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Encyclopedia > Microcontroller
The integrated circuit from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip.
The integrated circuit from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip.

A microcontroller (or MCU) is a computer-on-a-chip. It is a type of microprocessor emphasizing self-sufficiency and cost-effectiveness, in contrast to a general-purpose microprocessor (the kind used in a PC). The only difference between a microcontroller and a microprocessor is that a microprocessor has three parts - ALU, Control Unit and registers (like memory), but the microcontroller has additional elements like ROM, RAM etc. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with microcontroller. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1740x1344, 411 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Integrated circuit Microcontroller Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1740x1344, 411 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Integrated circuit Microcontroller Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... Look up RAM, Ram, ram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... EPROM. The small quartz window admits UV light during erasure. ... Energy Input: The energy placed into a reaction. ... The NASA Columbia Supercomputer. ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Contents

Embedded design

The majority of computer systems in use today are embedded in other machinery, such as telephones, clocks, appliances, vehicles, and infrastructure. An embedded system usually has minimal requirements for memory and program length and may require simple but unusual input/output systems. For example, most embedded systems lack keyboards, screens, disks, printers, or other recognizable I/O devices of a personal computer. They may control electric motors, relays or voltages, and read switches, variable resistors or other electronic devices. Often, the only I/O device readable by a human is a single light-emitting diode, and severe cost or power constraints can even eliminate that. It has been suggested that Embedded System Design in an FPGA be merged into this article or section. ...


Higher Integration

In contrast to general-purpose CPUs, microcontrollers may not implement an external address or data bus, because they integrate RAM and non-volatile memory on the same chip as the CPU. Because they need fewer pins, the chip can be placed in a much smaller, cheaper package.


Integrating the memory and other peripherals on a single chip and testing them as a unit increases the cost of that chip, but often results in decreased net cost of the embedded system as a whole. (Even if the cost of a CPU that has integrated peripherals is slightly more than the cost of a CPU + external peripherals, having fewer chips typically allows a smaller and cheaper circuit board, and reduces the labor required to assemble and test the circuit board).


A microcontroller is a single integrated circuit, commonly with the following features: Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...

This integration drastically reduces the number of chips and the amount of wiring and PCB space that would be needed to produce equivalent systems using separate chips and have proved to be highly popular in embedded systems since their introduction in the 1970s. Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... Energy Input: The energy placed into a reaction. ... In telecommunication and computer communication, the term network interface has the following meanings: The point of interconnection between a user terminal and a private or public network. ... A male DE-9 connector used for a serial port on a PC style computer. ... A UART or universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter is a piece of computer hardware that translates between parallel bits of data and serial bits. ... In telecommunications and computer science, serial communications is the process of sending data one bit at one time, sequentially, over a communications channel or computer bus. ... I²C is a multi-master serial computer bus invented by Philips that is used to attach low-speed peripherals to a motherboard, embedded system, or cellphone. ... The Serial Peripheral Interface Bus or SPI bus is a very loose standard for controlling almost any digital electronics that accepts a clocked serial stream of bits. ... Controller Area Network (CAN) is a broadcast, differential serial bus standard, originally developed in the 1980s by Robert Bosch GmbH, for connecting electronic control units (ECUs). ... A peripheral is a type of computer hardware that is added to a host computer in order to expand its abilities. ... A simple digital timer. ... A watchdog timer is a computer hardware timing device that triggers a system reset if the main program, due to some fault condition, such as a hang, neglects to regularly service the watchdog (writing a “service pulse” to it, also referred to as “petting the dog”). The intention is to... Look up RAM, Ram, ram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... EPROM. The small quartz window admits UV light during erasure. ... An EEPROM (also called an E2PROM)[] or Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, is a non-volatile storage chip used in computers and other devices to store small amounts of volatile (configuration) data. ... A USB flash drive. ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... A clock generator is a circuit that produces a timing signal (known as a clock and behaves as such) for use in synchronizing a circuits operation. ... resistor-capacitor circuit (RC circuit), or RC filter or RC network, is one of the simplest analogue electronic filters. ... This article or section should include material from AD converters In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D, or A to D) is a device that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. ... PCB may refer to: Brazilian Communist Party (in Portuguese, Partido Comunista Brasileiro) Communist Party of Bolivia (in Spanish, Partido Comunista de Bolivia) Pakistan Cricket Board PCB Piezotronics PCBoard, a bulletin board system software Police Complaints Board, which oversaw the system for handling complaints made against police forces in England and... It has been suggested that Embedded System Design in an FPGA be merged into this article or section. ...


