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Encyclopedia > Michel Foucault
Western Philosophy
20th-century philosophy
Michel Foucault in a televised interview.
Name
Michel Foucault
Birth 15 October 1926
Poitiers, France
Death 25 June 1984
Paris, France
School/tradition Continental philosophy
Structuralism · Post-structuralism
Main interests History of ideas · Epistemology
Ethics · Political philosophy
Notable ideas "Power" · "Archaeology"
"Genealogy" · "Episteme"
"Biopower" · "Governmentality"
"Disciplinary institution"
Influenced by Nietzsche, Deleuze, Althusser, Kant, Wittgenstein, Canguilhem, Heidegger, Bataille, Levi-Strauss, Blanchot, Sollers, Bachelard, Hyppolite, Dumézil, Marx, Hegel, Merleau-Ponty, Sartre, Borges
Influenced Giorgio Agamben, Judith Butler, Homi K. Bhabha, Hamid Dabashi, Arnold Davidson, Gilles Deleuze, Hubert Dreyfus, Didier Eribon, Ian Hacking, Guy Hocquenghem, Antonio Negri, Paul Rabinow, Jacques Rancière, Edward Said, Hans Sluga, Michael Taussig, Chuck Palahniuk, Jules Vuillemin

Michel Foucault (pronounced [miʃɛl fu'ko]) (15 October 192625 June 1984) was a French philosopher, historian, critic and sociologist. He held a chair at the Collège de France, giving it the title "History of Systems of Thought," and taught at the University of California, Berkeley. It has been suggested that Contemporary philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Interview (disambiguation). ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... As distinguished from techne, the Greek word episteme (literally: science) is often translated as knowledge. ... Biopower was a term originally coined by French philosopher Michel Foucault to refer to the practice of modern states and their regulation of their subjects through an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugations of bodies and the control of populations. Foucault first used it in his... Disciplinary institutions (French Institution disciplinaire) is a concept proposed by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish (1975). ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ... Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation: altuË¡seʁ) (October 16, 1918 – October 22, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. ... Kant redirects here. ... Wittgenstein redirects here. ... Georges Canguilhem (Castelnaudary, June 4, 1904 – September 11, 1995 in Marly-le-Roi) was a French philosopher who specialized in epistemology and the philosophy of science (in particular, biology). ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Claude L vi-Strauss (born November 28, 1908) is a French anthropologist who became one of the twentieth centurys greatest intellectuals by developing structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture Biography Claude L vi-Strauss was born in Brussels and studied law and philosophy at the... Maurice Blanchot (September 27, 1907-February 20, 2003) was a French philosopher, literary theorist and writer of fiction. ... Philippe Sollers (b. ... Gaston Bachelard (June 27, 1884 – October 16, 1962) was a French philosopher and poet who rose to some of the most prestigious positions in the French academy. ... Jean Hyppolite (Jonzac 1907 - Paris 1968) was a French philosopher known for championing the work of Hegel, and other German philosophers, and educating some of Frances most prominent post-war thinkers. ... Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898 - October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Indo-European religion and society. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Hegel redirects here. ... Maurice Merleau-Ponty (March 14, 1908 – May 4, 1961) was a French phenomenologist philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Borges redirects here. ... Giorgio Agamben (born 1942) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the Università IUAV di Venezia. ... Image:J Butler. ... Homi K. Bhabha (born 1949) is an Indian-American postcolonial theorist. ... Hamid Dabashi (Persian: ) is an Iranian-American historian, cultural and literary critic who has made important contributions to the study of Iran, World cinema and Shia Islam from a postcolonial perspective. ... Arnold I. Davidson Ph. ... Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Hubert Lederer Dreyfus (born October 15, 1929 in Terre Haute, Indiana to Stanley S. and Irene Lederer Dreyfus), is a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Didier Eribon is a French author, a philosopher and a historian of French intellectual life. ... Ian Hacking, CC (born 1936 in Vancouver) is a philosopher, specializing in the philosophy of science. ... Guy Hocquenghem was born in the suburbs of Paris in 1944 and was educated at the Ecole Normale Supérieure. ... Antonio (Toni) Negri (born August 1, 1933) is an Italian Marxist political philosopher. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jacques Rancière (born 1940) is a French philosopher. ... Edward Wadie Saïd, Arabic: , , (1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and Palestinian activist. ... Hans Sluga is Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Charles Michael Chuck Palahniuk (pronounced )[1] (born February 21, 1962) is an American satirical novelist and freelance journalist of Ukrainian ancestry born in Pasco, Washington. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... French philosophy, here taken to mean philosophy in French language, has been extremely diverse, and influential to both the analytic and continental traditions in philosophy for centuries, from René Descartes through Voltaire and Henri Bergson to 20th century Existentialism and Post-structuralism. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... Courtyard of the Collège de France. ... Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ...


Michel Foucault is best known for his critical studies of social institutions, most notably psychiatry, medicine, the human sciences, and the prison system, as well as for his work on the history of human sexuality. Foucault's work on power, and the relationships among power, knowledge, and discourse, has been widely discussed and applied. Sometimes described as postmodernist or post-structuralist, in the 1960s he was more often associated with the structuralist movement. Foucault later distanced himself from structuralism and always rejected the post-structuralist and postmodernist labels. In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... A social institution is any institution in a socity that works to socialize the groups or people in it. ... An MRI scan of a human brain and head. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Foucault was born on 15 October 1926 in Poitiers as Paul-Michel Foucault to a notable provincial family. His father, Paul Foucault, was an eminent surgeon and hoped his son would join him in the profession. His early education was a mix of success and mediocrity until he attended the Jesuit Collège Saint-Stanislas, where he excelled. During this period, Poitiers was part of Vichy France and later came under German occupation. After World War II, Foucault gained entry to the prestigious École Normale Supérieure (rue d'Ulm), the traditional gateway to an academic career in the humanities in France. is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... This article is about the medical specialty. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale Sup, Normale, ENS, ENS-Paris, ENS-Ulm or Ulm) is a prestigious French grande école, possibly the most prestigious. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Humanities (disambiguation). ...


The École Normale Supérieure

Foucault's personal life during the École Normale was difficult—he suffered from acute depression. He was taken to see a psychiatrist. During this time, Foucault became fascinated with psychology. He earned a license (degree) in psychology, a very new qualification in France at the time, in addition to a degree in philosophy, in 1952. He was involved in the clinical arm of psychology, which exposed him to thinkers such as Ludwig Binswanger. On the Threshold of Eternity. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... Ludwig Binswanger (April 13, 1881 – February 5, 1966) was a Swiss psychiatrist and pioneer in the field of existential psychology. ...


Like many 'normaliens' , Foucault joined the French Communist Party from 1950 to 1953. He was inducted into the party by his mentor Louis Althusser. He left due to concerns about what was happening in the Soviet Union under Stalin. Various people, such as historian Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, have reported that Foucault never actively participated in his cell, unlike many of his fellow party members. The École normale supérieure (also known as Normale Sup, Normale, ENS, ENS-Paris, ENS-Ulm or Ulm) is a prestigious French grande école, possibly the most prestigious. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation: altuË¡seʁ) (October 16, 1918 – October 22, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie (born 1929) is a noted French historian whose work is mainly focused upon Languedoc in the ancien regime, focusing on the history of the peasantry. ...


