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Encyclopedia > Michael Ledeen

Michael Ledeen (born August 1, 1941) is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. He is also a contributing editor to the U.S. National Review and the Jewish World Review. Ledeen was a founding member of the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs and he continues to serve on the JINSA Board of Advisors. In 2003, the Washington Post alleged that he was consulted by Karl Rove, George W. Bush's closest advisor, as his main international affairs adviser.[1] Ledeen is also a member of Benador Associates. August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research is a conservative think tank founded in 1943 whose stated mission is to support the foundations of freedom - limited government, private enterprise, vital cultural and political institutions, and a strong foreign policy and national defense. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley Jr. ... Jewish World Review is an online magazine published five days a week, which purports to appeal to people of faith and those interested in learning more about contemporary Judaism from Jews who take their religion seriously. ... The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) describes itself as a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit, non-partisan think-tank focusing on the national security interests of the United States. ... The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) describes itself as a Washington, D.C.-based non-profit, non-partisan think-tank focusing on the national security interests of the United States. ... ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Benador Associates is a public relations firm and speakers bureau that promotes neoconservative writers and speakers focusing primarily on U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. ...


In 1974, Michael Ledeen moved to Rome where he studied Italian fascism and terrorism. In 1977, he went to Washington to join the Center for Strategic and International Studies affiliated with Georgetown University. He continues to visit Italy frequently. After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolinis fascist regime, Italys history was dominated by the Democrazia Cristiana (DC - Christian-Democrats) party for forty years, while the opposition was led by the Italian Communist Party (PCI); this condition endured until the Tangentopoli scandal and operation Mani pulite... The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a Washington, D.C.-based foreign policy think tank. ... Georgetown University, formally the The President and Directors of Georgetown University, is a private university in the United States, located in Georgetown, a historic neighborhood of Washington, D.C. Founded on January 23, 1789 by Archbishop John Carroll, it is both the oldest Roman Catholic and oldest Jesuit university in...


In 1980, Ledeen worked for the Italian military intelligence service as a "risk assessment" consultant.[2] In 1981, Michael Ledeen then became Special Adviser to secretary of state Alexander Haig, previously head of SACEUR (Supreme Allied Commander Europe - NATO's European command center). Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare (Military Intelligence and Security Service, SISMI) is the military intelligence agency of Italy. ... For other people named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... NATO military is divided into two commands, Atlantic and Europe. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ...

Contents

Academic and political career

Ledeen holds a PhD from the University of Wisconsin, where he specialized in Modern Europe. At Washington University, Ledeen was denied tenure, according to history department faculty interviewed by the Washington Post, because of questions reqarding the "quality of his scholarship" and about whether Ledeen had "used the work of somebody else without proper credit". One faculty member said "the 'quasi-irregularity' at issue didn't warrant the negative vote on tenure for Ledeen".[2] The University of Wisconsin–Madison is a public university located in Madison, Wisconsin. ...


Ledeen was subsequently named Visiting Professor at the University of Rome. One of Ledeen's principal mentors was the German-born historian George Mosse, for whom he was research assistant at the time Mosse wrote two famous books on National Socialism. Another major influence on Ledeen was the Italian historian Renzo De Felice. Ledeen, who has always been staunchly anti-fascist, holds political views which stress "the urgency of combating centralized state power and the centrality of human freedom"[3] that are said to have influenced or inspired the Bush administration. George Lachmann Mosse (September 20, 1918, Berlin, Germany-January 22, 1999, Madison, United States) was a German-born American left-wing Jewish gay historian of fascism in general and Nazi Germany in particular. ... Renzo De Felice (1929-May 1996) was a Italian historian of Fascism. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ...


Earlier in his career, Ledeen authored Universal Fascism: The Theory and Practice of the Fascist International, 1928-1936, published in 1972 and now out of print. The book, which was his doctoral disseration, was the first work to explore Mussolini's efforts to create a Fascist international in the late 1920s and early 1930s. 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Ledeen, along with Arnaud de Borchgrave, wrote a series of articles published in The New Republic and elsewhere about Billy Carter's contacts with the Muammar Gaddafi regime in Libya. Arnaud de Borchgrave is a conservative journalist of Flemish extraction who focuses on international politics. ... For other uses, see the disambiguation section. ... Billy and Jimmy Carter William Alton Billy Carter (March 29, 1937 – September 25, 1988), the younger brother of United States President Jimmy Carter, was born in Plains, Georgia. ... Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 (Arabic: معمر القذافي Mu`ammar al-Qadhdhāfī) (born 1942), leader of Libya since 1970 and a controversial Arab statesman. ...