Some microcontrollers can afford to use a Harvard architecture: separate memory buses for instructions and data, allowing accesses to take place concurrently. The term Harvard architecture originally referred to computer architectures that used physically separate storage and signal pathways for their instructions and data (in contrast to the von Neumann architecture). ...


The decision of which peripheral to integrate is often difficult. The Microcontroller vendors often trade operating frequencies and system design flexibility against time-to-market requirements from their customers and overall lower system cost. Manufacturers have to balance the need to minimize the chip size against additional functionality.


Microcontroller architectures are available from many different vendors in so many varieties that each instruction set architecture could rightly belong to a category of their own. Chief among these are the 8051, Z80 and ARM derivatives.[citation needed] Pin diagram of 40 pin Intel 8051 Microcontroller The Intel 8051 was a Harvard architecture single chip microcontroller (µC) developed by Intel in 1980 for use in embedded systems. ... One of the first Z80 microprocessors manufactured; the date stamp is from June 1976. ... The ARM architecture (previously, the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture developed by ARM Limited that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. ...


Large Volumes

Microcontrollers take the largest share of sales in the wider microprocessor market. Over 50% are "simple" controllers, and another 20% are more specialized digital signal processors (DSPs)[citation needed]. A typical home in a developed country is likely to have only one or two general-purpose microprocessors but somewhere between one and two dozen microcontrollers. A typical mid range automobile has as many as 50 or more microcontrollers. They can also be found in almost any electrical device: washing machines, microwave ovens, telephones etc. A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... Karl Benzs Velo model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race An automobile or motor car (usually shortened to just car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... A modern hammer is directly descended from ancient hand tools A tool or device is a piece of equipment which typically provides a mechanical advantage in accomplishing a physical task, or provides an ability that is not naturally available to the user of a tool. ... Front-loading washing machine. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Microwave oven and Microwave heating. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

A PIC 18F8720 microcontroller in an 80-pin TQFP package.

Manufacturers have often produced special versions of their microcontrollers in order to help the hardware and software development of the target system. These have included EPROM versions that have a "window" on the top of the device through which program memory can be erased by ultra violet light, ready for reprogramming after a programming ("burn") and test cycle. Other versions may be available where the ROM is accessed as an external device rather than as internal memory. A simple EPROM programmer, rather than a more complex and expensive microcontroller programmer, may then be used, however there is a potential loss of functionality through pin outs being tied up with external memory addressing rather than for general input/output. These kind of devices usually carry a cost up in part prices but if the target production quantities are small, certainly in the case of a hobbyist, they can be the most economical option compared with the set up charges involved in mask programmed devices. A more rarely encountered development microcontroller is the "piggy back" version. This device has no internal ROM memory; instead pin outs on the top of the microcontroller form a socket into which a standard EPROM program memory device may be installed. The benefit of this approach is the release of microcontroller pins for input and output use rather than program memory. These kinds of devices are normally expensive and are impractical for anything but the development phase of a project. Image File history File links PIC18F8720. ... Image File history File links PIC18F8720. ... PIC microcontrollers in DIP and QFN packages PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1650 originally developed by General Instruments Microelectronics Division. ... Thin Quad Flat Pack. ... Software development is the translation of a user need or marketing goal into a software product. ... EPROM. The small quartz window admits UV light during erasure. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... EPROM. The small quartz window admits UV light during erasure. ... Read-only memory (usually known by its acronym, ROM) is a class of storage media used in computers and other electronic devices. ... EPROM. The small quartz window admits UV light during erasure. ...