Early career

Foucault failed at the agrégation in 1950 but took it again and succeeded the following year. After a brief period lecturing at the École Normale, he took up a position at the University of Lille, where from 1953 to 1954 he taught psychology. In 1954 Foucault published his first book, Maladie mentale et personnalité, a work which he would later disavow. It soon became apparent that Foucault was not interested in a teaching career, and he undertook a lengthy exile from France. In 1954 Foucault served France as a cultural delegate to the University of Uppsala in Sweden (a position arranged for him by Georges Dumézil, who was to become a friend and mentor). In 1958 Foucault left Uppsala for briefly held positions at Warsaw University and at the University of Hamburg. In France, the agrégation is a civil service competitive examination for some positions in the public education system. ... Lille, a city in France, has two universities: The Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille (USTL) or Université de Lille I The Université du Droit et de la Santé de Lille or Université de Lille II Categories: Disambiguation ... Uppsala University Uppsala University (Swedish Uppsala universitet) is a public university in Uppsala, Sweden. ... Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898 - October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Indo-European religion and society. ... Warsaw University (Polish: ) is one of the largest universities in Poland. ... The University of Hamburg was founded on the 1 April 1919 by Wilhelm Stern and others. ...


Foucault returned to France in 1960 to complete his doctorate and take up a post in philosophy at the University of Clermont-Ferrand. There he met Daniel Defert, with whom he lived in a non-monogamous partnership for the rest of his life. In 1961 he earned his doctorate by submitting two theses (as is customary in France): a "major" thesis entitled Folie et déraison: Histoire de la folie à l'âge classique (Madness and Insanity: History of Madness in the Classical Age) and a 'secondary' thesis which involved a translation of, and commentary on Kant's Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View. Folie et déraison (Madness and Insanity — published in an abridged edition in English as Madness and Civilization and finally published unabridged as "History of Madness" by Routledge in 2006) was extremely well-received. Foucault continued a vigorous publishing schedule. In 1963 he published Naissance de la Clinique (Birth of the Clinic), Raymond Roussel, and a reissue of his 1954 volume (now entitled Maladie mentale et psychologie or, in English, "Mental Illness and Psychology") which he would again disavow. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Clermont-Ferrand is a city of France, in the Auvergne region, with a population of approximately 140,000. ... Daniel Defert is a prominent French AIDS activist and the founding president (1984-1991) of the first AIDS awareness organization in France, Aides. ... Kant redirects here. ... Michel Foucault Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 26, 1984) was a French philosopher and held a chair at the Collège de France, a chair to which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. His writings have had an enormous impact on other scholarly work: Foucault... Raymond Roussel (Paris, January 20, 1877–Palermo, July 14, 1933) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, musician, chess enthusiast, neurasthenic, homosexual, drug addict, and probable suicide. ...


After Defert was posted to Tunisia for his military service, Foucault moved to a position at the University of Tunis in 1965. In 1966 he published Les Mots et les choses (The Order of Things), which was enormously popular despite its length and difficulty. This was during the height of interest in structuralism and Foucault was quickly grouped with scholars such as Jacques Lacan, Claude Lévi-Strauss, and Roland Barthes as the newest, latest wave of thinkers set to topple the existentialism popularized by Jean-Paul Sartre. Foucault made a number of skeptical comments about Marxism, which outraged a number of Left wing critics, but he quickly tired of being labeled a 'structuralist'. He was still in Tunis during the May 1968 student riots, where he was profoundly affected by a local student revolt earlier in the same year. In the fall of 1968 he returned to France, where he published L'archéologie du savoir (The Archaeology of Knowledge) — a methodological response to his critics — in 1969. For military service in the meaning of an army as a military defense organization, see armed forces. ... The Tunis University is a university located in Tunis, Tunisia. ... The Order of Things (Les Mots et les choses) is a book written by Michel Foucault and was published in 1966. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French pronounced ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... This article is about the anthropologist. ... Roland Barthes Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 – March 25, 1980) (pronounced ) was a French literary critic, literary and social theorist, philosopher, and semiotician. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ... The Archaeology of Knowledge (LArchéologie du Savoir) is a book written by Michel Foucault and was published in 1969. ...


Post-1968: Foucault the activist

In the aftermath of 1968, the French government created a new experimental university, Paris VIII, at Vincennes. Foucault became the first head of its philosophy department in December of that year and appointed mostly young leftist academics (such as Judith Miller) whose radicalism provoked the Ministry of Education to withdraw the department's accreditation. Foucault notoriously also joined students in occupying administration buildings and fighting with police. The University of Paris VIII was founded in 1969 as a direct response to events of May 1968. ... This article is about the city in France. ... Judith Miller was prominent for two reasons: Firstly, as the daughter of Jacques Lacan, radical French psychoanalyst, and wife to prominent Lacanian Jacques-Alain Miller. ...


Foucault's tenure at Vincennes was short-lived, as in 1970 he was elected to France's most prestigious academic body, the Collège de France, as Professor of the History of Systems of Thought. His political involvement increased, and his partner Defert joined the ultra-Maoist Gauche Proletarienne (GP). Foucault helped found the Prison Information Group (in French: Groupe d'Information sur les Prisons or GIP) to provide a way for prisoners to voice their concerns. This fed into a marked politicization of Foucault's work, with a book, Surveiller et Punir (Discipline and Punish), which "narrates" the micro-power structures that developed in Western societies since the eighteenth century, with a special focus on prisons and schools. Courtyard of the Collège de France. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛澤東思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), also called Marxism-Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM), is a variant of communism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ... Discipline and Punish (subtitled The Birth of the Prison) is a book written by the philosopher Michel Foucault. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ...


The late Foucault

In the late 1970s, political activism in France tailed off with the disillusionment of many left wing militants. A number of young Maoists abandoned their beliefs to become the so-called New Philosophers, often citing Foucault as their major influence, a status about which Foucault had mixed feelings. Foucault in this period embarked on a six-volume project The History of Sexuality, which he was never to complete. Its first volume, The Will to Knowledge, was published in 1976. The second and third volumes did not appear for another eight years, and they surprised readers by their subject matter (classical Greek and Latin texts), approach and style, particularly Foucault's focus on the subject, a concept he had previously neglected. The New Philosophers (French nouveaux philosophes) were a group of French philosophers (for example, André Glucksmann and Bernard Henri-Lévy) who appeared in the early 1970s, as critics of the previously-fashionable philosophers (roughly speaking, the post-structuralists). ... The History of Sexuality is the title of a three-volume series of books by Michel Foucault written in 1976. ...


Foucault began to spend more time in the United States, at the University at Buffalo (where he had lectured on his first ever visit to the United States in 1970) and especially at UC Berkeley. In 1975 he took LSD at Zabriskie Point in Death Valley National Park, later calling it the best experience of his life.[1] In 1979 Foucault made two tours of Iran, undertaking extensive interviews with political protagonists in support of the new interim government established soon after the Iranian Revolution. His many essays on Iran, published in the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera, only appeared in French in 1994 and then in English in 2005. These essays caused some controversy, with some commentators arguing that Foucault was insufficiently critical of the new regime. State University of New York at Buffalo, commonly known as University at Buffalo (UB) is a coeducational public research university, which has multiple campuses located in Buffalo and Amherst, New York, USA. Offering 84 bachelors, 184 masters and 78 doctoral degrees, it is one of the four comprehensive... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a prestigious, public, coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate and its bridge. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ... This article refers to the natural feature Zabriskie Point in Death Valley National Monument. ... Death Valley National Park is a mostly arid United States National Park located east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in southern Inyo County and northern San Bernardino County in California with a small extension into southwestern Nye County and extreme southern Esmeralda County in Nevada. ... The Interim Government of Iran (1979-1980) was the first government established in Iran after the Islamic Revolution. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ...