Italy

Ledeen has often been accused of associations with shady organizations. According to the Asia Times, for example, "Ledeen's right-wing Italian connections - including alleged ties to the P2 masonic lodge that rocked Italy in the early 1980s - have long been a source of speculation and intrigue, but he returned to Washington in 1981 as "anti-terrorism" advisor to the new secretary of state, Al Haig." P2 was also involved in Operation Gladio, which was managed by NATO.[1] Michael Ledeen has denied any connections with Licio Gelli's masonic lodge. However, he acknowledged being paid by the SISMI in 1980 for "risk assessment". The SISMI secret services, along with P2 and Gladio, were involved in Italy's strategy of tension.[2] Asia Times Online is an Internet-only publication that reports and examines geopolitical, political, economic and business issues, looking at these from an Asian perspective. ... P2 is the common name for the Italian pseudo-Freemasonic lodge Propaganda Due (Italian: Propaganda Two). ... For other people named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... Licio Gelli (born in Pistoia, Tuscany, April 21, 1919), was the masonic Worshipful Master of the powerful Italian lodge Propaganda Due (P2), involved in Gladios strategy of tension. He has been involved in almost all of the Italian scandals in the past three decades (Tangentopoli, which led to the... Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare (Military Intelligence and Security Service, SISMI) is the military intelligence agency of Italy. ... The strategy of tension (Italian: strategia della tensione) is a way to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, false flag terrorism actions and even terroristic actions. ...


The Iran-Contra scandal

Main article: Iran-Contra scandal

Ledeen was a major figure in the biggest foreign policy scandal of the Ronald Reagan administration. As a consultant of National Security Adviser Robert C. McFarlane, Ledeen vouched for Iranian intermediary Manucher Ghorbanifar, and met with Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres, and officials of the Israeli Foreign Ministry and the CIA to arrange meetings with high-ranking Iranian officials and the much-criticized weapons-for-hostages deal with Iran that would become known as the Iran-Contra scandal.[4] In the Iran-Contra Affair, United States President Ronald Reagans administration secretly sold arms to Iran, which was engaged in a bloody war with its neighbor Iraq from 1980 to 1988 (see Iran-Iraq War), and diverted the proceeds to the Contra rebels fighting to overthrow the leftist and... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... National Security Advisor may mean: United States National Security Advisor National Security Advisor (Canada) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Robert Carl Bud McFarlane (born 1937), was a U.S. Marine Corps officer assigned to the post of United States National Security Advisor in 1983, ceasing to hold it in 1985. ... Manucher Ghorbanifar (nickname Gorba) is an expatriate Iranian arms dealer best known as a middleman in the Iran-Contra Affair during the Ronald Reagan presidency. ...   (Hebrew: ; born Shimon Perske on August 2, 1923 in Poland, and immigrated with his family to Palestine in 1934), is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minister and current Vice Premier. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... In the Iran-Contra Affair, United States President Ronald Reagans administration secretly sold arms to Iran, which was engaged in a bloody war with its neighbor Iraq from 1980 to 1988 (see Iran-Iraq War), and diverted the proceeds to the Contra rebels fighting to overthrow the leftist and...


Yellowcake forgery allegations

Main article: Yellowcake forgery

Michael Ledeen has been accused by opponents of being involved in the forgery which claimed that Saddam Hussein had bought yellowcake in Niger. The term Yellowcake Forgery refers to falsified classified documents initially uncovered by Italian intelligence which possibly depicted an attempt by Iraqs Saddam Hussein regime to purchase yellowcake uranium from the country of Niger, in defiance of United Nations sanctions. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majidida al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ [1]; born April 28, 1937[2]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003, when he was deposed during the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


In 2005, Vincent Cannistraro, former head of counterterrorism operations at the CIA and the intelligence director at the National Security Council under Ronald Reagan, when asked by Ian Masters if Ledeen was the source of the forged memo, replied, "You'd be very close." However, just moments earlier when asked, "Do we know who produced those documents?" Cannistraro stated, " I’d rather not speak about it right now, because I don’t think it’s a proven case"[5] Vincent Cannistraro was Director of NSC Intelligence from November 1984 to January 1987 [1]. He was Special Assistant for Intelligence in the office of the Secretary of Defense (January 1987-October 1988). ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ...


