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Encyclopedia > Michael Psellus the Younger

Michael Constantine Psellus (Greek: Psellos) the younger, born in 1018 (probably at Nicomedia; according to some, at Constantinople) of a consular and patrician family, was a philosopher. He studied at Athens and Constantinople, where he became intimate with John Xiphilinus. Although he counted consuls and patricians amongst his father's ancestors, his immediate family was so limited in funds that providing a dowry for his sister deprived Psellus of the money to continue his own education. Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Nicomedes I of Bithynia founded the city of Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit), at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis), in 264 BC The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Acropolis in central Athens, one of the most important landmarks in world history. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Joannes Xiphilinus, epitomator of Dio Cassius, lived at Constantinople during the latter half of the 11th century AD. He was a monk and the nephew of the patriarch of Constantinople of the same name, a well-known preacher (Migne, Patrologia Graeca, cxx. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ...


Under Constantine Monomachus (1042 - 1055) he became one of the most influential men in the Byzantine Empire. As professor of philosophy at the newly founded academy of Constantinople he revived the cult of Plato at a time when Aristotle held the field; this, together with his admiration for the old pagan glories of Hellas, aroused suspicions as to his orthodoxy. At the height of his success as a teacher he was recalled to court, where he became state secretary and vestarch, with the honorary title of "prince of philosophers." The author of the Oxford Classical Dictionary article on Psellus wrote that his style "owed much to the Plato, Aelius Aristides and Gregory Nazianzen. More than any other man he laid the foundation of the Byzantine literary and philosophical renaissance of the 12th century." Mosaic of Constantine IX and Empress Zoe Constantine IX Monomachus (c. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... Events January 11 - Theodora becomes Reigning Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... These five broad types of question are called analytical or logical, epistemological, ethical, metaphysical, and aesthetic respectively. ... Plato (Greek: Πλάτων Plátōn) (ca. ... Aristotle, marble copy of bronze by Lysippos. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... The Oxford Classical Dictionary (OCD) is a standard one-volume encyclopedia of everything relating to ancient Greece and Rome. ... Aelius Aristides (AD 117 - 181) was a Greek orator during the Roman Empire, son of a wealthy land-owner, and considered an example of the Second Sophistic. ... Saint Gregory Nazianzus (AD 329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian, was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


However, towards the end of Constantine's reign he followed the example of his friend John Xiphilinus he entered the monastery of Olympus in Bithynia (near the modern Bursa), where he assumed the name of Michael. He was recalled by the empress Theodora to Constantinople in 1056, and served as an imperial advisor. He was instrumental in the transition from Michael VI Stratiotikos to Isaak I Comnenos in 1057. Joannes Xiphilinus, epitomator of Dio Cassius, lived at Constantinople during the latter half of the 11th century AD. He was a monk and the nephew of the patriarch of Constantinople of the same name, a well-known preacher (Migne, Patrologia Graeca, cxx. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa or Prusa) is the capital of the Bursa Province in northwestern Turkey. ...


Under Byzantine emperors Isaac I Comnenus (1057-1059) and Constantine Ducas (1059-1067) he exercised great influence, and was prime minister during the regency of Eudocia Macrembolitissa and the reign of his pupil Michael Parapinaces (1071 - 1078). It is probable that he died soon after the fall of Parapinaces. This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Isaac coin. ... Constantine X Ducas (1006 - May, 1067) was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire (1059 - 1067). ... Eudocia Macrembolitissa (1021 - 1096), daughter of John Macrembolites, was the wife of the Byzantine emperor Constantine X. After his death (1067) she became the wife of Romanus IV. She had sworn to her first husband on his deathbed not to marry again, and had even imprisoned and exiled Romanus, who... Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes, was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Macrembolitissa. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Events Romanesque church begun at Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain Anselm of Canterbury becomes abbot of Le Bec William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built Births Deaths Categories: 1078 ...