Foucault died of an AIDS-related illness in Paris on 25 June 1984. He was the first high profile French personality who was reported to have AIDS. Little was known about the disease at the time[2] and the event was mired in controversy.[3] In the front-page article of Le Monde announcing his death, there was no mention of AIDS, although it was implied that he died from a massive infection. Prior to his death, Foucault had destroyed most of his manuscripts and in his will prohibited the publication of what he might have overlooked.[4] For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ...


Works

Madness and Civilization (1961)

The English edition of Madness and Civilization is an abridged version of Folie et déraison: Histoire de la folie à l'âge classique, originally published in 1961. (A full translation titled The History of Madness has been published by Routledge : ISBN 0-415-27701-9) This was Foucault's first major book, written while he was the Director of the Maison de France in Sweden. It examines ideas, practices, institutions, art and literature relating to madness in Western history. Michel Foucault Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 26, 1984) was a French philosopher and held a chair at the Collège de France, a chair to which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. His writings have had an enormous impact on other scholarly work: Foucault... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


Foucault begins his history in the Middle Ages, noting the social and physical exclusion of lepers. He argues that with the gradual disappearance of leprosy, madness came to occupy this excluded position. The ship of fools in the 15th century is a literary version of one such exclusionary practice, namely that of sending mad people away in ships. In 17th-century Europe, in a movement which Foucault famously describes as the Great Confinement, "unreasonable" members of the population were locked away and institutionalised. In the eighteenth century, madness came to be seen as the reverse of Reason, and, finally, in the nineteenth century as mental illness. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see Tzaraath. ... The ship of fools, depicted in a 1549 German woodcut The ship of fools is an old allegory that has long been used in Western culture in literature and paintings. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ...


Foucault also argues that madness was silenced by Reason, losing its power to signify the limits of social order and to point to the truth. He examines the rise of scientific and "humanitarian" treatments of the insane, notably at the hands of Philippe Pinel and Samuel Tuke. He claims that these new treatments were in fact no less controlling than previous methods. Tuke's country retreat for the mad consisted of punishing the madmen until they learned to act "reasonably". Similarly, Pinel's treatment of the mad amounted to an extended aversion therapy, including such treatments as freezing showers and use of a straitjacket. In Foucault's view, this treatment amounted to repeated brutality until the pattern of judgment and punishment was internalized by the patient. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Samuel Tuke (July 31, 1784 - October 14, 1857), son of Henry Tuke was born at York. ... Aversion therapy is a form of psychiatric or psychological treatment in which the patient is exposed to a stimulus while simultaneously being subjected to some form of discomfort. ... To internalize is to put something inside of borders where it did not originally belong. ...


The Birth of the Clinic

Foucault's second major book, The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception (Naissance de la clinique: une archéologie du regard médical) was published in 1963 in France, and translated to English in 1973. Picking up from Madness and Civilization, The Birth of the Clinic traces the development of the medical profession, and specifically the institution of the clinique (translated as "clinic", but here largely referring to teaching hospitals). Its motif is the concept of the medical regard (a concept which has garnered a lot of attention from English-language readers, due to Alan Sheridan's unusual translation, "medical gaze"). The medical gaze is a term coined by French philosopher and critic, Michel Foucault in his 1976 book, The Birth of the Clinic, to denote the often-dehumanizing method by which medical professionals separate the body from the person (see mind-body dualism). ...


The Order of Things

Main article: The Order of Things

Foucault's Les Mots et les choses. Une archéologie des sciences humaines was published in 1966. It was translated into English and published by Pantheon Books in 1970 under the title The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. Foucault had preferred L'Ordre des Choses for the original French title, but changed the title as there was already another book of this title. The book opens with an extended discussion of Diego Velázquez's painting Las Meninas[5] and its complex arrangement of sight-lines, hiddenness and appearance. Then it develops its central claim: that all periods of history have possessed certain underlying conditions of truth that constituted what was acceptable as, for example, scientific discourse. Foucault argues that these conditions of discourse have changed over time, in major and relatively sudden shifts, from one period's episteme to another. The Order of Things (Les Mots et les choses) is a book written by Michel Foucault and was published in 1966. ... Pantheon Books was an American publishing company that was acquired by Random House in 1961. ... For others named Velázquez, see Velazquez (disambiguation). ... Las Meninas (also known as The Maids of Honour) is a painting by the Spanish artist Diego Velázquez. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... As distinguished from techne, the Greek word episteme (literally: science) is often translated as knowledge. ...


Foucault's critique of Renaissance values in Les mots et les choses has been very influential to cultural history. The various consciousness shifts that he points out in the first chapters of the book have led several scholars to scrutinize the bases for knowledge in our present day as well as critiquing the projection of modern categories of knowledge onto subjects that remain intrinsically unintelligible, in spite of historical knowledge.


The Order of Things brought Foucault to prominence as an intellectual figure in France.


The Archaeology of Knowledge

Published in 1969, this volume was Foucault's main excursion into methodology. He wrote it in order to deal with the reception of Les Mots et les choses. It makes references to Anglo-American analytical philosophy, particularly speech act theory. The Archaeology of Knowledge (LArchéologie du Savoir) is a book written by Michel Foucault and was published in 1969. ... Analytic philosophy is the dominant philosophical movement of English-speaking countries. ... The notion speech act is a technical term in linguistics and the philosophy of language. ...


Foucault directs his analysis toward the "statement", the basic unit of discourse that he believes has been ignored up to this point. "Statement" is the English translation from French énoncé (that which is enunciated or expressed), which has a peculiar meaning for Foucault. "Énoncé" for Foucault means that which makes propositions, utterances, or speech acts meaningful. In this understanding, statements themselves are not propositions, utterances, or speech acts. Rather, statements create a network of rules establishing what is meaningful, and it is these rules that are the preconditions for propositions, utterances, or speech acts to have meaning. Statements are also 'events'. Depending on whether or not they comply with the rules of meaning, a grammatically correct sentence may still lack meaning and inversely, an incorrect sentence may still be meaningful. Statements depend on the conditions in which they emerge and exist within a field of discourse. It is huge collections of statements, called discursive formations, toward which Foucault aims his analysis. It is important to note that Foucault reiterates that the analysis he is outlining is only one possible tactic, and that he is not seeking to displace other ways of analysing discourse or render them as invalid. Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ... An utterance is a complete unit of talk, bounded by silence. ... A speech act is an action performed by means of language, such as describing something (), asking a question (Is it snowing?), making a request or order (Could you pass the salt?, Drop your weapon or Ill shoot you!), or making a promise () For much of the history of linguistics... This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ... An utterance is a complete unit of talk, bounded by silence. ... A speech act is an action performed by means of language, such as describing something (), asking a question (Is it snowing?), making a request or order (Could you pass the salt?, Drop your weapon or Ill shoot you!), or making a promise () For much of the history of linguistics... This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ... An utterance is a complete unit of talk, bounded by silence. ... A speech act is an action performed by means of language, such as describing something (), asking a question (Is it snowing?), making a request or order (Could you pass the salt?, Drop your weapon or Ill shoot you!), or making a promise () For much of the history of linguistics...


