late Middle Ages but they were not observed or proven until the invention of the microscope in the 17th century. In The Canon of Medicine (1020), Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) stated that bodily secretion is contaminated by foul foreign earthly bodies before being infected, but he did not view them as primary causes of disease. When the Black Death bubonic plague reached al-Andalus in the 14th century, Ibn Khatima and Ibn al-Khatib hypothesized that infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms which enter the human body.[11] Such ideas became more popular in Europe during the Renaissance, particularly through the writing of the Italian monk Girolamo Fracastoro.[12] Image File history File links Antoni_van_Leeuwenhoek. ... Image File history File links Antoni_van_Leeuwenhoek. ... Anton von Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 _ August 26, 1723) was a tradesman and scientist from Delft, in the Netherlands. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... A Latin copy of the Canon of Medicine, dated 1484, located at the P.I. Nixon Medical Historical Library of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. ... (c. ... Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ... This article is about the medical term. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Girolamo Fracastoro (Fracastorius) (1478‑1553) was an Italian physician, scholar and poet. ...


Prior to Anton van Leeuwenhoek's discovery of microorganisms in 1675, it had been a mystery as to why grapes could be turned into wine, milk into cheese, or why food would spoil. Leeuwenhoek did not make the connection between these processes and microorganisms, but using the microscope, he did establish that there were forms of life that were not visible to the naked eye.[13][14] Leeuwenhoek's discovery, along with subsequent observations by Lazzaro Spallanzani and Louis Pasteur, ended the long-held belief that life spontaneously appeared from non-living substances during the process of spoilage. Anton van Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 30, 1723, full name Thonius Philips van Leeuwenhoek (pronounced Layewenhook) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft, Netherlands. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... A glass of cows milk. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... Lazzaro Spallanzani. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... This article focuses on the history of thought regarding abiogenesis (the spontaneous generation of life from non-living sources). ...


Lazzarro Spallanzani found that microorganisms could only settle in a broth if the broth was exposed to the air. He also found that boiling the broth would sterilise it and kill the microorganisms. Louis Pasteur expanded upon Spallanzani's findings by exposing boiled broths to the air, in vessels that contained a filter to prevent all particles from passing through to the growth medium, and also in vessels with no filter at all, with air being admitted via a curved tube that would not allow dust particles to come in contact with the broth. By boiling the broth beforehand, Pasteur ensured that no microorganisms survived within the broths at the beginning of his experiment. Nothing grew in the broths in the course of Pasteur's experiment. This meant that the living organisms that grew in such broths came from outside, as spores on dust, rather than spontaneously generated within the broth. Thus, Pasteur dealt the death blow to the theory of spontaneous generation and supported germ theory. Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. ...


In 1876, Robert Koch established that microbes can cause disease. He did this by finding that the blood of cattle who were infected with anthrax always had large numbers of Bacillus anthracis. Koch also found that he could transmit anthrax from one animal to another by taking a small sample of blood from the infected animal and injecting it into a healthy one, causing the healthy animal to become sick. He also found that he could grow the bacteria in a nutrient broth, inject it into a healthy animal, and cause illness. Based upon these experiments, he devised criteria for establishing a causal link between a microbe and a disease in what are now known as Koch's postulates.[15] Though these postulates cannot be applied in all cases, they do retain historical importance in the development of scientific thought and can still be used today.[16] For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Binomial name Bacillus anthracis Cohn 1872 Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... Kochs postulates (or Henle-Koch postulates) are four criteria designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease. ...


Classification

Evolutionary tree showing the common ancestry of all three domains of life. Bacteria are colored blue, eukaryotes red, and archaea green. Relative positions of some phyla are shown around the tree.
Evolutionary tree showing the common ancestry of all three domains of life.[17] Bacteria are colored blue, eukaryotes red, and archaea green. Relative positions of some phyla are shown around the tree.