Former CIA counter-terrorism officer Philip Giraldi, who is Cannistraro's business partner and a columnist for The American Conservative, a paleoconservative magazine, said in an interview on July 26, 2005 that the forgeries were produced by "a couple of former CIA officers who are familiar with that part of the world who are associated with a certain well-known neoconservative who has close connections with Italy" and went on to confirm that he was referring to Leeden. Giraldi added that the ex-CIA officers "also had some equity interests, shall we say, with the operation. A lot of these people are in consulting positions, and they get various, shall we say, emoluments in overseas accounts, and that kind of thing."[6] The American Conservative (TAC) is a biweekly magazine founded by Scott McConnell, Pat Buchanan, and Taki Theodoracopulos, and edited by McConnell. ... The term paleoconservative (sometimes shortened to paleo or paleocon when the context is clear) refers to an American branch of conservative Old Right thought that is frequently at odds with the current of conservative thought as espoused by the Republican Party elite. ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Giraldi more recently stated in The American Conservative:[7]

At this point, any American connection to the actual forgeries remains unsubstantiated, though the OSP at a minimum connived to circumvent established procedures to present the information directly to receptive policy makers in the White House. But if the OSP is more deeply involved, Michael Ledeen, who denies any connection with the Niger documents, would have been a logical intermediary in co-ordinating the falsification of the documents and their surfacing, as he was both a Pentagon contractor and was frequently in Italy. He could have easily been assisted by ex-CIA friends from Iran-Contra days, including a former Chief of Station from Rome, who, like Ledeen, was also a consultant for the Pentagon and the Iraqi National Congress. It would have been extremely convenient for the administration, struggling to explain why Iraq was a threat, to be able to produce information from an unimpeachable “foreign intelligence source” to confirm the Iraqi worst-case. The possible forgery of the information by Defense Department employees would explain the viciousness of the attack on Valerie Plame and her husband. Wilson, when he denounced the forgeries in the New York Times in July 2003, turned an issue in which there was little public interest into something much bigger. The investigation continues, but the campaign against this lone detractor suggests that the administration was concerned about something far weightier than his critical op-ed.

Andrew McCarthy and Mark R. Levin have defended Leeden, writing[8]

Up until now, the fiction recklessly spewed by disgruntled intelligence-community retirees and their media enablers — some of whom have conceded that the claim is based on zero evidence — has been that Michael had something to do with the forged Italian documents that, according to the Left’s narrative, were the basis for President Bush’s “lie” in the 2003 State of the Union Address that Saddam Hussein had obtained yellowcake uranium (for nuclear-weapons construction) in Africa. Of course,
  • Michael had utterly nothing to do with the forgeries (the source has actually been identified);
  • the forgeries were not the basis for the president’s statement; the president did not claim Saddam obtained yellowcake — merely that intelligence reports indicated that Saddam had sought to obtain it; and
  • the British intelligence reports that actually were the basis for the president’s statement were true (the Brits stand by them to this day).
But hey, why let the truth get in the way of a good story? (bulleting added)

In typography, a bullet is a typographical symbol or glyph used to introduce items in a list, like below: This is the text of a list item. ...

Regime change advocacy

Regarding regime change in the Middle East, in 2002 Ledeen criticized the views of former National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft, writing:[9] Regime change is the overthrow of a government (or regime) considered illegitimate by an external force (usually military), and its replacement with a new government according to the ideas and/or interests promoted by that force. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ...

He fears that if we attack Iraq "I think we could have an explosion in the Middle East. It could turn the whole region into a caldron and destroy the War on Terror."
One can only hope that we turn the region into a cauldron, and faster, please. If ever there were a region that richly deserved being cauldronized, it is the Middle East today. If we wage the war effectively, we will bring down the terror regimes in Iraq, Iran, and Syria, and either bring down the Saudi monarchy or force it to abandon its global assembly line to indoctrinate young terrorists.
That's our mission in the war against terror.

In 1979, Ledeen was one of the first Western writers to point out that Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini was a "clerical fascist," and that while it was legitimate to criticize the Shah's regime, if Khomeini seized power in Iran, the Iranian people would suffer an even greater loss of freedom, and that Khomeini would deprive women of political and social rights.