According to Dreyfus & Rabinow, Foucault not only brackets out issues of truth[6] (cf. Husserl) he also brackets out issues of meaning. Rather than looking for a deeper meaning underneath discourse or looking for the source of meaning in some transcendental subject, Foucault analyzes the discursive and practical conditions of the existence for truth and meaning. In order to show the principles of meaning and truth production in various discursive formations he details how truth claims emerge during various epochs on the basis of what was actually said and written during these periods of time. He particularly describes the Renaissance, the Age of Enlightenment, and the 20th century. He strives to avoid all interpretation and to depart from the goals of hermeneutics. This does not mean that Foucault denounces truth and meaning, but just that truth and meaning depend on the historical discursive and practical means of truth and meaning production. For instance, although they were radically different during Enlightenment as opposed to Modernity, there were indeed meaning, truth and correct treatment of madness during both epochs (Madness and Civilization). This posture allows Foucault to move away from an anthropological standpoint, denouncing a priori concepts of the nature of the human subject, and focus on the role of discursive practices in constituting subjectivity. Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... Edmund Husserl Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 - April 26, 1938), philosopher, was born into a Jewish family in Prossnitz, Moravia (Prostejov, Czech Republic), Empire of Austria-Hungary. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... Michel Foucault Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 26, 1984) was a French philosopher and held a chair at the Collège de France, a chair to which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. His writings have had an enormous impact on other scholarly work: Foucault... Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος = human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ...


Dispensing with finding a deeper meaning behind discourse would appear to lead Foucault toward structuralism. However, whereas structuralists search for homogeneity in a discursive entity, Foucault focuses on differences. Instead of asking what constitutes the specificity of European thought he asks what differences develop within it over time. Therefore, he refuses to examine statements outside of their role in the discursive formation, and he never examines possible statements that could have emerged from such a formation. His identity as a historian emerges here, as he is only interested in analysing statements in their historical context. The whole of the system and its discursive rules determine the identity of the statement. But, a discursive formation continually generates new statements, and some of these usher in changes in the discursive formation that may or may not be realized. Therefore, to describe a discursive formation, Foucault also focuses on expelled and forgotten discourses that never happen to change the discursive formation. Their difference to the dominant discourse also describe it. In this way one can describe specific systems that determine which types of statements emerge. Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ...


Discipline and Punish

Main article: Discipline and Punish

Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison was translated into English in 1977, from the French Surveiller et punir: Naissance de la prison, published in 1975. Discipline and Punish (subtitled The Birth of the Prison) is a book written by the philosopher Michel Foucault. ...


The book opens with a graphic description of the brutal public execution in 1757 of Robert-François Damiens, who attempted to kill Louis XV. Against this it juxtaposes a colourless prison timetable from just over 80 years later. Foucault then inquires how such a change in French society's punishment of convicts could have developed in such a short time. These are snapshots of two contrasting types of Foucault's "Technologies of Punishment". The first type, "Monarchical Punishment", involves the repression of the populace through brutal public displays of executions and torture. The second, "Disciplinary Punishment," is what Foucault says is practiced in the modern era. Disciplinary punishment gives "professionals" (psychologists, programme facilitators, parole officers, etc.) power over the prisoner, most notably in that the prisoner's length of stay depends on the professionals' judgment. Robert-François Damiens Robert-François Damiens (1715-1757) was a Frenchman who attained notoriety by unsuccessfully attempting the assassination of Louis XV of France in 1757. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Death Penalty World Map Color Key: Blue: Abolished for all crimes Green: Abolished for crimes not committed in exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war) Orange: Abolished in Practice Red: Legal Form of Punishment Execution of a soldier of the 8th Infantry at Prescott, Arizona, 1877 Execution... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


Foucault also compares modern society with Jeremy Bentham's "Panopticon" design for prisons (which was unrealized in its original form, but nonetheless influential): in the Panopticon, a single guard can watch over many prisoners while the guard remains unseen. The dark dungeon of pre-modernity has been replaced with the bright modern prison, but Foucault cautions that "visibility is a trap". It is through this visibility, Foucault writes, that modern society exercises its controlling systems of power and knowledge (terms which Foucault believed to be so fundamentally connected that he often combined them in a single hyphenated concept, "power-knowledge"). Increasing visibility leads to power located on an increasingly individualized level, shown by the possibility for institutions to track individuals throughout their lives. Foucault suggests that a "carceral continuum" runs through modern society, from the maximum security prison, through secure accommodation, probation, social workers, police, and teachers, to our everyday working and domestic lives. All are connected by the (witting or unwitting) supervision (surveillance, application of norms of acceptable behaviour) of some humans by others. Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... For other uses, see Panopticon (disambiguation). ... Power-knowledge is a concept coined by the French philosopher Michel Foucault. ...


The History of Sexuality

Three volumes of The History of Sexuality were published before Foucault's death in 1984. The first and most referenced volume, The Will to Knowledge (previously known as An Introduction in English — Histoire de la sexualité, 1: la volonté de savoir in French) was published in France in 1976, and translated in 1977, focusing primarily on the last two centuries, and the functioning of sexuality as an analytics of power related to the emergence of a science of sexuality (scientia sexualis) and the emergence of biopower in the West. In this volume he attacks the "repressive hypothesis," the widespread belief that we have, particularly since the nineteenth century, "repressed" our natural sexual drives. He shows that what we think of as "repression" of sexuality actually constituted sexuality as a core feature of our identities, and produced a proliferation of discourse on the subject. The History of Sexuality is the title of a three-volume series of books by Michel Foucault written in 1976. ... The History of Sexuality is the title of a three-volume series of books by Michel Foucault written in 1976. ... The History of Sexuality is the title of a three-volume series of books by Michel Foucault written in 1976. ... Biopower was a term originally coined by French philosopher Michel Foucault to refer to the practice of modern states and their regulation of their subjects through an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugations of bodies and the control of populations. Foucault first used it in his...


The second two volumes, The Use of Pleasure (Histoire de la sexualite, II: l'usage des plaisirs) and The Care of the Self (Histoire de la sexualité, III: le souci de soi) dealt with the role of sex in Greek and Roman antiquity. Both were published in 1984, the year of Foucault's death, with the second volume being translated in 1985, and the third in 1986. In his lecture series from 1979 to 1980 Foucault extended his analysis of government to its 'wider sense of techniques and procedures designed to direct the behaviour of men', which involved a new consideration of the 'examination of conscience' and confession in early Christian literature. These themes of early Christian literature seemed to dominate Foucault's work, alongside his study of Greek and Roman literature, until the end of his life. However, Foucault's death left the work incomplete, and the planned fourth volume of his History of Sexuality on Christianity was never published. The fourth volume was to be entitled Confessions of the Flesh (Les aveux de la chair). The volume was almost complete before Foucault's death and a copy of it is privately held in the Foucault archive. It cannot be published under the restrictions of Foucault's estate.[7] For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Lectures

From 1970 until his death in 1984, from January to March of each year except 1977, Foucault gave a course of public lectures and seminars weekly at the Collège de France as the condition of his tenure as professor there. All these lectures were tape-recorded, and Foucault's transcripts also survive. In 1997 these lectures began to be published in French with six volumes having appeared so far. So far, five sets of lectures have appeared in English: Psychiatric Power 1973–1974, Abnormal 1974–1975, Society Must Be Defended 1975–1976, Security, Territory, Population 1977–1978 and The Hermeneutics of the Subject 1981–1982. Notes of Foucault's lectures from UC Berkeley has also appeared as Fearless Speech. Courtyard of the Collège de France. ...

  • Society Must Be Defended (1975–1976)

In this course, Foucault analyzes the historical and political discourse of "race struggle".

