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Encyclopedia > Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
'Caravaggio' re-directs here; for alternate uses see Caravaggio (disambiguation)

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610), often short Caravaggio after his hometown, was an Italian Baroque painter, whose large religious works portrayed saints and other biblical figures as ordinary people.

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Supper at Emmaus, painted 1601.

Though these paintings were controversial in the church, the wealthy purchased them for their drama, their spectacular technical accomplishment, their startling originality, and even their brazen homoeroticism. In his private life he is notorious for adventures with both men and women. He cruises the taverns and often has mix-ups with the police. Finally, in 1606 he is accused of murder and flees to Rome, where he dies of a fever before a pardon from the pope can reach him.

Contents

The Caravaggisti

"The painters then in Rome were greatly taken by this novelty, and the young ones particularly gathered around him, praised him as the unique imitator of nature, and looked on his work as miracles. They outdid each other in imitating his works, undressing their models and raising their lights." —Giovanni Pietro Bellori, 1672.
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The Cardsharps, (Kimbell Art Museum)

It would be hard to overestimate the impact that Caravaggio's innovations had upon painters of his generation and the generations that followed. His gritty realism, his choice of models, his theatrical lighting, his "night paintings" the rich passages of still life, his eye for color


A short list of artists who owe much to his stylistic breakthroughs would have to include Orazio Gentileschi and his daughter Artemisia, Georges de La Tour, Ribera.

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Hunting headlice by candlelight, by the Utrecht artist Andries Both (ca.1612-1641), about 1630: candlelit realism and peasant models. The work picks up the homoerotic insinuations of Caravaggio and raises them to the level of savage sarcasm, showing the young man with an inexplicably bared rear, and an old peasant behind him, his hands raised in a parody of prayer.

A group of Catholic artists from Utrecht, the "Utrecht Caravaggisti" travelled to Rome as students in the first years of the 17th century and were profoundly influenced by the work of Caravaggio, as Bellori describes. On their return to the north this trend had a short-lived but intense development in the 1620s among painters like Hendrick ter Brugghen, Gerrit van Honthorst Andries Both (illustration, left) and Dirck van Baburen. In the following generation less intense effects of Caravaggio can be traced even in Rubens, Vermeer, Rembrandt, and Velazquez, who likely saw his work during his various sojourns in Italy.


In modern times, contemporary painters like the Norwegian Odd Nerdrum and the Romanian Tibor Csernus make no secret of their attempts to emulate and update his work. Perhaps no single artist in the entire Western canon, outside of Giotto and Massacio, had so much influence beyond his time.


Major works

  • (1594) The Cardsharps [1] (http://www.art.unt.edu/ntieva/artcurr/alsp/caravagg.htm)
  • (1601) Supper at Emmaus [2] (http://www.artprints-on-demand.co.uk/noframes/caravaggio/supper_emmaus.htm)
  • (1603) Amor Victorious [3] (http://gallery.euroweb.hu/html/c/caravagg/06/36amor_v.html)
  • (1607) Flagellation of Christ [4] (http://www.abcgallery.com/C/caravaggio/caravaggio44.html)
  • (1607) Seven Acts of Mercy [5] (http://gallery.euroweb.hu/html/c/caravagg/09/53mercy.html)
  • (1609) Adoration of the Shepherds [6] (http://gallery.euroweb.hu/html/c/caravagg/11/67sheph.html)