Programming Environments

Originally, microcontrollers were only programmed in assembly language, or later in C code. Recent microcontrollers integrated with on-chip debug circuitry accessed by In-circuit emulator via JTAG enables a programmer to debug the software of an embedded system with a debugger. See the terminology section, below, regarding inconsistent use of the terms assembly and assembler. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects, in a computer program or a piece of electronic hardware thus making it behave as expected. ... An in-circuit emulator (ICE) also called on-circuit debugger (OCD) or background debug module (BDM) is a hardware device used to debug the software of an embedded system. ... JTAG, an acronym for Joint Test Action Group, is the usual name used for the IEEE 1149. ... A debugger is a computer program that is used to test and debug other programs. ...


Some microcontrollers have begun to include a built-in high-level programming language interpreter for greater ease of use. The Intel 8052 and Zilog Z8 were available with BASIC very early on, and BASIC is more recently used in the popular BASIC Stamp MCUs. A high-level programming language is a programming language that is more user-friendly, to some extent platform-independent, and abstract from low-level computer processor operations such as memory accesses. ... An interpreter is a computer program that executes other programs. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The Intel 8051 is a microcontroller developed by Intel in 1980 for use in embedded products and still (2003) one of the most popular microcontrollers. ... Zilog, often seen as ZiLOG, is a manufacturer of 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit CPUs, and is most famous for its Intel 8080-compatible Z80 series. ... The Zilog Z8 is a family of microcontrollers from Zilog with on-chip RAM and (optional) ROM. Note that the Z8 is not related to the Zilog Z80, it uses a totally different architecture and instruction set. ... BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of high-level programming languages. ... The BASIC Stamp is a microcontroller with a small, specialized BASIC interpreter (PBASIC) built into ROM. It is made by Parallax, Inc. ...


Some microcontrollers such as Analog Device's Blackfin processors can be programmed using LabVIEW, which is a high level programming language. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... LabVIEW (short for Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench) is a platform and development environment for a visual programming language from National Instruments. ...


Interrupt Latency

In contrast to general-purpose computers, microcontrollers used in embedded systems often seek to minimize interrupt latency over instruction throughput. Interrupt latency is the time between the generation of an interrupt by a device and the servicing of the device which generated the interrupt. ...


When an electronic device causes an interrupt, the intermediate results, the registers, have to be saved before the software responsible for handling the interrupt can run, and then must be put back after it is finished. If there are more registers, this saving and restoring process takes more time, increasing the latency.


Low-latency CPUs generally have relatively few registers in their central processing units, or they have "shadow registers" that are only used by the interrupt software.


History

First microcontroller was Intel 8048 released in 1976. The Intel 8048 microcontroller (µC), Intels first µC, was used in the Magnavox Odyssey² video game console, the Roland Jupiter-4 and Roland ProMars analog synthesizers, and (in its 8042 variant) in the original IBM PC keyboard. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Development platforms for hobbyists

For almost every manufacturer of bare microcontrollers, there are a dozen little companies repacking its products into more hobbyist-friendly packages. Their product is often an MCU preloaded with a BASIC or similar interpreter, soldered onto a Dual Inline Pin board along with a power regulator and other goodies. PICmicros seem to be very popular here, possibly due to good static protection. More powerful examples (e.g. faster execution, more RAM and code space) seem to be based on Atmel AVR or Hitachi chips and now ARM. Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_important. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOV Wikipedia policy is that all articles should be written from a neutral point of view. ... Shortcut: WP:RULES Wikipedia is a collaborative project and its founders and contributors have a common goal: Wikipedia has some policies and guidelines that help us to work toward that common goal. ... PIC microcontrollers in DIP and QFN packages PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1650 originally developed by General Instruments Microelectronics Division. ...


Arduino

Arduino is an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple input/output board and a development environment that implements the Processing/Wiring language. Arduino can be used to develop stand-alone interactive objects or can be connected to software on your computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, MaxMSP). The boards can be assembled by hand or purchased preassembled; the open-source IDE can be downloaded for free. Arduino uses an ATmega8 or ATmega168 microcontroller from Atmel's Atmel AVR series. Arduino is an open source hardware physical computing platform based on a simple I/O board and a development environment that implements the Processing/Wiring language. ... Physical computing in the broadest sense means building interactive physical systems by the use of software and hardware that can sense and respond to the analog world. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The AVR®s are a family of RISC microcontrollers from Atmel. ...