Living during the most melancholy period of Byzantine history, Psellus exhibited the worst faults of his age. He was servile and unscrupulous, weak, fond of intrigue, intolerably vain and ambitious. But as a literary man his intellect was of the highest order. In the extent of his knowledge, in keenness of observation, in variety of style, in his literary output, he has been compared to Voltaire; but it is perhaps as the forerunner of the great Renaissance Platonists that he will be chiefly remembered. His works embraced politics, astronomy, medicine, music, theology, jurisprudence, physics, grammar and history. The last of Voltaires statues by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1781). ... By region Italian Renaissance Spanish Renaissance Northern Renaissance French Renaissance German Renaissance English Renaissance The Renaissance, also known as Il Rinascimento (in Italian), was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) was a school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century A.D. Though based on the teachings of Plato and the Platonists, it interpreted Plato in many new ways, so that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato had written, though many Neoplatonists would... Look up Politics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Politics (disambiguation) Democracy History of democracy List of democracy and elections-related topics List of years in politics List of politics by country articles Political corruption Political economy Political movement Political parties of the world Political party Political psychology Political sociology Political... Astrometry: the study of the position of objects in the sky and their changes of position. ... Medicine on the Web Medical Alarm & Use Medical Marijuana NLM (National Library of Medicine, contains resources for patients and healthcare professionals) Virtual Hospital (digital health sciences library by the University of Iowa) Online Medical Information- medical news, links and resources. ... Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Music Look up Music in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikisource, as part of the 1911 Encyclopedia Wikiproject, has original text related to this article: Music Meta has a page about this at: Music markup MusicNovatory: the science of music encyclopedia The... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Jurisprudence is the scientific study of law through a philosophical lens. ... Since antiquity, people have tried to understand the behavior of matter: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, and so forth. ... Grammar is the discovery, enunciation, and study of rules governing the use of language. ... One of the most famous quotations about history and the value of studying history, by Spanish philosopher, George Santayana, reads: Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. ...


Writings and Bibliography

Of his works, which are very numerous, many have not yet been printed. A complete list of his works is given in Fabricius (Bibliotheca graeca, x.41). Paul Moore has published a complete bibliography of the works of Psellos entitled Iter Psellianum, Toronto, 2005. Johann Albert Fabricius (November 11, 1668 - April 30, 1736), was a German classical scholar and bibliographer. ...


They may be categorized as follows:

  1. Scientific and philosophicla treatises. The best known example of this is De Operatione Daemonum, a classification of demons.
  2. The Chronographica (covering the events from 976 to 1077), which in spite of its bias in favour of the Ducases is a valuable history of his time, chiefly on domestic affairs. This has been translated by E.R.A. Sewter (London: Penguin, 1982 ISBN 0-140441697).
  3. Various treatises on literary and philological topics.
  4. Three Epitaphioi or funeral orations over the patriarchs Michael Cerularius, Constantine III Lichoudas and Xiphilinus; as well as panegyrics, persuasive speeches (including works against the Bogomils and Euchites), and nearly 500 personal letters, full of details of the period.
  5. Rhetorical exercises and essays on set themes.
  6. Occasional, satirical, and epigrammatic verse

On Psellus himself see: The Temptation of St. ... Events January 10 - Basil II becomes Eastern Roman Emperor, see Byzantine Emperors. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... Michael Cerularius, (b. ... A Panegyric is a formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally high studied and undiscriminating eulogy. ... Bogomils was the name of a defunct Gnostic social-religious movement and doctrine which originated in Macedonia in X century at the time of Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969) as a reaction of the state and clerical oppression. ... The Euchites were a sect that separated from the Christian Eastern (Orthodox) Church in Mesopotamia, and then extended by Asia Minor and Thrace. ... Rhetoric (from Greek ρήτωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar) in Western culture. ...

  • Leo Allatius, De Psellis et eorum scriptis (1634)
  • Émile Egger in Dictionnaire des sciences philosophiques (1875)
  • Alfred Rambaud in Revue historique (1877)
  • PV Bezobrazov, Michel Psellos (1890; in Russian)
  • Carl Neumann, Die Weltstellung des byzantinischen Reiches vor den Kreuzzügen (1894)
  • Karl Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur (1897)
  • JE Sandys, History of Classical Scholarship (1906), i. 411.

Leo Allatius (circa 1586 - January 19, 1669) was an energetic Greek Catholic scholar and theologian. ... Émile Egger (July 18, 1813 - September 1, 1885), French scholar, was born in Paris. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Carl Gottfried Neumann was a German Mathematician, born May 7, 1832 in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia) and died March 27, 1925 in Leipzig. ... Karl Krumbacher (September 23, 1856 - December 12, 1909), German Byzantine scholar, was born at Kurnach in Bavaria. ... Sir John Edwin Sandys was a classical scholar. ...

External link

  • Full Text of Psellus' Chronographia

This article incorporates text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, which is in the public domain. Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Michael VI - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (124 words)
Michael VI Stratioticus, the Warlike or the Bellicose, was Byzantine emperor (1056 - 1057).
He was already an old man when chosen by the empress Theodora as her successor shortly before her death in 1056.
After a successful battle in Phrygia, the rebels had no difficulty in dethroning Michael in 1057, who spent the rest of his life in a monastery.
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