Microorganisms can be found almost anywhere in the taxonomic organization of life on the planet. Bacteria and archaea are almost always microscopic, while a number of eukaryotes are also microscopic, including most protists and a number of fungi. Viruses are generally regarded as not living and therefore are not microbes, although the field of microbiology also encompasses the study of viruses. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 560 pixelsFull resolution (3384 × 2368 pixel, file size: 999 KB, MIME type: image/png) A highly resolved Tree Of Life, based on completely sequenced genomes [1]. The image was generated using iTOL: Interactive Tree Of Life[2], an online phylogenetic... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 560 pixelsFull resolution (3384 × 2368 pixel, file size: 999 KB, MIME type: image/png) A highly resolved Tree Of Life, based on completely sequenced genomes [1]. The image was generated using iTOL: Interactive Tree Of Life[2], an online phylogenetic... Fig. ... In biology, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, or empire) is the top-level grouping of organisms in scientific classification, higher than a kingdom. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (), or archaebacteria, are a major group of microorganisms. ... In biological taxonomy, a phylum (Greek plural: phyla) is a taxon in the rank below kingdom and above class. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (), or archaebacteria, are a major group of microorganisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates) Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista is one of the commonly recognized biological kingdoms, including all the eukaryotes except for... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Stop editing pages god ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ...


Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes are organisms that lack a cell nucleus and the other organelles found in eukaryotes. Prokaryotes are almost always unicellular, although some such as myxobacteria can aggregate into complex structures as part of their life cycle. These organisms are divided into two groups, the archaea and the bacteria. HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Families & Genera Archangiaceae    Archangium Cystobacteraceae    Cystobacter    Melittangium    Stigmatella Myxoccaceae    Myxococcus    Angiococcus Polyangiaceae    Chondromyces    Nannocystis    Polyangium The myxobacteria are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil. ... Life cycle refers to: Biological life cycle New product development Honeybee life cycle This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Bacteria

Main article: Bacteria
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria magnified about 10,000x
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria magnified about 10,000x

Bacteria are the most diverse and abundant group of organisms on Earth. Bacteria inhabit practically all environments where some liquid water is available and the temperature is below +140 °C. They are found in sea water, soil, animals' gastrointestinal tracts, hot springs and even deep beneath the Earth's crust in rocks.[18] Practically all surfaces which have not been specially sterilized are covered in bacteria. The number of bacteria in the world is estimated to be around five million trillion trillion, or 5 × 1030.[19] Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2100x1630, 1243 KB)SEM micrograph of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2100x1630, 1243 KB)SEM micrograph of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... Gut redirects here. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Rock redirects here. ...


Bacteria are practically all invisible to the naked eye, with few extremely rare exceptions, such as Thiomargarita namibiensis.[20] They are unicellular organisms and lack organelles. Their genome is usually a single loop of DNA, although they can also harbor small pieces of DNA called plasmids. Bacteria are surrounded by a cell wall, which provides strength and rigidity to their cells. They reproduce by binary fission or sometimes by budding. Some species form extremely resilient spores, but for bacteria this is a mechanism for survival, not reproduction. Under optimal conditions bacteria can grow extremely rapidly and can double as quickly as every 10 minutes.[21] Binomial name Thiomargarita namibiensis Schulz , 1999 Thiomargarita namibiensis (Sulfur pearl of Namibia) is the largest bacterium ever discovered, with a width up to 750 μm (0. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Figure 1: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed showing chromosomal DNA and plasmids. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Binary fission Binary fission is the form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size, used by most prokaryotes. ... High magnification view of a budding yeast Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


Archaea

Main article: Archaea

Archaea are also single-celled organisms that lack nuclei. In the past, the differences between bacteria and archaea were not recognised and archaea were classified with bacteria as part of the kingdom Monera. Archaea differ from bacteria in their genetics and biochemistry. For example, while bacterial cell membranes are made from phosphoglycerides with ester bonds, archaean membranes are made of ether lipids. Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (), or archaebacteria, are a major group of microorganisms. ... Figure 1. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that encapsulate the cell. ... Phospholipid Two schematic representations of a phospholipid. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... An ether lipid is a lipid in which one or more of the carbon atoms on glycerol is bonded to an alkyl chain via an ether linkage, as opposed to the usual ester linkage. ...


Archaea were originally described in extreme environments, such as hot springs, but have since been found in all types of habitats.[22] Only now are scientists beginning to appreciate how common archaea are in the environment, with crenarchaeota being the most common form of life in the ocean, dominating ecosystems below 150 m in depth.[23][24] These organisms are also common in soil and play a vital role in ammonia oxidation.[25] Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... Orders Caldisphaerales Cenarchaeales Desulfurococcales Sulfolobales Thermoproteales The Crenarchaeota are a major group of Archaea, containing many extremely thermophilic and psychrophilic organisms. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ...