Platforms from Parallax, Inc.

BASIC Stamp by Parallax, is the 'big name' in BASIC microcontrollers.[citation needed] They are Microchip PIC micros programmed with an interpreter that processes the program stored in an external EEPROM. Several different modules are available of varying processing speeds, RAM, and EEPROM sizes. Most popular is the original BASIC Stamp 2 module. The BASIC Stamp is used by Parallax as a platform for introductory programming and robotic kits. The BASIC Stamp is a microcontroller with a small, specialized BASIC interpreter (PBASIC) built into ROM. It is made by Parallax, Inc. ... Parallax, Inc. ...


SX-Key, Parallax's development tool for the SX line of microcontrollers, supporting every SX chip commercially available. Using free SX-Key software (Assembly language), or the SX/B Compiler (BASIC-style language) from Parallax, the SX-Key programming tool can program SX chips in-system and perform in-circuit source-level debugging. The Sx-Key is produced by Parallax and used to program the SX Microcontroller and then debug it. ...


Propeller, A multi-core microcontroller developed by Parallax, Inc. It features eight 32bit cores and 32 I/O pins in the currently released version. Each core operates independently at 80Mhz, it is programmed in a language named SPIN(tm) which was developed by Parallax to support this unique micro. The Parallax Propeller, or P8X32 as this is its official designator, is a multiprocessor microcontroller with eight 32bit RISC CPU cores. ... Spin is a multitasking object oriented high level programming language created by Parallax, Inc. ...


PICAXE

This PICAXE range of controllers from Revolution Education Limited[1] are based upon Microchip PICmicro's programmed with a BASIC interpreter. Using internal EEPROM or Flash to store the user's program they deliver a single-chip solution and are quite inexpensive. A PICAXE programmer is simply a serial plug plus two resistors. Complete development software, comprehensive documentation and application notes are all available free of charge. PICAXE is the name of a UK-sourced microcontroller system based on a range of Microchip PICs. ...


The BASIC-like programming language is almost identical to that used by Parallax's Basic Stamp 1 (BS1) but has been enhanced to support on-chip hardware and additional functionality. In common with the BS1 programming language, the PICAXE has support only for a limited number of variables, but allows access to internal RAM for storage which helps overcome that limitation.


The 5.0.X versions of the Visual IDE ( the Programming Editor ) introduced 'enhanced compilers' which support block-structured programming constructs plus conditional compilation and other directives. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Initially targeted at the UK educational sector, use of the PICAXE has spread to hobbyists, semi-professionals and it can also be found inside commercial products. With its user base in many countries, the PICAXE has steadily gained a good international reputation.


A-WIT Technologies, Inc.

A-WIT Technologies, Inc.[2] has a microcontroller module named the C STAMP, along with support boards, kits, and software tools and infrastructure. The C STAMP is designed around a PIC microcontroller, and is programmed in a very user friendly subset of the standard C language called WC that is easy and powerful, because it relies on A-WIT's supplied software infrastructure. This microcontroller module is very affordable, and it has 48 pins, 35 KiB of memory, and runs at 40 MHz. The C STAMP also has a vast array of accessories and components, which are supported by A-WIT's software interfaces that enables seamless connectivity. This, in turn, enhances the ease of complete system development. According to the International Electrotechnical Commission a kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage. ...


Comfile Technology Inc.

Comfile Technology Inc.[3] produces a series of microcontrollers branded as CUBLOC and CuTOUCH, using the Atmel ATmega128 processor. They are very price competitive, being aimed at industrial applications, and include features such as Ladder Logic in addition to BASIC, a 80 kB program memory, and hardware pulse width modulation. Their focus is on developing industrial controllers which are fast, easy-to-use, and versatile. Comfile Technology's CuTOUCH is a visual Touch-screen controller that can be programmed in BASIC and Ladder Logic. The AVR®s are a family of RISC microcontrollers from Atmel. ...


