FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Microcontinent
 Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent
Enlarge
Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent

A continent (Latin continere, "to hold together") is a large continuous land mass. There are several conceptions of what a continent is, geographic, geologic, and tectonic. Description This is an unfolded dymaxion map, unfolded to show the land-masses of the world as nearly continuous. ... Description This is an unfolded dymaxion map, unfolded to show the land-masses of the world as nearly continuous. ... The Dymaxion Map of the Earth is a projection of a global map onto the surface of a three-dimensional regular solid, which can then be unfolded to a net in many different ways and flattened to form a two-dimensional map which retains most of the relative proportional integrity... In the US postage stamp commemorating Buckminster Fuller and his contributions to architecture and science, some of his inventions are visible. ... Latin is an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... A landmass is a large extent of land. ... Geographers not only investigate what is where on Earth but also why it is there and not somewhere else. ... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... Plate tectonics (from the Greek word for one who constructs, τεκτων, tekton) is a theory of geology developed to explain the phenomenon of continental drift, and is currently the theory accepted by the vast majority of scientists working in this area. ...

Contents


Geographic continents

Because geography is defined by local convention, there are several conceptions as to which landmasses qualify as continents. There are names for six, but America is often divided, and Europe is often united with Asia. Ignoring cases where Antarctica is omitted, there are half a dozen lists. With the continents ordered by size, and areas in sq km in (brackets), they are:

  • 7 continents: Asia (49,700,000), Africa (30,250,000), North America (24,230,000), South America (17,820,000), Antarctica (13,200,000), Europe (10,600,000), and Australia (8,500,000, including New Guinea).
  • 6 continents: Asia, America (42,050,000), Africa, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.
  • 6 continents: Eurasia (60,300,000), Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, and Australia.
  • 5 continents: Eurasia, America, Africa, Antarctica, and Australia.
  • 5 continents: Laurasia (84,500,000), Africa, South America, Antarctica, and Australia.
  • 4 continents: Afrasia (90,500,000), America, Antarctica, and Australia.

The 7-continent model is usually taught in Western Europe, the United States, Australia, and much of Asia. In Canada, the government-approved Atlas of Canada names 7 continents and teaches Oceania instead of Australia, however most schools view North and South America as subcontinents, as well as Europe and Asia, hence most Canadians consider there to be 5 continents. The 6-continent combined-America model is taught in Japan, Iran, and Latin America. The 6-continent Eurasia model is preferred by the scientific community, and as such is commonly found in all parts of the world, but is especially used in Russia and other countries of Eastern Europe. Historians may use the 5-continent Laurasian model (Jared Diamond) or the 4-continent Afrasian model (Andre Gunder Frank). World map showing location of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of Eurasia, defined by subtracting Europe from Eurasia. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day... World map showing North America (geographically) A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere, bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... Map of America (as it was then called) by Jonghe, c. ... African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of the continents of Europe and Asia. ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that broke off from the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... The supercontinent of Africa-Eurasia (or Afro-Eurasia) is the worlds largest land mass and contains around 85% of the human population. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... Map of Oceania. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American author, evolutionary biologist, physiologist, and biogeographer. ... Andre Gunder Frank Andre Gunder Frank, one of the founders of the Dependency theory in the 1960’s, was born in Berlin on February 24, 1929. ...


In its original sense, "continent" meant (and still means) mainland. In the Greco-Roman world, there was but one known, the Continent, which we today call the Old World. In the mid 1600s Peter Heylin wrote in his Cosmographie that "A Continent is a great quantity of Land, not separated by any Sea from the rest of the World, as the whole Continent of Europe, Asia, Africa." As late as 1727 Ephraim Chambers wrote in his Cyclopædia, "The world is ordinarily divided into two grand continents: the old and the new." However, since Classical times this Continent was divided into "peninsulas" which also came to be called continents, since they were great land masses themselves. Through the Middle Ages, there were three such continents in the Western conception: Europe, Africa, and Asia. The European discovery of America in 1492 made four; and Australia in 1606 would make five, though not right away: as late as 1813 geographers wrote of Australia as "New Holland, an immense Island, which some geographers dignify with the appellation of another continent". However, dividing America in two was commonplace by this time, and would also produce a fifth continent. The idea of the Five Continents is still strong in Europe and Asia, and is represented by the five rings on the Olympic flag, though it is now considered somewhat archaic. The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus: Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia) and the surrounding islands. ... ... Events June 11 - George, Prince of Wales becomes King George II of Great Britain. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Events January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Olympic Games, or Olympics, is an international multi-sport event taking place every two years and alternating between Summer and Winter Games. ...