Eukaryotes

Main article: Eukaryote
An amoeba, a typical eukaryotic microorganism

All living things which are individually visible to the naked eye are eukaryotes (with few exceptions, such as Thiomargarita namibiensis), including humans. However, a large number of eukaryotes are also microorganisms. Unlike bacteria and archaea, eukaryotes contain organelles such as the cell nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria in their cells. The nucleus is an organelle which houses the DNA that makes up a cell's genome. DNA itself is arranged in complex chromosomes.[26] Mitochondria are organelles vital in metabolism as they are the site of the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. They evolved from symbiotic bacteria and retain a remnant genome.[27] Like bacteria, plant cells have cell walls, and contain organelles such as chloroplasts in addition to the organelles in other eukaryotes. Chloroplasts produce energy from light by photosynthesis, and were also originally symbiotic bacteria.[27] Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Chaos diffluens, an amoeba. ... Chaos diffluens, an amoeba. ... For other uses, see Amoeba (disambiguation). ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Binomial name Thiomargarita namibiensis Schulz , 1999 Thiomargarita namibiensis (Sulfur pearl of Namibia) is the largest bacterium ever discovered, with a width up to 750 μm (0. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota ARMAN The Archaea (), or archaebacteria, are a major group of microorganisms. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle that is found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... A scheme of a condensed (metaphase) chromosome. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle, after Hans Adolf Krebs who identified the cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part... The electron transport chain in the mitochondrion is the site of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Plant cell structure Plant cells are quite different from the cells of the other eukaryotic kingdoms organisms. ... Plant cells separated by transparent cell walls. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


Unicellular eukaryotes are those eukaryotic organisms that consist of a single cell throughout their life cycle. This qualification is significant since most multicellular eukaryotes consist of a single cell called a zygote at the beginning of their life cycles. Microbial eukaryotes can be either haploid or diploid, and some organisms have multiple cell nuclei (see coenocyte). However, not all microorganisms are unicellular as some microscopic eukaryotes are made from multiple cells. Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite stained to highlight the nuclei of all cells Multicellular organisms are organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... It has been suggested that Biparental zygote be merged into this article or section. ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... A coenocyte is a multinucleate cell. ...


Protists

Main article: Protista

Of eukaryotic groups, the protists are most commonly unicellular and microscopic. This is a diverse group of organisms which are not easy to classify. Several algae species are multicellular protists, and slime molds have unique life cycles with unicellular, colonial, and multicellular stages. Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates) Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista is one of the commonly recognized biological kingdoms, including all the eukaryotes except for... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Typical phyla Rhodophyta (red algae) Chromista Heterokontophyta (heterokonts) Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolates Pyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates) Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavates Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies The Kingdom Protista or Protoctista is one of the commonly recognized biological kingdoms, including all the eukaryotes except for... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Multicellular organisms are those organisms containing more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... Typical orders Protostelia    Protosteliida Myxogastria    Liceida    Echinosteliida    Trichiida    Stemonitida    Physarida Dictyostelia    Dictyosteliida Slime moulds are peculiar protists that normally take the form of amoebae, but under certain conditions develop fruiting bodies that release spores, superficially similar to the sporangia of fungi. ...

A microscopic mite Lorryia formosa.
A microscopic mite Lorryia formosa.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2100x2560, 1674 KB) Historically, mites have been difficult to study because of their minute size. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2100x2560, 1674 KB) Historically, mites have been difficult to study because of their minute size. ... For other uses, see Arachnid (disambiguation). ...

Animals

Main article: Micro-animals

All animals are multicellular, but some are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Microscopic arthropods include dust mites and spider mites. Microscopic crustaceans include copepods and the cladocera. Another common group of microscopic animals are the rotifers, which are filter feeders that are usually found in fresh water. Micro-animals are animals that are microscopic and thus cannot be seen with the naked eye. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Binomial name Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus The house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), sometimes abbreviated by allergists to HDM, is a cosmopolitan guest in human habitation. ... Binomial name Tetranychus urticae C.L. Koch, 1836 The Red Spider Mite is a predatory mite found in dry environments, generally considered a pest. ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Copepods are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat. ... Families Suborder Anomopoda Daphniidae Moinidae Bosminidae Macrothricidae Chydoridae Suborder Ctenopoda Sididae Holopedidae Suborder Onychopoda Polyphemidae Cercopagidae Podonidae Suborder Haplopoda Leptodoridae Daphnia are members of the order Cladocera. ... Classes Monogononta Digononta The rotifers make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals. ...