  • Security, Territory, Population (1977-1978)

In this course, Foucault outlines his theory of governmentality, and demonstrates the distinction between sovereignty, discipline, and governmentality as distinct modalities of state power. He argues that governmental state power can be genealogically linked to the 17th century state philosophy of raison d'etat and, ultimately, to the medieval Christian 'pastoral' concept of power. His overriding goal in this lecture series is to argue that the state does not have as much salience as an analytical category as we all seem to think it does.


Terminology

Terms coined or largely redefined by Foucault, as translated into English:

Biopower was a term originally coined by French philosopher Michel Foucault to refer to the practice of modern states and their regulation of their subjects through an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugations of bodies and the control of populations. Foucault first used it in his... A neologism invented by Michel Foucault, the term Biopolitics or Biopolitical can refer to several different yet not incompatible concepts: In the work of Michel Foucault, the style of government that regulates populations through biopower. ... Disciplinary institutions - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... As distinguished from techne, the Greek word episteme (literally: science) is often translated as knowledge. ... Michel Foucaults concept of genealogy is the history of the position of the subject which traces the development of people and society through history. ... Governmentality was a concept developed by French philosopher Michel Foucault in the later years of his life, roughly between 1979 and his death in 1984, particularly in his lectures at the Collège de France during this time. ... Parrhesia, loosely defined, can mean free speech, or to speak everything. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... State racism is a concept used by French philosopher Michel Foucault to designate the reappropriation of the historical and political discourse of race struggle, In the late seventeenth century. ... The medical gaze is a term coined by French philosopher and critic, Michel Foucault in his 1976 book, The Birth of the Clinic, to denote the often-dehumanizing method by which medical professionals separate the body from the person (see mind-body dualism). ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... Dispositif - French word for device. ...

Criticisms of Foucault

Many thinkers have criticized Foucault, including Charles Taylor, Noam Chomsky,[8] Ivan Illich, Camille Paglia, Jürgen Habermas, Jacques Derrida, Jean Baudrillard, Nancy Fraser, Pierre Bourdieu, Alasdair MacIntyre (1990), Richard Rorty, Slavoj Žižek, William Irwin Thompson, and historian Hayden White, among others. While each of these thinkers takes issue with different aspects of Foucault's work, most share the orientation that Foucault rejects the values and philosophy associated with the Enlightenment while simultaneously secretly relying on them.[9] This criticism is developed, for example, in Derrida (1978). It is claimed that this failure either makes him dangerously nihilistic, or that he cannot be taken seriously in his disavowal of normative values because in fact his work ultimately presupposes them. Charles Margrave Taylor, CC, BA, MA, Ph. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... This article is about the Austrian philosopher. ... Camille Anna Paglia (born April 2, 1947 in Endicott, New York) is an American social critic, author and teacher. ... Jürgen Habermas (IPA: ; born June 18, 1929) is a German philosopher and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory and American pragmatism. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Jean Baudrillard (July 29, 1929 – March 6, 2007) (IPA pronunciation: [1]) was a French cultural theorist, philosopher, political commentator, and photographer. ... Nancy Fraser is currently the Henry A. and Louise Loeb Professor of Political and Social Science at the Graduate Faculty of New School University in New York City. ... Pierre Bourdieu (August 1, 1930 â€“ January 23, 2002) was an acclaimed French sociologist whose work employed methods drawn from a wide range of disciplines: from philosophy and literary theory to sociology and anthropology. ... Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born January 12, 1929 in Glasgow, Scotland) is a philosopher primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy but known also for his work in history of philosophy and theology. ... Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 - June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher. ... Slavoj Žižek (pronounced: ) (born 21 March 1949) is a Slovenian sociologist, postmodern philosopher, and cultural critic. ... William Irwin Thompson (1938- ) is a writer, social critic, and visionary, especially interested in keeping alive the esoteric, most profound, human and spiritual traditions of mankind, as he sees it. ... Insert non-formatted text hereHayden White(1928-3012) is an historian in the tradition of literary criticism, perhaps most famous for his work Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe (1973). ... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French literary critic and philosopher of Jewish descent, considered the first to develop deconstruction. Positioning Derridas thought Derrida had a significant effect on continental philosophy and on literary theory, particularly through his long-time association... This article is about the philosophical position. ...


Foucault's use of historical information has also been criticized, with claims that he frequently misrepresented things, got his facts wrong, extrapolated from insufficient data, or simply made them up entirely. For example, some historians argue that what Foucault called the "Great Confinement" in Madness and Civilization did not in fact occur during the 17th century, but rather in the 19th century.[10] Michel Foucault Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 26, 1984) was a French philosopher and held a chair at the Collège de France, a chair to which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. His writings have had an enormous impact on other scholarly work: Foucault...


Sociologist Andrew Scull argued that thousands of previously untranslated footnotes in Madness and Civilization reveal a very lax standard of scholarship in Foucault's work, "It is as though nearly a century of scholarly work had produced nothing of interest or value for Foucault’s project. What interested him, or shielded him, was selectively mined nineteenth-century sources of dubious provenance. Inevitably, this means that elaborate intellectual constructions are built on the shakiest of empirical foundations, and, not surprisingly, many turn out to be wrong."[11] Michel Foucault Michel Foucault (October 15, 1926 – June 26, 1984) was a French philosopher and held a chair at the Collège de France, a chair to which he gave the title The History of Systems of Thought. His writings have had an enormous impact on other scholarly work: Foucault...


Madness and Civilization was also famously criticized by Jacques Derrida who took issue with Foucault's reading of René Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy. Derrida's criticism led to a break in their friendship and marked the beginning of a fifteen-year–long feud between the two. (At one point, in a 1983 interview with Paul Rabinow, Foucault seemed to criticize Derrida's reading of Plato's Phaedrus in Dissemination, considering the writing/speech distinction unimportant.) They eventually reconciled in the early 1980s.[citation needed] Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Descartes redirects here. ... The title page of the Meditations Meditations on First Philosophy (subtitled In which the existence of God and the real distinction of mind and body, are demonstrated) is a philosophical treatise written by René Descartes first published in Latin in 1641 . ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The Phaedrus, written by Plato, is a dialogue between Platos main protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues. ...


There are also notable exchanges with Lawrence Stone and George Steiner on the subject of Foucault's historical accuracy, as well as a discussion with historian Jacques Leonard concerning Discipline and Punish. Sociologist Richard Hamilton also argues against Discipline and Punish, suggesting that large portions of the book are incoherent or invalid. For example, Foucault places great emphasis on Jeremy Bentham's panopticon, suggesting it is a model for the modern prison, but Hamilton notes that the panopticon was never built and only one extant prison uses that model. In the book, however, Foucault did not suggest that the Bentham's panopticon had been constructed, and did not suggest that prisons explicitly modeled themselves after it. He also expounds the relevant dangers associated with the abstract concept of the panopticon in his discussion of what he calls the "disciplinary society."[citation needed] Lawrence Stone (December 4, 1919-June 16, 1999) was an English historian of early modern Britain. ... (Francis) George Steiner, a prominent literary critic, was born in Paris, France, on April 23, 1929. ... Discipline and Punish (subtitled The Birth of the Prison) is a book written by the philosopher Michel Foucault. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... For other uses, see Panopticon (disambiguation). ...


Foucault's changing viewpoint

The study of Foucault's thought is complicated because his ideas developed and changed over time. Just how they changed and at what levels is a matter of some dispute amongst scholars of his work. Some scholars argue that underneath the changes of subject matter there are certain themes that run through all of his work. But as David Gauntlett (2002) suggests: David Gauntlett (b. ...