Antarctica was sighted in 1820, for the sixth and last continent to be given a separate name, though a great "antarctic" (antipodean) landmass had been anticipated for millennia. Dividing the Americas (which is as reasonable geographically as dividing Africa from Eurasia) now made seven continents, nicely symmetrical with the magical number of the Seven Seas, Seven Heavens, and the seven heavenly bodies that gave their names to the seven days of the week. However, this division never appealed to Latin America, which saw itself spanning America as a single landmass, and there the conception of six continents remains, as it does in scattered other countries such as Japan. From a modern perspective, the continent with the least reason for separate recognition is Europe, and in scientific circles people generally prefer to subsume Europe and Asia into Eurasia. This appealed to Russia, which spans Eurasia, and in Russia and (at least formerly) in Eastern Europe, Eurasia is or was taught as being one of six continents. 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The canonical Seven Seas Medieval European and Arabian literature often spoke of the Seven Seas. ... In English the days of the week are: Sunday; Monday; Tuesday; Wednesday; Thursday; Friday; Saturday. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Geographers and historians often find it useful to define larger land masses connected by land bridges: Land bridge is essentially a historical term; it refers to dry land exposed during periods of low sea level (see regression), connecting what are now separate continents or islands. ...

  1. Afrasia (or Eurafrasia): the combined land mass of Africa and Eurasia;
  2. America (or the Americas): the combined land mass of North America and South America;
  3. Laurasia: the combined land mass of Eurasia and North America, which were connected by Beringia during the Ice Age;
  4. Sahul: the combined land mass of Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania during the Ice Age.

That is, during the last Ice Age, there were three large landmasses: Afrasia+America (which has no name), Sahul, and Antarctica. These larger land masses are usually considered supercontinents rather than continents, however. The supercontinent of Africa-Eurasia (or Afro-Eurasia) is the worlds largest land mass and contains around 85% of the human population. ... Map of America (as it was then called) by Jonghe, c. ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that broke off from the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1600 km (1000 miles) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times during the ice ages. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Australia-New Guinea, also called Sahul or Meganesia, is made up of the continent of Australia and the islands of New Guinea and Tasmania. ... In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ...


In the last century it has also become conventional to subdivide Eurasia into the regions of Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. America is often divided into the regions of North America, Central America, and South America. Continents are also sometimes subdivided into subcontinents that are isolated by geological features. The prototype of this is the Indian subcontinent. World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... World map showing location of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of Eurasia, defined by subtracting Europe from Eurasia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Central America is the region of North America located between the southern border of Mexico and the northwest border of Colombia, in South America. ... Subcontinent - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Composite satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia. ...


Islands are usually considered to belong geographically to the continent they are closest to. The Coral Sea and South Pacific islands may be associated with Australia/Australasia to form the "continent" of Oceania (though the Pacific islands without Australia are also called Oceania). The British Isles have always been considered part of Europe, and Greenland is considered part of North America. Australasia Australasia is the area that includes Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and the many smaller islands in the vicinity, most of which are the eastern part of Indonesia. ... Map of Oceania. ... The British Isles consist of Great Britain, Ireland and a number of much smaller surrounding islands. ...


When the Continent is referred to without clarification by a speaker of British English, it is usually presumed to mean Continental Europe, that is Europe, explicitly excluding Great Britain and Ireland. The Continental United States excludes Hawaii. Contiguous or Co(n)terminous United States means the United States without Alaska or Hawaii (the "Lower 48"), but it is very common for people to say continental for contiguous. British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate the form of the written English language in the United Kingdom from other forms of the English language. ... Continental Europe refers to the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ... The continental United States refers (except sometimes in U.S. federal law and regulations) to the largest part of the U.S. that is delimited by a continuous border. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle (R) Senators Daniel Inouye (D) Daniel Akaka (D) Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ...


See also List of countries by continent, Satellite Images of Continents. This is a list of the countries of the world by continent and their capitals. ... Each continent is (partially) shown here as seen from a satellite. ...


Geologic continents

Geologically, the surface of Earth consists of many tectonic plates, consisting of rigid lithospheric mantle and crust moving together over the much less viscous asthenosphere. Continental crust is primarily granitic in composition, overlain by sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Much of the continental crust extends above sea level as dry land. Oceanic crust is basaltic in composition, and much thinner than continental crust, thus generally lying below sea level. Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... Earth, also known as the Earth, Terra, and (mostly in the 19th century) Tellus, is the third-closest planet to the Sun. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... The lithosphere (from the Greek for rocky sphere) is the solid outermost shell of a rocky planet. ... The asthenosphere (from an invented Greek a + sthenos without strength) is the region of the Earth between 100-200 km below the surface—but perhaps extending as deep as 400 km—that is is the weak or soft zone in the upper mantle. ... Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Metamorphic rock is the result of the transformation of a pre-existing rock type, the protolith, in a process called metamorphism, which means change in form (from the Greek words meta, change, and morphe, form). The protolith is subjected to extreme heat (greater than 150 degrees Celsius) and pressure causing... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Basalt Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock, sometimes porphyritic, and is often both fine-grained and dense. ...


