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Encyclopedia > Michael O'Dwyer

Sir Michael Francis O'Dwyer (April 186413 March 1940) was Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab from 1912 until 1919. On the issue of the Amritsar Massacre, O'Dwyer supported General Reginald Dyer's actions and termed the massacre as a "correct action."[1][2] He was later to be assassinated by a Sikh for giving this approval. 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Punjab was a province of British India. ... The Amritsar massacre The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in Amritsar, where, on April 13, 1919, British Indian Army soldiers opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children. ... Reginald Dyer. ...

Contents

Early life

O'Dwyer was the sixth son in a family of fourteen children of John O'Dwyer of Barronstown, Solohead, and Margaret, daughter of Patrick Quirke of Toem, County Tipperary, Ireland. Statistics Province: Munster County Town: North: Nenagh South: Clonmel Code: North: TN South: TS Area: 4,303 km² Population (2006) 149,040[[1]] County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, and situated in the province of Munster. ...


He was educated at St Stanislaus' College in Tullamore and passed the competition for Indian Civil Service in 1882 and the final examination in 1884. [3]. Clongowes Wood College is a private secondary boarding school for boys in County Kildare, Ireland run by the Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) since 1814, making it one of Irelands oldest Catholic schools. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Indian Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym ICS, was the elite civil service of the Indian Government. ...


He completed two years of probation at Balliol College, Oxford, where in third year, he obtained a first class in jurisprudence. Full name Balliol College Motto - Named after John de Balliol Previous names - Established 1263 Sister College St Johns College, Cambridge Master Andrew Graham (academic) Location Broad Street Undergraduates 403 Graduates 228 Homepage Boatclub Balliol College, founded in 1263, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Philosophers of law ask what is law? and what should it be? Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ...


Joining the service in India in 1885, [4] he was first posted at Shahpur in Punjab. He distinguished himself in land revenue settlement work, and was made director of land records and agriculture in Punjab (1896); next year he was placed in charge of settlements of Alwar and Bharatpur States. Shahpur or (Shāhpur Shahapur) is a city in the west Punjab, Pakistan. ... Punjab was a province of British India. ... Alwar is famous for its scenic landscape Alwar is a city in the Rajasthan state of western India. ... , Bharatpur (Hindi:भरतपुर) is a city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. ...


After a long furlough, O'Dwyer was selected by Lord Curzon for a prominent part in organization of the new North-West Frontier Province and its separation from Punjab; he was revenue commissioner from 1901 to 1908. From 1908 through 1909, he was acting resident in Hyderabad [5] and agent to the governor-general in Central India from 1910 to 1912. George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 - March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman and sometime Viceroy of India. ... The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns (Pakhtoons). ... For the tax agency in the United Kingdom of the same name, see HM Revenue and Customs. ... Commissioner is a designation that may be used for a variety of official positions, especially referring to a high-ranking public (administrative or police) official, or an analogous official in the private sector (e. ... Flag of the State of Hyderabad. ...


Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

In December 1912, while Lord Hardinge of Penshurst was Viceroy, he was appointed Lieutenant Governor of the Punjab, a post which he held till 1919. When he assumed charge in May 1913, he was cautioned by the Viceroy that Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst (20 June 1858 - 2 August 1944) was a British diplomat and statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1910 to 1916. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... A Lieutenant Governor is a government official who is the subordinate or deputy of a Governor or Governor-General. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ...

the Punjab was the Province about which the Government were then the most concerned; that there was much inflammable material lying about; which require very careful handling if an explosion is to be avoided.[6]

It was during O'Dwyer's tenure as Lieutenant Governor of Punjab that the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre occurred in Amritsar, on April 13, 1919. According to official figures, 379 unarmed civilians were killed by Gurkha troops under the command of Brigadier General Reginald Dyer with the support of O'Dwyer. Unofficial estimates place the figure much higher, at 2,000, with more wounded. [7] The Amritsar Massacre The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, also known as the Amritsar Massacre, was named after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in the northern Indian city of Amritsar, where, on April 13, 1919, British Indian Army soldiers under the command of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer opened fire on an unarmed gathering... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gurkha, also spelled as Gorkha, are people from Nepal and parts of India, especially northern West Bengal state, who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. ... Reginald Dyer. ...


Modern researchers assert that

this plan was formulated in the Government House, Lahore, by Michael O'Dwyer and other top British bureaucrats both belonging to civil and military side. Lt.-Col. Smith was also present in this meeting.[8] Lahore (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab, and is the second most densely populated city in Pakistan. ...

The meeting, conducted by Michael O'Dwyer, was unofficial and kept secret. It fell to Reginald Dyer (subsequently labelled the "Butcher of Amritsar") to carry out the plan. [9] The main idea was to Reginald Dyer. ...

teach the Punjabis a lesson which they will never forget and to strike a terror throughout Punjab.[10]

After it, the British Labour Party Conference at Scarborough unanimously passed a resolution 24 June 1920, which denounced the "Cruel and barbarious actions" of British officers in Punjab and called for their trial, the recall of O'Dwyer and Chelmsford, and the repeal of the repressive legislation. The delegates rose in their places as a tribute to India's martyred dead.[11] In the wake of the massacre O'Dwyer was relieved of his office. The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ... A View Of Foreshore Road Scarborough . ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Later life

In 1933, O'Dwyer published a large book entitled The O'Dwyers of Kilnamanagh: The History of an Irish Sept, an historical and genealogical treatise detailing the O'Dwyer (Ó Duibhir) noble family who had ruled the area around Thurles from the pre-Norman era until losing their castles and land during the Cromwellian confiscations of the 1600s. It was republished in the 21st century under the title The History of the O'Dwyers. HIStory - Past, Present and Future, Book I is a double-disc album (one half greatest hits, one half studio album) by American musician Michael Jackson released in June of 1995 by the Epic Records division of Sony BMG. The first disc, (HIStory Begins) contains fifteen hit singles from the past... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... The term Hiberno-Norman is used of those Norman lords who settled in Ireland, admitting little if any real fealty to the Anglo-Norman settlers in England. ... Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - December 1650) Ulick Burke, Earl of Clanricarde (December 1650-April 1653) Oliver Cromwell (1649-May 1650) Henry Ireton (May 1650-November 1651) Charles...