Of course, there's nothing wrong with Foucault changing his approach; in a 1982 interview, he remarked that 'When people say, "Well, you thought this a few years ago and now you say something else," my answer is… [laughs] "Well, do you think I have worked [hard] all those years to say the same thing and not to be changed?"' (2000: 131). This attitude to his own work fits well with his theoretical approach — that knowledge should transform the self. When asked in another 1982 interview if he was a philosopher, historian, structuralist, or Marxist, Foucault replied 'I don't feel that it is necessary to know exactly what I am. The main interest in life and work is to become someone else that you were not in the beginning' (Martin, 1988: 9).

David Gauntlett, Media, Gender and Identity, London: Routledge, 2002)

In a similar vein, Foucault preferred not to claim that he was presenting a coherent and timeless block of knowledge; rather, as he says:

I would like my books to be a kind of tool-box which others can rummage through to find a tool which they can use however they wish in their own area… I would like the little volume that I want to write on disciplinary systems to be useful to an educator, a warden, a magistrate, a conscientious objector. I don't write for an audience, I write for users, not readers.

Michel Foucault (1974), 'Prisons et asiles dans le mécanisme du pouvoir' in Dits et Ecrits, t. II. Paris: Gallimard, 1994, pp. 523–4).

Intellectual contexts

Influences on Foucault's work

Thinkers whose work has apparently or admittedly had a strong impact on Foucault's thought include:

  • Annales School — A French school of historical writing which influenced Foucault early in his intellectual life.
  • Louis Althusser — French structuralist Marxist philosopher and Foucault's sometime teacher and mentor.
  • Roland Barthes — French (post) structuralist literary critic who was at one time very close to Foucault.
  • Georges Bataille — French philosopher, novelist and critic whose views on transgression, communication, and sexuality were very influential in Foucault's work.
  • Maurice Blanchot — Literary critic and novelist whose views on non polemical critique had a strong impact on Foucault
  • Jorge Luis Borges — Argentine author of short stories frequently referred to in Foucault's Works
  • Georges Canguilhem — Author of The Normal and the Pathological and a major influence on Foucault's work on deviance and the medical sciences (cf. The Birth of the Clinic)
  • Gilles Deleuze — French philosopher. A great friend and ally of Foucault's in the early 1970s.
  • Georges Dumézil — French structuralist mythologist, known for his reconstruction of Indo-Aryan mythology.
  • Martin Heidegger — German philosopher whose influence was enormous in post-war France. Foucault rarely referred to him, but once stated 'For me Heidegger has always been the essential philosopher... My entire philosophical development was determined by my reading of Heidegger'.
  • Jean Hyppolite — French Hegel scholar and Foucault's sometime khâgne teacher.
  • Karl Marx — Marx's influence in French intellectual life was dominant from 1945 through to the late 1970s. Foucault often opposed aspects of Marxist ideology.
  • Maurice Merleau-Ponty — French philosopher and sometime teacher of Foucault. Phenomenologist instrumental in popularising Saussure's structuralism for a philosophical audience.
  • Friedrich Nietzsche — German philosopher whose work greatly influenced Foucault's conception of society and power. Towards the end of his life, Foucault stated: "I am a Nietzschean".
  • Hungarian Revolution of 1956 was a turning point according to Foucault. 1956 changed the communist party of France. Before 1956, French communists discussed how marxists should act. After 1956, French communists discussed how much individual liberty was needed for individuals. For Foucault this event taught the lesson that people should not hope for anything.[citation needed]

The Annales School (Annales is pronounced // in French) is a school of historical writing named after the French scholarly journal Annales dhistoire économique et sociale (later called , then renamed in 1994 as ) where it was first expounded. ... Louis Pierre Althusser (Pronunciation: altuË¡seʁ) (October 16, 1918 – October 22, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. ... Roland Barthes Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 – March 25, 1980) (pronounced ) was a French literary critic, literary and social theorist, philosopher, and semiotician. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Maurice Blanchot (September 27, 1907-February 20, 2003) was a French philosopher, literary theorist and writer of fiction. ... Borges redirects here. ... Georges Canguilhem (Castelnaudary, June 4, 1904 – September 11, 1995 in Marly-le-Roi) was a French philosopher who specialized in epistemology and the philosophy of science (in particular, biology). ... Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898 - October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Indo-European religion and society. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Jean Hyppolite (Jonzac 1907 - Paris 1968) was a French philosopher known for championing the work of Hegel, and other German philosophers, and educating some of Frances most prominent post-war thinkers. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Khâgne is an informal term used by French students for Classes Préparatoires Littéraires, the two year cycle of classes taken after the Baccalaureat [which is taken at age 17-18] to prepare for the difficult entrance examination to the Ecole Normale Superieure. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Maurice Merleau-Ponty (March 14, 1908 – May 4, 1961) was a French phenomenologist philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl. ... In philosophy and sociology a phenomenologist applies the method termed phenomenology by Edmund Husserl to analyze nature, reality or social interactions. ... Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian...

Influence of Foucault's work

Foucault's work is frequently referred to in disciplines as diverse as art, philosophy, history, anthropology, geography, archaeology, communication studies, public relations, rhetoric, cultural studies, linguistics, sociology, education, psychology, literary theory, feminism, queer theory, management studies, the philosophy of science, political science, urban design, museum studies, and many others. Quantitative evidence of the impact of his work can be found in the sheer volume of citations in standard academic journal indexes such as the Social Sciences Citation Index [1] (more than 9000 citations). A keyword search of the Library of Congress catalogue [2] reveals over 750 volumes in a variety of languages relating to his writings, and a search on Google Scholar [3] reveals thousands of citations. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... HIStory – Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double album by American singer Michael Jackson released in June 1995 and remains Jacksons most conflicting and controversial release. ... This article is about the social science. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the Arrested Development episode, see Public Relations (Arrested Development episode). ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Cultural studies is an academic discipline which combines political economy, communication, sociology, social theory, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology, philosophy, museum studies and art history/criticism to study cultural phenomena in various societies. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... Feminists redirects here. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Museology (also called museum studies) is the study of how to organize and manage museums and museum collections. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... Google Scholar Logo Google Scholar (GS) is a freely-accessible web search engine that indexes the full-text of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. ...


Bibliography

Monographs

Year Original French English Translation
1954 Maladie mentale et personnalité (Paris: PUF, 1954) re-edited as Maladie mentale et psychologie (1995) Mental Illness and Psychology trans. by A. M. Sheridan-Smith, (New York: Harper and Row, 1976)
1961 Histoire de la folie à l'âge classique - Folie et déraison (Paris: Plon, 1961) Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason trans. by R. Howard, (London: Tavistock, 1965) - abridged; History of Madness ed. Jean Khalfa, trans. Jonathan Murphy and Jean Khalfa, (London: Routledge, 2006) - unabridged
1963 Naissance de la clinique - une archéologie du regard médical (Paris: PUF, 1963) The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception
1963 Raymond Roussel (Paris: Gallimard, 1963) Death and the Labyrinth: the World of Raymond Roussel
1966 Les mots et les choses - une archéologie des sciences humaines (Paris: Gallimard, 1966) The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences
1969 L'archéologie du savoir (Paris: Gallimard, 1969) Archaeology of Knowledge (first three chapters available here) trans. A. M. Sheridan Smith (London: Routledge, 2002)
1971 L'ordre du discours (Paris: Gallimard, 1971) "The Discourse on Language" translation appears as an appendix to the Archaeology of Knowledge trans. A. M. Sheridan Smith (New York: Pantheon, 1972), pp. 215-37
1975 Surveiller et punir (Paris: Gallimard, 1975) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison
1976–84 Histoire de la sexualité
  • Vol I: La Volonté de savoir (Paris: Gallimard, 1976)
  • Vol II: L'Usage des plaisirs (Paris: Gallimard, 1984)
  • Vol III: Le Souci de soi (Paris: Gallimard, 1984)
The History of Sexuality
  • Vol I: The Will to Knowledge
  • Vol II: The Use of Pleasure
  • Vol III: The Care of the Self