Although from a human perspective shallow inland seas such as the Bering Sea appear to divide up land masses into continents, such ephemeral features do not define continents geologically. For instance, many times over the past few million years, the continents of Eurasia and America were connected by dry land. A geologic continent, therefore, is a continuous piece of continental crust, whether wet or dry at a particular time. As such, Laurasia and Africa-Arabia are one continent, which for the past three million years has also been linked to South America. This world-spanning land mass has no name except for the Classical meaning of "The Continent". The other large geologic continents are Sahul and Antarctica, but there are many so-called microcontinents as well: Madagascar, the Seychelles (the northern Mascarene Plateau), New Zealand, New Caledonia, etc., which are splinters of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana. Note that volcanic Iceland is an exposed bit of oceanic crust at the mid-ocean ridge, and therefore not a microcontinent. Likewise, the British Isles, Sri Lanka, Borneo, and Newfoundland are integral parts of the Laurasian continent which happen to be separated by shallow (and temporary) inland seas flooding its margins. The Bering Sea or Imarpik Sea is a body of water in the far northern Pacific Ocean covering over two million square kilometres. ... The Arabian Plate is a continental tectonic plate covering the Arabian peninsula and extending northward to Turkey. ... The Mascarene Plateau is an undersea plateau in the Indian Ocean, north and east of Madagascar. ... Pangea broke into the two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The southern supercontinent Gondwana (originally Gondwanaland) included most of the landmasses which make up todays continents of the southern hemisphere, including Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, Arabia, Australia-New Guinea and New Zealand. ... A mid-ocean ridge or mid-oceanic ridge is an uplifting of the ocean floor that occurs when convection currents beneath the ocean bed force magma up where two tectonic plates meet at a divergent boundary. ... The British Isles consist of Great Britain, Ireland and a number of much smaller surrounding islands. ... Borneo (politically divided between Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei) is the third largest island in the world. ... Newfoundland (French: Terre-Neuve; Irish: Talamh an Éisc; Latin: Terra Nova) Newfoundland (originally, Terra Nova) was very likely named by the english John Cabot in 1497, which would make it the oldest European name in North America. ...


Tectonic plates

During the 20th century, it became accepted by geologists that continents move location on the face of the planet over the geologic timescale, a process known as continental drift, explained by the theory of plate tectonics. It is the tectonic plates that have drifted, broken apart and joined together over time to give rise to the continents we now recognize. Consequently, in the geological past and prior to the present continents, other continents existed - see Category:Historical continents. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. ... Portrayal of shifting continents The concept of continental drift was first proposed by Alfred Wegener. ... Plate tectonics (from the Greek word for one who constructs, τεκτων, tekton) is a theory of geology developed to explain the phenomenon of continental drift, and is currently the theory accepted by the vast majority of scientists working in this area. ...


Sometimes the continents are considered to be divided by tectonic plates, so that Arabia on the Arabian plate, India on the Indian plate, Central America on the Caribbean plate, and California on the Pacific plate might be considered continents. The Arabian Plate is a continental tectonic plate covering the Arabian peninsula and extending northward to Turkey. ... The India or Indian Plate is a minor tectonic plate. ... Detail of the Cocos and Caribbean plates from: [Image:Plate tectonics map. ... The Pacific plate is shown in pale yellow on this map The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ...


See also

Commons:Category
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
ISAES 2001 Abstracts (440 words)
The South Orkney Microcontinent is the biggest (250 x 350 km) lithospheric fragment of the South Scotia Ridge between Antarctica and the Scotia Plate, representing a remnant of the original link connecting South America with the Antarctic Peninsula.
Distribution of crustal deformation exhibits strain partitioning with a thrust zone that accommodates convergent motion in the oceanic area and the vertical strike-slip zones that accommodate the transcurrent motion at the border of the steep escarpment of the northern margin of the microcontinent.
According to Braun and Beaumont (1995), the strain partitioning in thrust and strike-slip faults corresponds to an obliquely convergent plate boundary dominated by a transcurrent condition.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m