Udham Singh leaving Caxton Hall after his arrest
Udham Singh leaving Caxton Hall after his arrest

Image File history File links Guards. ... Image File history File links Guards. ...

Assassination

In his book India as I Knew it, Michael O'Dwyer had remarked in 1925: "The Punjabis were quick to take to heart the lessons that the revolution is a dangerous thing." [12] But the later developments demonstrated how far O'Dwyer was wrong in his assessment of the Punjabis. A few years later, O'Dwyer was shot dead in Caxton Hall in the heart of London on March 13, 1940, by a Punjabi revolutionary, Udham Singh, as an act of revenge for Amritsar. [13]. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Udham Singh (Punjabi: Hindi:उधम सिंह् ; December 26, 1899 – July 31, 1940), born Sher Singh was a Sikh Punjabi Marxist and nationalist best known for assassinating Michael ODwyer in March 1940 in what has been described as an avengement of the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre [1]. Singh was also known as Ram...


Lady Una O'Dwyer

Una O'Dwyer, Sir Michael's wife, was created a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in her own right in 1919. It is not clear if or how many children they had. Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand Cross... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


References

  1. ^ Michael O'Dwyer's telegram to Dyer: "Your action correct. Lieutenant Governor approves", See Disorder Inquiry Committee Report, Vol II, p 197
  2. ^ Saga of Freedom Movement, Udham Singh, 2002, p 67-68 Dr Sikander Singh
  3. ^ Dictionary of National Biography 1931-40, edited by L. G. Wickham Legg, Oxford Univ Press, London, p 655
  4. ^ Ibid.
  5. ^ Ibid.
  6. ^ Ibid.
  7. ^ A Pre-Meditated Plan of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and Oath of Revenge, Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azaad, 2002, pp. 68, 133, 144, 294, Prof Sikander Singh.
  8. ^ The Massacre that Ended the Raj, London, 1981, Alfared Draper
  9. ^ Jallainawala Bagh Massacre — A Premaditated Plan, Punjab University, Chandigarh, 1969, p 24, Raja Ram.
  10. ^ A Pre-Meditated Plan of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and Oath of Revenge, Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azaad, 2002, pp. 133, 144, 294, Prof. Sikander Singh; Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, A Premeditated Plan, Punjab University Chandigarh, 1969, p. 24, Raja Ram.
  11. ^ The Times, London, 25 June 1920, Cited by Derek Sayer, p 41
  12. ^ India as I Knew it, 1925, p 225, Michael O'dWyer
  13. ^ A Saga of Freedom Movement and Jallianwala Massacre, Great Patriot and Martyr, Udham Singh, 2003, p 68, Prof. (Dr.) Sikanadr Singh.

is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...

Books and Journals

  • India as I Know It, London, 1925, Michael O'Dwyer.
  • Dictionary of National Biography 1931-40, edited by L. G. Wickham Legg, Oxford University Press, London.
  • The Massacre that Ended the Raj, London, 1981, Alfared Draper.
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre - A Pre-Mediated Plan, Punjab University, Chandigarh, 1969, Raja Ram.
  • Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azaad, Prof. (Dr.) Sikander Singh (A research book).
  • Emergence of the Image: Redact Documents of Udham Singh/edited by Navtej Singh and Avtar Singh Jouhl,New Delhi, National Book Organisation, 2002.
  • Jallian Wala Bagh Massacre and its Impact on Udham Singh, Proceedings of Punjab History Conference, 21st session, 27 March - 29 March 1987, Punjab University, Patiala, India.
  • Eminent Freedom Fighters of Punjab, Punjab University, Patiala, 1972, Dr Fauja Singh.
  • Sunam Da Surma, Sardar Udham Singh, Jullundur, 1982, Dr. Gurcharana Singh.
  • Shaheed Udham Singh, National Press of India, Delhi, 1973, Kesar Singh.
  • Inqulabhi Yodha Udham Singh, Khalsa Sikh Orphanage, Amritsar, 1974.
  • Shaheed Udham Singh alias Ram Mohammad Singh Azad, 1974, K. C. Vashishat.
  • Jallainwala Bagh and the Raj, Jallian Wala Bagh, Commemoration vol., Patiala.
  • Udham Singh, The Patriot who Avenged the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, M. S. Gill, Illustrated Weekly of India, 30 January 1972.
  • The O'Dwyers of Kilnamanagh: The History of an Irish Sept, Sir Michael F. O'Dwyer, 1933.

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (89th in leap years). ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Punjab University can refer to one of the following: In Pakistan: University of the Punjab, Lahore In India: Panjab University, Chandigarh This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Patiala   (Punjabi: ਪਟਿਆਲਾ) is a city in the Punjab state of India. ... Punjab University can refer to one of the following: In Pakistan: University of the Punjab, Lahore In India: Panjab University, Chandigarh This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Patiala   (Punjabi: ਪਟਿਆਲਾ) is a city in the Punjab state of India. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1973 Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...

See also


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