The Collège Courses

Year Original French English Translation
1997 1976–1977 Il faut défendre la société Society Must Be Defended
1999 1974–1975 Les anormaux Abnormal
2001 1981–1982 L'Herméneutique du sujet The Hermeneutics of the Subject
2003 1973–1974 Le pouvoir psychiatrique Psychiatric Power
2004 1977–1978 Sécurité, territoire, population Security, Territory, Population
2004 1978–1979 Naissance de la biopolitique The Birth of Biopolitics
Forthcoming 1970–1971 La Volonté de Savoir The Will to Knowledge
Forthcoming 1971–1972 Theories et Institutions Penales Theories of Punishment
Forthcoming 1972–1973 La Société Punitive The Punitive Society
Forthcoming 1979–1980 Du gouvernement des vivants The Government of Man
Forthcoming 1980–1981 Subjectivite et Vérité Subjectivity and Truth
2008 1982–1983 Le Gouvernement de soi et des autres The Government of Self and Others
Forthcoming 1983–1984 Le Courage de la Vérité The Courage of Truth

Collaborative works

Year Original French English Translation
1973 Moi, Pierre Rivière, ayant égorgé ma mère, ma soeur et mon frère (Gallimard) I, Pierre Riviere, Having Slaughtered my Mother, my Sister and my Brother (Penguin, 1975)
1978 Herculine Barbin dite Alexina B. (Gallimard, 1978) Herculine Barbin (New York: Pantheon, 1980).
1982 Le Désordre des familles. Lettres de cachet with Arlette Farge (Gallimard) Not yet available in English

Other books

Year Original French English Translation
1973 "Ceci n'est pas une pipe" This is not a pipe (1991)
1980 Interview with Michel Foucault originally published in Italian, then in French in 1994 Remarks on Marx (1991)
2001 Berkeley lecture series, never published in French Fearless Speech

This is not a pipe. ...

Anthologies

In French, almost all of Foucault's shorter writings, published interviews and miscellany have been published in a collection called Dits et écrits, originally published in four volumes in 1994, latterly in only two volumes.


In English, there are a number of overlapping anthologies, which often use conflicting translations of the overlapping pieces, frequently with different titles. Richard Lynch's bibliography of Foucault's shorter work is invaluable for keeping track of these multiple versions. The major collections in English are:

  • Language, counter-memory, practice, ed. Donald F. Bouchard (1977)
  • Power/Knowledge, ed. Colin Gordon (1980)
  • The Foucault Reader, ed. Paul Rabinow (1984)
  • The History of Sexuality 3 vols., (Vintage, 1988)
  • Politics, Philosophy, Culture, ed. Lawrence D. Kritzman (1988)
  • Foucault Live (2nd Ed.), ed. Sylvère Lotringer (1996)
  • The Politics of Truth, ed. Sylvère Lotringer (1997)
  • Ethics : subjectivity and truth (Essential Works Vol. 1), ed. Paul Rabinow (1997)
  • Aesthetics, Method, Epistemology (Essential Works Vol.2), ed. James D. Faubion (1998)
  • Power (Essential Works Vol. 3), ed. James D. Faubion (2000)
  • The Essential Foucault, eds. Paul Rabinow and Nikolas Rose (2003)

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Lectures

In a 1967 lecture, called in English either "Different spaces" or Of Other Spaces [4] (reprinted in Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology, and in The Visual Culture Reader, ed. Nicholas Mirzoeff), Foucault coined a novel concept of the heterotopia. Dr. Nicholas Mirzoeff is a visual culture theorist and University Professor in the Department of Art and Art Professions at New York University. ... In his essay, Different Spaces (reprinted in Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology), Michel Foucault observed that people in advanced technological societies would increasingly move into indeterminate spaces called heterotopias, which literally means other spaces. ...


See also

The Foucault/Habermas debate is a dispute concerning whether Michel Foucaults ideas of power analytics and genealogy or Jürgen Habermass ideas of communicative rationality and discourse ethics provide a better critique of the nature of power within society. ... Governmentality was a concept developed by French philosopher Michel Foucault in the later years of his life, roughly between 1979 and his death in 1984, particularly in his lectures at the Collège de France during this time. ... Sapere aude is a Latin phrase meaning Dare to know or Dare to be wise. Most famously, it is found in Immanuel Kants essay What Is Enlightenment?. The original use seems to be in Epistle II of Horaces Epistularum liber primus [1], line 40: Dimidium facti qui coepit...

Notes

  1. ^ David Macey (1995). The Lives of Michel Foucault: A Biography. Vintage. ISBN 0679757929. 
  2. ^ "So Little Time: A year-by-year history of the AIDS epidemic". AIDS Education Global Information System. Retrieved on 4 February 2008.
  3. ^ O'Farrell, Claire. "Letter to The Times Literary Supplement (unpublished)". Letter written in 2002 in the context of a controversy over Foucault's death from AIDS. Retrieved on 04 February 2008.
  4. ^ James Miller (1993). The Passion of Michel Foucault. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255267-1. 
  5. ^ Gresle, Yvette. "Foucault's 'Las Meninas' and art-historical methods". Journal of Literary Studies, retrieved 01 December 2008.
  6. ^ Caputo, John. "Foucault and the Critique of Institutions". Pennsylvania State University Press, March, 2006. pp. 249-253. ISBN 0-2710-2966-8
  7. ^ Michel Foucault, edited by Jeremy R. Carrette (1999). Religion and culture: Michel Foucault. ISBN 0-415-92362-X. 
  8. ^ See Noam Chomsky and Michel Foucault, The Chomsky-Foucault Debate: On Human Nature (New York: The New Press, 2006).
  9. ^ Foucault: A Critical Reader, Edited by David Hoy, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986
  10. ^ Pierre Morel and Claude Quétel (1985). Les Médecines de la Folie. ISBN 2-01-011281-4. 
  11. ^ Andrew Scull, "The Fictions of Foucault", Times Literary Supplement, March 21, 2007

is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Carrette, Jeremy R. (ed.). Religion and culture: Michel Foucault. (Routledge, 1999).
  • Derrida, Jacques. Cogito and the History of Madness. In Alan Bass (tr.), Writing and Difference, pp. 31–63. (Chicago University Press, 1978).
  • Dillon, M. Foucault on Politics, Security and War, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).
  • Dreyfus, Herbert L. and Paul Rabinow. Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics, 2nd edition. (University of Chicago Press, 1983).
  • Eribon, Didier. Michel Foucault (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1991). Considered in France, according to Le Monde, as the best biography of Foucault.
  • Eribon Didier. Insult and the Making of the Gay Self (Duke University Press, 2004). The third part—about 150 pages of this book—is devoted to Foucault and a reinterpretation of his life and work.
  • Foucault, Michel. Sexual Morality and the Law (originally published as La loi de la pudeur), is the Chapter 16 of Politics, Philosophy, Culture (see “Notes”), pp. 271–285.
  • Hoy, D. (Ed.). Foucault. (Oxford, Blackwell, 1986).
  • Hicks, Stephen R. C. Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault (Scholargy Publishing, 2004).
  • Macey, David. The Lives of Michel Foucault (London: Hutchison, 1993)—This is the most detailed biography of Foucault.
  • MacIntyre, Alasdair (1990). Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry: Encyclopaedia, Genealogy, and Tradition. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Miller, James. The Passion of Michel Foucault (London: HarperCollins, 1993)—A number of scholars have expressed reservations in relation to some of the sensational claims made in this biography.
  • O'Farrell, Clare. Michel Foucault. (London: Sage, 2005). Includes a chronology of Foucault's life and times and an extensive list of key terms in Foucault's work which includes references to where these terms can be found in his work.
  • Smart, B. Foucault. (Chichester, Ellis Horwood, 1985).