Coridium ARMexpress

ARMexpress[4] is the first of a new family of DIP-24 (stamp-sized) controllers that combine a 60 MHz ARM CPU with a builtin BASIC compiler to achieve new levels of performance in this form factor. This combination makes this simple to use but very fast controller a good choice for the prototype builder or system integrator. 40K of code and 40K of data are available to the user, and code speed rivals that of programs written in C. The dialect of BASIC conforms more to Visual BASIC, but has hardware extensions like PBASIC.


ZX-24, ZX-40, ZX-44

The ZX series[5] MCUs are based on the Atmel ATmega32 and ATmega644 processors. The devices run a field-upgradable Virtual Machine that features built-in multi-tasking, 32-bit floating point math and 1.5K to 3.5K of RAM for user's programs. Multi-tasking facilitates a more structured approach to coding for interface devices that require prompt service, e.g. serial devices, infrared remotes, etc. The AVR®s are a family of RISC microcontrollers from Atmel. ... The AVR®s are a family of RISC microcontrollers from Atmel. ...


The programming language for the ZX series is ZBasic, a modern dialect of Basic modeled after Microsoft's Visual Basic. The biggest improvement over the typical MCU Basic dialect is the availability of parameterized subroutines/functions that support local variables. Strong type checking is another improvement that aids in writing correct programs more quickly. User-defined types (structures) are also supported along with aliases, based variables, sub-byte data types (Bit and Nibble) and other advanced capabilities.


Notes

  1. ^ Revolution Education Limited
  2. ^ A-WIT Technologies, Inc.
  3. ^ Comfile Technology Inc.
  4. ^ ARMexpress
  5. ^ Official ZBasic and ZX website

See also

It has been suggested that Embedded System Design in an FPGA be merged into this article or section. ... Microarchitecture consists of a set of microprocessor design techniques used to implement the instruction set (including microcode, pipelining, cache systems, etc. ... An in-circuit emulator (ICE) also called on-circuit debugger (OCD) or background debug module (BDM) is a hardware device used to debug the software of an embedded system. ... This is a list of common microcontrollers listed by brand. ... Microbotics (or micro robotics) is the field of miniature robotics, in particular mobile robots with characteristic dimensions less than 1 mm. ... Contiki is a small, open source, highly portable, multitasking computer operating system developed for use on a number of memory-constrained networked systems ranging from 8-bit computers to embedded systems on microcontrollers, including sensor network motes. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ...

External links

  • Michael Barr's Embedded Systems Glossary
  • Embedded Systems Design magazine
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6. ... Microarchitecture consists of a set of microprocessor design techniques used to implement the instruction set (including microcode, pipelining, cache systems, etc. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a microprocessor instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can execute several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. ... Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) is a computing paradigm that began to be researched in the 1990s. ... A Very Long Instruction Word or VLIW CPU architecture implements a form of instruction level parallelism. ... Simple superscalar pipeline. ... In computer engineering, out-of-order execution, OoOE, is a paradigm used in most high-performance microprocessors in order to make use of cycles that would otherwise be wasted by a certain type of costly delay. ... In computer science, speculative execution is the execution of code whose result may not actually be needed. ... Multithreading computers have hardware support to efficiently execute multiple threads. ... Multiprocessing is traditionally known as the use of multiple concurrent processes in a system as opposed to a single process at any one instant. ... The arithmetic logic unit/arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) of a computers CPU is a part of the execution unit, a core component of all CPUs. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... A vector processor, or array processor, is a CPU design that is able to run mathematical operations on multiple data elements simultaneously. ... -1... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to commonly used values—typically, the values being in the midst of a calculation at a given point in time. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An Altera Stratix II GX FPGA. A field-programmable gate array is a semiconductor device containing programmable logic components called logic blocks, and programmable interconnects. ... A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. ... System-on-a-chip (SoC or SOC) is an idea of integrating all components of a computer system into a single chip. ...

External links

Microcontroller at the Open Directory Project The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...


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