Fungi

Main article: Fungus

The fungi have several unicellular species, such as baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ...


Plants

Main article: Plant

The green algae are a large group of photosynthetic eukaryotes that include many microscopic organisms. Although some green algae are classified as protists, others such as charophyta are classified with embryophyte plants, which are the most familiar group of land plants. For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chlorophyta Charophyta Green algae are microscopic protists; found in all aquatic environments, including marine, freshwater and brackish water. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... Classes Mesostigmatophyceae Chlorokybophyceae Klebsormidiophyceae Zygnemophyceae    Zygnematales    Desmidiales Charophyceae    Coleochaetales    Charales The Charophyta are a division of green algae, including the closest relatives of the embryophyte plants. ... Divisions Non-vascular land plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses †Horneophytopsida Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta - ferns and horsetails Ophioglossophyta - adders-tongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants The embryophytes...


Habitats and ecology

Microorganisms are found in almost every habitat present in nature. Even in hostile environments such as the poles, deserts, geysers, rocks, and the deep sea, some types of microorganisms have adapted to the extreme conditions and sustained colonies; these organisms are known as extremophiles. Extremophiles have been isolated from rocks as much as 7 kilometres below the earth's surface,[28] and it has been suggested that the amount of living organisms below the earth's surface may be comparable with the amount of life on or above the surface.[18] Extremophiles have been known to survive for a prolonged time in a vacuum, and can be highly resistant to radiation, which may even allow them to survive in space.[29] Many types of microorganisms have intimate symbiotic relationships with other larger organisms; some of which are mutually beneficial (mutualism), while others can be damaging to the host organism (parasitism). If microorganisms can cause disease in a host they are known as pathogens. Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... Strokkur geyser, Iceland A geyser is a type of hot spring that erupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water and steam into the air. ... Rock redirects here. ... The term deep sea refers to those areas of oceans to which little or no light penetrates (the aphotic zone). ... An extremophile is an organism, usually unicellular, which thrives in or requires extreme conditions. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation). ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope (LTSEM) image of Varroa destructor on a honey bee host Mites parasitising a harvestman Parasitism is one version of symbiosis (living together), a phenomenon in which two organisms which are phylogenetically unrelated co-exist over a prolonged period of time, usually the lifetime of one... This article is about the medical term. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ...


Extremophiles

Main article: Extremophile

Certain microbes have adapted so that they can survive and even thrive in conditions that are normally fatal to most lifeforms. Microorganisms have been found around underwater black smokers and in geothermal hot springs, as well as in extremely salty bodies of water. An extremophile is an organism, usually unicellular, which thrives in or requires extreme conditions that would exceed optimal conditions for growth and reproduction in the majority of mesophilic terrestrial organisms. ... A black smoker in the Atlantic Ocean Black smokers are a type of hydrothermal vent found on the ocean floor. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or...


Soil microbes

The nitrogen cycle in soils depends on the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. One way this can occur is in the nodules in the roots of legumes that contain symbiotic bacteria of the genera Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Azorhizobium.[30] Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ... Varieties of soybean seeds, a popular legume The term legume has two closely related meanings in botany, a situation encountered with many botanical common names of useful plants whereby an applied name can refer to either the plant itself, or to the edible fruit (or useful part). ...


Symbiotic microbes

Symbiotic microbes


Importance

Microorganisms are vital to humans and the environment, as they participate in the Earth's element cycles such as the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle, as well as fulfilling other vital roles in virtually all ecosystems, such as recycling other organisms' dead remains and waste products through decomposition. Microbes also have an important place in most higher-order multicellular organisms as symbionts. Many blame the failure of Biosphere 2 on an improper balance of microbes. For the thermonuclear reaction involving carbon that helps power stars, see CNO cycle. ... Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... For other uses, see Decomposition (disambiguation). ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Biosphere 2 Biosphere 2 is a 3. ...