Sexual Morality and the Law is the transcription of a 1978 radio conversation in Paris between philosopher Michel Foucault, playwright/actor/lawyer Jean Danet and novelist/gay activist Guy Hocquenghem, discussing the abolition of age of consent laws in France. ...

External links

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General sites (updated regularly): Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

Biographies:

Bibliographies:

Journals:

Miscellaneous:

  • Dossiers—Thematic micro-sites
  • Michel Foucault, Buffalo 1971 & Paris 1975—Ten photographs of Foucault by Bruce Jackson
  • University of Minnesota – Dept. of Communications Studies—Detailed summary of the book “Politics, Philosophy, Culture—Interviews and other writings 1977–1984”, chapter by chapter.

Works available online

  • Repository of texts from Foucault.info (excerpts from Discipline & punish, Archeology of knowledge, Heterotopia, Manet, Pierre Rivière, Enlightenment, Author Function, etc.)
  • Thefoucauldian.co.uk 18 online texts on Pierre Rivière, technologies of the self, archeology of knowledge, Nietzsche & genealogy, etc.
  • Michel Foucault's Introduction to Kant's Anthropology original version translated by Arianna Bove, 2002
  • Online audiorecording of Foucault at UC Berkeley, April 1983: "The Culture of the Self"
  • Sexual Morality and the Law, April 1978 - Transcript of a Radio France Culture conversation between Foucault, Jean Danet, and Guy Hocquenghem about age of consent. See also: "Romance is Dead" Daniel Z. Epstein, 2007.
  • "What are the Iranians Dreaming About?" - an excerpt from Foucault and the Iranian Revolution
Persondata
NAME Foucault, Michel
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Foucault, Paul-Michel
SHORT DESCRIPTION French philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH October 15, 1926
PLACE OF BIRTH Poitiers, France
DATE OF DEATH June 25, 1984
PLACE OF DEATH Paris, France

France Culture is a French public radio station devoted to cultural matters. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ... This page lists some links to ancient philosophy, although for Western thinkers prior to Socrates, see Pre-Socratic philosophy. ... Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with Neo-Platonism. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ... Iranian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustras teachings. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Filled with OR and completely unsourced. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... Philosophy is a broad field of knowledge in which the definition of knowledge itself is one of the subjects investigated. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to philosophy, beginning with the letters A through C. This is so that those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar. ... The alphabetical list of p is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. ... Philosophies: particular schools of thought, styles of philosophy, or descriptions of philosophical ideas attributed to a particular group or culture - listed in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of topics relating to philosophy that end in -ism. ... A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. ... This is a list of philosophical lists. ... Aesthetics is commonly known as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) Epistemology (from Greek επιστήμη - episteme, knowledge + λόγος, logos) or theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy investigating principles of reality transcending those of any particular science. ... Philosophy of action is chiefly concerned with human action, intending to distinguish between activity and passivity, voluntary, intentional, culpable and involuntary actions, and related question. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research, which studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Philosophical anthropology is the philosophical discipline that seeks to unify the several empirical investigations and phenomenological explorations of human nature in an effort to understand human beings as both creatures of their environment and creators of their own values. ... Philosophy of Humor is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the philosophical study of humor. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... Philosophy and literature is the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Some of the questions relating to the philosophy of music are: What, exactly is music (what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for it)? What is the relationship between music and emotion? Peter Kivy, Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University, in particular, sets out to argue how music, which is... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... Metaphilosophy (from Greek meta + philosophy) is the study of the subject and matter, methods and aims of philosophy. ... Philosophy of physics is the study of the fundamental, philosophical questions underlying modern physics, the study of matter and energy and how they interact. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... Philosophy of psychology typically refers to a set of issues at the theoretical foundations of modern psychology. ... Philosophy of science is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, especially in the natural sciences and social sciences. ... Philosophy of social science is the scholarly elucidation and debate of accounts of the nature of the social sciences, their relations to each other, and their relations to the natural sciences (see natural science). ... The Philosophy of technology is a philosophical field dedicated to studying the nature of technology and its social effects. ... The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd interpretations of Aristotle and the resolution of various conflicts between the writings of Aristotle and the Muslim... Critical theory, in sociology and philosophy, is shorthand for critical theory of society or critical social theory, a label used by the Frankfurt School, i. ... This page is about the school of philosophy. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Deontological ethics or deontology (Greek: δέον (deon) meaning obligation or duty) is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions. ... According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Epiphenomenalism is a view in philosophy of mind according to which some or all mental states are mere epiphenomena (side-effects or by-products) of physical states of the world. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... Functionalism is a theory of the mind in contemporary philosophy, developed largely as an alternative to both the identity theory of mind and behaviorism. ... This article does not cite any sources. ... Hegelianism is a philosophy developed by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which can be summed up by a favorite motto by Hegel, the rational alone is real, which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... Kant redirects here. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... This article is about methodological naturalism. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... The New Philosophers (French nouveaux philosophes) were a group of French philosophers (for example, André Glucksmann and Bernard Henri-Lévy) who appeared in the early 1970s, as critics of the previously-fashionable philosophers (roughly speaking, the post-structuralists). ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Moral particularism is the view that there are no moral principles and moral judgement can be found only as one decides particular cases, either real or imagined. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is knowledge that is based on actual sense experience. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ... For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Philosophical scepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures. ... Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Michel Foucault (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (6167 words)
Michel Foucault (1926-1984) was a French historian and philosopher, associated with the structuralist and post-structuralist movements.
Archaeology was an essential method for Foucault because it supported a historiography that did not rest on the primacy of the consciousness of individual subjects; it allowed the historian of thought to operate at an unconscious level that displaced the primacy of the subject found in both phenomenology and in traditional historiography.
Foucault maintains that the great "turn" in modern philosophy occurs when, with Kant (though no doubt he is merely an example of something much broader and deeper), it becomes possible to raise the question of whether ideas do in fact represent their objects and, if so, how (in virtue of what) they do so.
Michel Foucault - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4634 words)
Foucault is known for his critical studies of various social institutions, most notably psychiatry, medicine, and the prison system, and also for his work on the history of sexuality.
Foucault himself on a number of occasions explained that he believed strongly in human freedom and that his philosophy was a fundamentally optimistic one, as he believed that something positive could always be done no matter how bleak the situation.
Foucault's work is frequently referred to in disciplines as diverse as art, philosophy, history, anthropology, archaeology, communication studies, rhetoric, cultural studies, linguistics, sociology, education, psychology, literary theory, feminism, queer theory, management studies, the philosophy of science, urban design, museum studies, and many others.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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