From the French - to be integrated

  • Nature morte avec fleurs et fruits (1590) - Huile sur toile, 105 x 184 cm - Galleria Borghese, Rome
  • Garçon pelant un fruit (vers 1593) - Huile sur toile, 75.5 x 64.4 cm - Longhi Collection, Rome
  • Garçon avec un panier de fruits (1593) - Huile sur toile, 70 x 67 cm - Galleria Borghese, Rome
  • Le jeune Bacchus malade (vers 1593) - Huile sur toile, 67 x 53 cm - Galleria Borghese, Rome
  • Garçon mordu par un Lézard (1594) - Huile sur toile, 66 x 49.5 cm - National Gallery, Londres
  • L'extase de Saint François (1595) - Huile sur toile, 92.5 x 128.4 cm - Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford
  • Les Musiciens (1595 - 1596) - Huile sur toile, 92 x 118.5 cm - Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • Bacchus (vers 1596) - Huile sur toile, 95 x 85 cm - Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  • Les joueurs de cartes (1596) - Huile sur toile, 90 x 112 cm - Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth
  • Le joueur de luth (vers 1596) - Huile sur toile, 94 x 119 cm - Hermitage, Saint-Pétersbourg
  • La diseuse de bonne aventure (1596) - Huile sur toile, 115 x 150 cm - Musei Capitolini, Rome
  • Le repos pendant la fuite en Égypte (1596 - 1597) - Huile sur toile, 133.5 x 166.5 cm - Galleria Doria-Pamphili, Rome
  • Sainte Madeleine (1596 - 1597) - Huile sur toile, 122.5 x 98.5 cm - Galleria Doria-Pamphili, Rome
  • La diseuse de bonne aventure (1596 - 1597) - Huile sur toile, 99 x 131 cm - Musée du Louvre, Paris
  • Panier de fruits (vers 1597) - Huile sur toile, 46 x 64 cm - Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan
  • Portrait d'une Courtisane (vers 1598) - Huile sur toile, 66 x 53 cm - Collection privée
  • Judith décapitant Holopherne (vers 1598) - Huile sur toile, 145 x 195 cm - Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome
  • L'arrestation du Christ (vers 1598) - Huile sur toile, 133.5 x 169.5 cm - National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin
  • Marthe et Marie Madeleine (vers 1598) - Huile sur toile, 97.8 x 132.7 cm - Institute of Arts, Detroit
  • Sainte Catherine d'Alexandrie (vers 1598) - Huile sur toile, 173 x 133 cm - Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid
  • Tête de Méduse (1598 - 1599) - Huile sur toile monté sur bois, 60 x 55 cm - Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  • Narcisse (1598 - 1599) - Huile sur toile, 110 x 92 cm - Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome
  • Jupiter, Neptune et Pluton (1597 - 1600) - Fresque au plafond, huile, 300 x 180 cm - Casino Boncompagni Ludovisi, Rome
  • Portrait de Maffeo Barberini (1599) - Huile sur toile, 124 x 99 cm - Collection privée
  • La Vocation de Saint Matthieu (1599 - 1600) - Huile sur toile, 323 x 343 cm - Chapelle Contarelli, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome
  • Le martyre de Saint Mathieu (1599 - 1600) - Huile sur toile, 323 x 343 cm - Chapelle Contarelli, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome
  • Le joueur de luth (vers 1600) - Huile sur toile, 100 x 126.5 cm - Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
  • La conversion de Saint Paul (1600) - Huile sur bois de cyprès, 237 x 189 cm - Odescalchi Balbi Collection, Rome
  • La Conversion de Saint Paul sur le chemin de Damas (1600) - Huile sur toile, 230 x 175 cm - Chapelle Cerasi, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome
  • Le jeune Saint Jean-Baptiste au Bélier (1600) - Huile sur toile, 129 x 94 cm - Musei Capitolini, Rome
  • David (1600) - Huile sur toile, 110 x 91 cm - Museo del Prado, Madrid
  • La crucifiction de Saint Pierre (1600) - Huile sur toile, 230 x 175 cm - Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome
  • Le Sacrifice d'Isaac (1601 - 1602) - Huile sur toile, 104 x 135 cm - Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  • Le souper à Emmaüs (1601 - 1602) - Huile sur toile, 139 x 195 cm - National Gallery, Londres
  • L'incrédulité de Saint Thomas (1601 - 1602) - Huile sur toile, 107 x 146 cm - Sanssouci, Potsdam
  • Saint Matthieu et l'ange (1602) - Huile sur toile, 232 x 183 cm - Détruite
  • L'inspiration de Saint Matthieu (1602) - Huile sur toile, 292 x 186 cm - Chapelle Contarelli, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome
  • Le couronnement d'épines (1602 - 1603) - Huile sur toile, 125 x 178 cm - Cassa di Risparmi, Prato
  • L'amour Victorieux (1602 - 1603) - Huile sur toile, 156 x 113 cm - Staatliche Museen, Berlin
  • La mise au tombeau (1602 - 1603) - Huile sur toile, 300 x 203 cm - Pinacoteca, Vatican
  • Le Christ au Jardin (1603) - Huile sur toile, 154 x 222 cm - Collection privée
  • Saint Jean-Baptiste (1603 - 1604) - Huile sur toile, 94 x 131 cm - Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome
  • Saint Jean-Baptiste (1604) - Huile sur toile, 172.5 x 104.5 cm - Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City
  • La Madonne des pèlerins (1603 - 1605) - Huile sur toile, 260 x 150 cm - S. Agostino, Rome
  • Le Sacrifice d'Isaac (1605) - Huile sur toile, 116 x 173 cm - Piasecka-Johnson Collection, Princeton