Ledeen's phrase, "faster, please" has become a signature meme in Ledeen's writings and is often referenced by neoconservative writers advocating a more forceful and broader "war on terror" to be conducted primarily by political support for democratic revolutionaries in the Middle East. It has been suggested that Memetic engineering be merged into this article or section. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda...


Ledeen specifically called for the deposition of Saddam Hussein's regime by force in 2002:

So it's good news when Scowcroft comes out against the desperately-needed and long overdue war against Saddam Hussein and the rest of the terror masters. [10]

and:

Question #2: Okay, well if we are all so certain about the dire need to invade Iraq, then when do we do so?
Ledeen: Yesterday [11]

Although Ledeen was in favor of regime change in Iraq, he believed that Iran should have been the first priority. This position has led some to accuse Ledeen of lying about his position on Iraq. However, Ledeen mantains he "opposed the military invasion of Iraq before it took place and I advocated—as I still do—support for political revolution in Iran as the logical and necessary first step in the war against the terror masters." [12]


Controversial theories

Ledeen is a prominent advocate of regime change from within in Iran, as he had earlier supported the dissident movements within the Soviet Empire. Many of Ledeen's National Review columns are devoted to this topic. National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley Jr. ...


Ledeen also believes that Iran is the main backer of the insurgency in Iraq and even supports the al-Qaida network formerly led by al-Zarqawi despite its declaration of jihad against Shi'ite Muslims.[13] He claims that German and Italian court documents showed Zarqawi created a European terrorist network while based in Tehran.[13] An insurgency is an armed revolt or insurrection against an established civil or political authority, such as a constituted government or an occupation by an invading force. ... Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in one of eight photos from Rewards for Justice, all undated. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Djehad, Jawwad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which although to some connotes an inward spiritual struggle refers to the struggle to mobilize the energies and capabilities of Islamic individuals and groups... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


Ledeen is a board member of the "Coalition for Democracy in Iran" (CDI), founded by Morris Amitay, a former lobbyist for the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC). Ledeen has also been part of the board of the U.S. Committee for a Free Lebanon. According to the Washington Post, quoted by Asia Times, he is the only full-time international affairs analyst regularly consulted by Karl Rove, George W. Bush's closest advisor[1] U.S. President George W. Bush addresses AIPAC members in Washington on May 18, 2004. ... ... Asia Times Online is an Internet-only publication that reports and examines geopolitical, political, economic and business issues, looking at these from an Asian perspective. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


He also supported the theory that the Bulgarian Secret Service was behind former Grey Wolves member Mehmet Ali Ağca's 1981 attempt to assassinate Pope John Paul II. A competing conspiracy theory points toward Gladio, a NATO network believed to have supported the Grey Wolves and the strategy of tension in Italy. Grey Wolves (Bozkurtlar in Turkish) is the youth organization of the Turkish Nationalist Movement Party (Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi, MHP), an ultra-nationalist[1] movement founded by Alparslan TürkeÅŸ in 1969. ... Mehmet Ali AÄŸca (born January 9, 1958) is a Turkish assassin, who shot and wounded Pope John Paul II on May 13, 1981. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), (Italian: Giovanni Paolo II), born   (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from October... A conspiracy theory attempts to explain the ultimate cause of an event or chain of events (usually political, social, or historical events) as a secret, and often deceptive, plot by a covert alliance of powerful or influential people or organizations. ... Operation Gladio Operation Gladio was a clandestine stay-behind operation sponsored by the CIA and NATO to counter communist influence in Italy, as well as in other European countries. ... The strategy of tension (Italian: strategia della tensione) is a way to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, false flag terrorism actions and even terroristic actions. ...


In a 2003 column entitled "A Theory," Ledeen outlined a possibility that France and Germany, both NATO allies of the United States, "struck a deal with radical Islam and with radical Arabs" to use "extremism and terrorism as the weapon of choice" to bring down a potential American Empire. He stated, "It sounds fanciful, to be sure," but that, "If this is correct, we will have to pursue the war against terror far beyond the boundaries of the Middle East, into the heart of Western Europe. And there, as in the Middle East, our greatest weapons are political: the demonstrated desire for freedom of the peoples of the countries that oppose us."[14] NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... This article is about views of the historical expansionism and current international influence of the United States. ...