Use in food

Main article: Fermentation (food)

Microorganisms are used in brewing, baking and other food-making processes. For other uses, see Fermentation. ... A 16th century brewer A 21st century brewer This article concerns the production of alcoholic beverages. ... Some examples of baked food. ...


The lactobacillus / lactobacilli and yeasts in sourdough bread are especially useful. To make bread, one uses a small amount (20-25%) of "starter" dough which has the yeast culture, and mixes it with flour and water. Some of this resulting dough is then saved to be used as the starter for subsequent batches. The culture can be kept at room temperature and continue yielding bread for years as long as it remains supplied with new flour and water. This technique was often used when "on the trail" in the American Old West. Fermentation starters (called simply starters within the corresponding context) are preparations to assist the beginning of the fermentation process in preparation of various foods and fermented drinks. ... A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ... The cowboy, the quintessential symbol of the American Old West, circa 1887. ...


Microorganisms are also used to control the fermentation process in the production of cultured dairy products such as yogurt and cheese. The cultures also provide flavour and aroma, and to inhibit undesirable organisms.[31] For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ...


Use in water treatment

Main article: Sewage treatment

Microbes are used in the biological treatment of sewage and industrial waste effluents.. Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, both runoff and domestic. ...


Use in energy

Main article: Ethanol fermentation

Microbes are used in fermentation to produce ethanol. Beer - A Product of Ethanol Fermentation Ethanol fermentation is the biological process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. ...


Use in science

Microbes are also essential tools in biotechnology, biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology. Microbes can be harnessed for uses such as creating steroids and treating skin diseases. Scientists are also considering using microbes for living fuel cells, and as a solution for pollution. The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...


Use in warfare

Main article: Biological warfare
In the Middle Ages, dead corpses were thrown over walls during sieges, this meant that any bacteria carrying the disease that killed the person/creature would multiply in the vicinity of the opposing side.

For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ...

Importance in human health

Human digestion

Microorganisms can form an endosymbiotic relationship with other, larger organisms. For example, the bacteria that live within the human digestive system contribute to gut immunity, synthesise vitamins such as folic acid and biotin, and ferment complex indigestible carbohydrates.[32] An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Vitamin H redirects here. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ...


Diseases and immunology

Microorganisms are the cause of many infectious diseases. The organisms involved include bacteria, causing diseases such as plague, tuberculosis and anthrax; protozoa, causing diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness and toxoplasmosis; and also fungi causing diseases such as ringworm, candidiasis or histoplasmosis. However, other diseases such as influenza, yellow fever or AIDS are caused by viruses, which are not living organisms and are not therefore microorganisms. As of 2007, no clear examples of archaean pathogens are known,[33] although a relationship has been proposed between the presence of some methanogens and human periodontal disease.[34] Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Sleeping sickness or African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease in people and animals, caused by protozoa of genus Trypanosoma and transmitted by the tsetse fly. ... This article is about the fungal infection. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Stop editing pages god ... Periodontitis a disease involving inflammation of the gums (gingiva), often persisting unnoticed for years or decades in a patient, that results in loss of bone around teeth. ...


Hygiene

Main article: Hygiene

Hygiene is the avoidance of infection or food spoiling by eliminating microorganisms from the surroundings. As microorganisms, particularly bacteria, are found practically everywhere, this means in most cases the reduction of harmful microorganisms to acceptable levels. However, in some cases it is required that an object or substance is completely sterile, i.e. devoid of all living entities and viruses. A good example of this is a hypodermic needle. Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... Different bevels on hypodermic needles. ...


In food preparation microorganisms are reduced by preservation methods (such as the addition of vinegar), clean utensils used in preparation, short storage periods or by cool temperatures. If complete sterility is needed, the two most common methods are irradiation and the use of an autoclave, which resembles a pressure cooker. Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Irradiation is the process by which an item is exposed to radiation. ... Front loading autoclaves are common Stovetop autoclaves need to be monitored carefully and are the simplest of all autoclaves Multiple large autoclaves are used for processing substantial quantities of laboratory equipment prior to reuse, and infectious material prior to disposal. ... Pressure cooking is a method of cooking things at high heat without boiling them. ...