  • Saint Jérome (vers 1606) - Huile sur toile, 112 x 157 cm - Galleria Borghese, Rome
  • Ecce Homo (vers 1606) - Huile sur toile, 128 x 103 cm - Palazzo Rosso, Gênes
  • Saint François (1606) - Huile sur toile, 125 x 93 cm - Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome
  • Saint François (1606) - Huile sur toile, 190 x 130 cm - Pinacoteca, Cremona
  • La mort de la Vierge (1606) - Huile sur toile, 369 x 245 cm - Musée du Louvre, Paris
  • La Madonne au Serpent (1606) - Huile sur toile, 292 x 211 cm - Galleria Borghese, Rome
  • Le Souper à Emaüs (1606) - Huile sur toile, 141 x 175 cm - Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan
  • Le Christ à la colonne (vers 1607) - Huile sur toile, 134.5 x 175.5 cm - Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen
  • La flagellation (vers 1607) - Huile sur toile, 390 x 260 cm - Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples
  • Saint Jerome (1605 - 1606) - Huile sur toile, 118 x 81 cm - Monastère de Montserrat
  • David (1606 - 1607) - Huile sur bois, 90.5 x 116 cm - Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne
  • Salomé avec la tête de Saint Jean Baptiste (vers 1607) - Huile sur toile, 90.5 x 167 cm - National Gallery, Londres
  • La crucification de Saint André (1607) - Huile sur toile, 202.5 x 152.7 cm - Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland
  • Les sept actes de miséricorde (1607) - Huile sur toile, 390 x 260 cm - Église Pio Monte della Misericordia, Naples
  • La Madonne du rosaire (1607) - Huile sur toile, 364.5 x 249.5 cm - Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne
  • Saint Jérome (1607) - Huile sur toile, 117 x 157 cm - Saint John Museum, La Valette
  • Saint Jean-Baptiste à la fontaine (1607 - 1608) - Huile sur toile, 100 x 73 cm - Collezione Bonello, Malte
  • Portrait d'Alof de Wignacourt (1607 - 1608) - Huile sur toile, 195 x 134 cm - Musée du Louvre, Paris
  • Portrait d'Alof de Wignacourt (1608) - Huile sur toile, 118.5 x 95.5 cm - Galleria Palatina (Palazzo Pitti), Florence
  • La décapitation de Saint Jean Baptiste (1608) - Huile sur toile, 361 x 520 cm - Saint John Museum, La Valette
  • L'enterrement de Sainte Lucy (1608) - Huile sur toile, 408 x 300 cm - Santa Lucia, Syracuse
  • L'Amour endormi (1608) - Huile sur toile, 71 x 105 cm - Galleria Palatina (Palazzo Pitti), Florence
  • L'arracheur de dents (1607 - 1609) - Huile sur toile, 139.5 x 194.5 cm - Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  • La résurrection de Lazarre (1608-1609) - Huile sur toile, 380 x 275 cm - Museo Nazionale, Messine
  • L'Annonciation (1608 - 1609) - Huile sur toile, 285 x 205 cm - Musée des Beaux-Arts, Nancy
  • La Nativité avec Saint François et Saint Laurent (1609) - Huile sur toile, 268 x 197 cm - Perdue
  • L'adoration des mages (1609) - Huile sur toile, 314 x 211 cm - Museo Nazionale, Messine
  • David (1609) - Huile sur toile, 125 x 101 cm - Galleria Borghese, Rome
  • Salomé avec la tête de Saint Jean Baptiste (1609) - Huile sur toile, 116 x 140 cm - Palazzo Real, Madrid
  • Le reniement de Saint Pierre (1610) - Huile sur toile, 94 x 125 cm - Shickman Gallery, New York
  • Saint Jean-Baptiste (1610) - Huile sur toile, 159 x 124 cm - Galleria Borghese, Rome
  • Le Martyre de Saint Ursule (1610) - Huile sur toile, 154 x 178 cm - Banca Commerciale Italiana, Naples
  • Saint Jean Baptiste (?) - Huile sur toile, 102.5 x 83 cm - Öffentliche Kunstsammlung, Basel
  • Le Couronnement d'épines (?) - Huile sur toile, 165.5 x 127 cm - Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienne

See also

Further reading

External links

  • Caravaggio at Art Renewal Center (http://www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/art.asp?aid=589)
  • Caravaggio at CGFA (http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/caravagg/index.html)
  • Caravaggio, The Prince of the Night (http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Caravage/F/index.html) (in French)
  • Caravaggio in "Agora" (http://agora.qc.ca/mot.nsf/Dossiers/Caravage)
  • Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio WebMuseun, Paris webpage (http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/caravaggio/)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Caravaggio: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (5698 words)
Caravaggio's novelty was a radical naturalism which combined close physical observation with a dramatic, even theatrical, approach to chiaroscuro, the use of light and shadow.
Caravaggio appears to have stayed in the Milan-Caravaggio area after his apprenticeship ended, but it is possible that he visited Venice and saw the works of Giorgione, whom he was later accused of aping, and of Titian.
The replacement altarpiece commissioned (from one of Caravaggio's most able followers, Carlo Saraceni), showed the Virgin not dead, as Caravaggio had painted her, but seated and dying; and even this was rejected, and replaced with a work which showed the Virgin not dying, but ascending into Heaven with choirs of angels.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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