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Encyclopedia > Michaelmas

Michaelmas (pronounced /'mɪkəlməs/; also the Feast of Ss. Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael or the Feast of Michael and All Angels), is a day in the Christian calendar, taking place on 29 September. Because it falls near the equinox, it is associated with the beginning of autumn and the shortening of days. Michaelmas term is the first term of Oxford University, Cambridge University, LSE, University of Wales, Lampeter, Durham University, and formerly University of Newcastle upon Tynes academic year, and is the only term name shared by Oxford and Cambridge, Oxford and Lampeter and Oxford and Durham. ... The symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet can be used to show pronounciation in English. ... This article or section should be merged with Liturgical year The Christian Calendar organizes days of the year on which Christian festivals occur. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Equinox (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Archangel Michael is one of the principal angelic warriors, seen as a protector against the dark of night, and the administrator of cosmic intelligence. Michaelmas has also delineated time and seasons for secular purposes as well, particularly in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Santa Maria della Concezione, Rome) tramples Satan. ...

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History

During the Middle Ages, Michaelmas was celebrated as a holy day of obligation, but this tradition was abolished in the 18th century. It was also one of the English and Welsh and Irish quarter days when accounts had to be settled. On manors, it was the day when a reeve was elected from the peasants. Traditional meals for the day include goose (a "stubble-goose", i.e. one prepared around harvest time) and a special cake called a St Michael's bannock. On the Isle of Skye, Scotland, a procession was held. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, the Holy Days of Obligation are the days, other than Sundays, on which the faithful are required to attend Mass. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... England and Wales (red), with the rest of the United Kingdom (pink). ... In British and Irish tradition, the quarter days were the four dates on which servants were hired, and rents and rates were due. ... In England, a reeve was an official appointed to supervise lands for a lord. ... Map of the Hebrides. ... A procession (via Middle English processioun, French procession, derived from Latin, processio, itself from procedere, to go forth, advance, proceed) is, in general, an organized body of people advancing in a formal or ceremonial manner. ...


Autumn term in universities

Main article: Michaelmas term

Michaelmas is also used in the extended sense of "Autumn", used as the name of the first term of the academic year, which begins at this time, at various educational institutions in the United Kingdom and Ireland (typically those with lengthy history and traditions): Abingdon School, King's College London, Stonyhurst College, St Andrews, Cambridge, University of Wales, Lampeter, Durham, London School of Economics, Oxford, Lancaster, Trinity College, Dublin, Eton, Gresham's, Winchester House School, Norwich School, Worksop College and Royal Holloway, University of London. Michaelmas term is the first term of Oxford University, Cambridge University, LSE, University of Wales, Lampeter, Durham University, and formerly University of Newcastle upon Tynes academic year, and is the only term name shared by Oxford and Cambridge, Oxford and Lampeter and Oxford and Durham. ... Michaelmas term is the first term of Oxford University, Cambridge University, LSE, University of Wales, Lampeter, Durham University, and formerly University of Newcastle upon Tynes academic year, and is the only term name shared by Oxford and Cambridge, Oxford and Lampeter and Oxford and Durham. ... Abingdon School is an independent day and boarding school for boys in Abingdon, Oxfordshire. ... Mascot Reggie the lion Affiliations University of London Russell Group Golden Triangle Website http://www. ... Stonyhurst College is a Roman Catholic English Jesuit independent boarding school near Clitheroe, Lancashire, England. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... University of Wales, Lampeter Prifysgol Cymru, Llanbedr Pont Steffan   University of Wales, Lampeter (Welsh: Prifysgol Cymru, Llanbedr Pont Steffan) is a university in Lampeter, Wales, the oldest degree awarding institution in Wales, and the third oldest in England and Wales after Oxford and Cambridge. ... Durham University is a university in England. ... Mascot Beaver Affiliations University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Golden Triangle G5 Group Website http://www. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... Lancaster University (officially the University of Lancaster) is a collegiate campus university in Lancaster, England. ... Trinity College, Dublin TCD, corporately designated as the Provost, Fellows and Scholars of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, was founded in 1592 by Elizabeth I, and is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and... Gresham’s School is an independent coeducational boarding school at Holt in North Norfolk, England, founded in the year 1555, a member of the HMC. // Big School, 1903, architect Sir John Simpson Greshams School was established at Holt by Sir John Gresham in 1555, during the reign of Queen... Norwich School is situated in Norwich, Norfolk, England, and is one of the oldest schools in the country, with a traceable history as far back as 1096. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... University Logo Royal Holloway, University of London is a college of the University of London located in Egham, Surrey, England. ... The University of London is a university based primarily in London. ...


Use by legal profession

The Inns of Court of the English bar also have a Michaelmas term as one of their dining terms. It begins in September and ends towards the end of December only being practiced at the end of each trial. Combined arms of the four Inns of Court The Inns of Court, in London, are the professional associations to one of which every English barrister (and those judges who were formerly barristers) must belong. ...


Modern observances

Michaelmas is still celebrated in the Waldorf schools, who celebrate it as the 'festival of strong will' during the Autumnal Equinox (September 29). A Waldorf classroom in Witten-Annen, Germany Waldorf education (also known as Steiner or Steiner-Waldorf education) is a pedagogical movement based upon the educational philosophy of Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
*Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Michaelmas, September 29, St Michael's Day | Angel archangel September ... (3387 words)
Michaelmas also used to be the day in England for choosing magistrates and bailiffs, whereupon the people used to go into the streets and throw cabbage stalks at each other, in a ritual called
In Ireland, where Michaelmas marked the end of the fishing season, the beginning of the hunting season, the traditional time to pick apples and also the time to make cider, St Michael’s feast was a joyful day of celebration.
King Louis XI of France instituted an order commemorating St Michael, because an apparition of the saint had been seen on a bridge at Orleans when that city was besieged by the English in 1428.
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