There are several methods for investigating the level of hygiene in a sample of food, drinking water, equipment etc. Water samples can be filtrated through an extremely fine filter. This filter is then placed in a nutrient medium. Microorganisms on the filter then grow to form a visible colony. Harmful microorganisms can be detected in food by placing a sample in a nutrient broth designed to enrich the organisms in question. Various methods, such as selective media or PCR, can then be used for detection. The hygiene of hard surfaces, such as cooking pots, can be tested by touching them with a solid piece of nutrient medium and then allowing the microorganisms to grow on it. A growth medium is an object in which microorganisms or cells can experience growth. ... A selective medium is a substance (usually agar-based) which grows a specific type of microbe. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A growth medium is an object in which microorganisms or cells can experience growth. ...


There are no conditions where all microorganisms would grow, and therefore often several different methods are needed. For example, a food sample might be analyzed on three different nutrient mediums designed to indicate the presence of "total" bacteria (conditions where many, but not all, bacteria grow), molds (conditions where the growth of bacteria is prevented by e.g. antibiotics) and coliform bacteria (these indicate a sewage contamination). A growth medium is an object in which microorganisms or cells can experience growth. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... The Coliform Index is a rating of the purity of water based on a count of fecal bacteria. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


In fiction

Microorganisms have frequently played an important part in science fiction, both as agents of disease, and as entities in their own right. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ...


Some notable uses of microorganisms in fiction include:

  • The War of the Worlds, where microorganisms play important thematic and plot-related roles.
  • Fantastic Voyage, in which some scientists are miniaturised to microscopic size and observe micro-organisms from a new perspective
  • Blood Music, in which a colony of microorganisms is given intelligence
  • The Andromeda Strain, in which extraterrestrial microorganisms kill several people
  • The White Plague, is created and released in vengeance by John Roe O'Neill for the death of his wife and children, it is designed to kill only woman.

Twelve Monkeys, James Cole (Bruce Willis) searches for a pure germ in the past, which creates a deadly plague in the future. Also, Brad Pitt (as Jeffery Goines) discusses his germaphobia. The War of the Worlds (1898), by H.G. Wells, is an early science fiction novella which describes an invasion of England by aliens from Mars. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Blood Music is a science fiction novel by Greg Bear (ISBN 0-7434-4496-5). ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel. ... The White Plague is an archaic term for tuberculosis. ...


See also

For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Microbial Intelligence or popularly known as Bacterial Intelligence is the intelligence shown by a collection of microbes. ... Structures found on meteorite fragment ALH84001 Nanobacteria are said to be cell walled microorganisms with a diameter well below the generally accepted lower limit (about 200 nanometres) for bacteria. ... Man looking at fungus inside of petri dishes A Petri dish is a shallow glass or plastic cylindrical dish that biologists use to culture microbes. ... Prokaryotic bacteria cell structure Prokaryotes (IPA: //) are a group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil pollution comprises the pollution of soils with materials, mostly chemicals, that are out of place or are present at concentrations higher than normal which may have adverse effects on humans or other organisms. ... Staining is a biochemical technique of adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or quantify the presence of a specific compound. ...

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The Islamic Medical Association of North America (IMANA) is the largest Muslim medical organization in North America. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Alliance for Consumer Education
  • Understanding Our Microbial Planet: The New Science of Metagenomics A 20-page educational booklet providing a basic overview of metagenomics and our microbial planet.
  • Microbe News from Genome News Network
  • BBC News, 28 September, 2001: The microbes that 'rule the world' Citat: "... The Earth's climate may be dependent upon microbes that eat rock beneath the sea floor, according to new research....The number of the worm-like tracks in the rocks diminishes with depth; at 300 metres (985 feet) below the sea floor, they become much rarer..."
  • BBCNews: 16 January, 2002, Tough bugs point to life on Mars Citat: "...This research demonstrates that certain microbes can thrive in the absence of sunlight by using hydrogen gas..."
  • Microbes Patent List Microbes Related Patents
  • BBCNews: 17 January, 2002, Alien life could be like Antarctic bugs
  • Microbiology
  • BURDEN of Resistance and Disease in European Nations - An EU-Project to estimate the financial burden of antibiotic resistance in European Hospitals
  • Bioleaching microbes, BioMineWiki

 
 

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