Jonah Goldberg, Ledeen's colleague at National Review magazine, coined the term "Ledeen Doctrine" in a 2002 column.[1] This tongue-in-cheek "doctrine" is usually summarized as "Every ten years or so, the United States needs to pick up some small crappy little country and throw it against the wall, just to show the world we mean business," which Goldberg remembered Ledeen saying in an early 1990s speech. The term "Ledeen Doctrine" is often mistakenly attributed to Michael Ledeen himself. Jonah Jacob Goldberg (born March 21, 1969), an American conservative commentator. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley Jr. ...


Opponents

Writing in The Nation, a left-wing magazine, Jack Hubermanm, who describes Leeden as "the most influential and unabashed warmonger of our time", attributes these quotes to Leeden:[15] This article is about the U.S publication. ...

  • "the level of casualties (in Iraq) is secondary"
  • "we are a warlike people (Americans)...we love war"
  • "Change—above all violent change—is the essence of human history"
  • "the only way to achieve peace is through total war"
  • "The purpose of total war is to permanently force your will onto another people"
  • "Every ten years or so, the United States needs to pick up some small crappy little country and throw it against the wall, just to show the world we mean business"

From the other side of politics, The American Conservative has claimed that Leeden has strong sympathies for Italian fascism and that "Ledeen’s careful distinction between fascist 'regime' and 'movement' makes him a clear apologist for the latter."[16] Ledeen is also targeted with some reguarlity at Antiwar.com, particularly by Justin Raimondo. The American Conservative (TAC) is a biweekly magazine founded by Scott McConnell, Pat Buchanan, and Taki Theodoracopulos, and edited by McConnell. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Antiwar. ... Justin Raimondo (born November 18, 1951) is a libertarian/paleoconservative author and the editorial director of the website Antiwar. ...


Bibliography

  • Universal Fascism; the Theory and Practice of the Fascist International, 1928-1936, New York, H. Fertig, 1972
  • co-written with Renzo De Felice Fascism : An Informal Introduction To Its Theory And Practice, New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Books, 1976 ISBN 0-87855-190-5.
  • The First Duce : D'Annunzio at Fiume, Baltimore ; London : Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977 ISBN 0-8018-1860-5.
  • Italy In Crisis, Beverly Hills [Calif.] : Sage publications, 1977 ISBN 0-8039-0792-3.
  • co-written with George Mosse Nazism : A Historical and Comparative Analysis of National Socialism, New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Books, 1978 ISBN 0-87855-661-3.
  • co-written with William Lewis Debacle, The American Failure in Iran, New York : Knopf :distributed by Random House, 1981 ISBN 0-394-51657-7.
  • Grave New World, New York : Oxford University Press, 1985 ISBN 0-19-503491-0.
  • West European Communism and American Foreign Policy, New Brunswick, N.J., U.S.A. : Transaction Books, 1987 ISBN 0-88738-140-5.
  • Perilous Statecraft: An Insider's Account of the Iran-Contra Affair, New York : Scribner, 1988 ISBN 0-684-18994-1.
  • Superpower Dilemmas: the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. at Century's End, New Brunswick, U.S.A. : Transaction Publishers, 1992 ISBN 0-88738-891-4.
  • Freedom Betrayed: How America Led a Global Democratic Revolution, Won the Cold War, and Walked Away, Washington, D.C. : AEI Press ; London : Distributed outside the United States by arrangement with Eurospan, 1996 ISBN 0-8447-3992-8.
  • Machiavelli on Modern Leadership : Why Machiavelli's Iron Rules Are As Timely and Important Today as Five Centuries Ago, New York : Truman Talley Books/St. Martin's Press, 1999 ISBN 0-312-20471-X.
  • The War against The Terror Masters: Why It Happened, Where We Are Now, How We'll Win, New York : St. Martin's Press, 2002 ISBN 0-312-30644-X.

Renzo De Felice (1929-May 1996) was a Italian historian of Fascism. ... George Lachmann Mosse (September 20, 1918, Berlin, Germany-January 22, 1999, Madison, United States) was a German-born American left-wing Jewish gay historian of fascism in general and Nazi Germany in particular. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c "Veteran neo-con advisor moves on Iran", Asia Times, June 26, 2003. Retrieved on May 2, 2006.
  2. ^ a b c "Ledeen Seems To Relish Iran Insider's Role," Charles R. Babcock. The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.: Feb 2, 1987. pg. a.01.
  3. ^ A Theory, Michael Leeden, National Review Online, March 10, 2003.
  4. ^ Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran/Contra Matters Volume I: "Investigations and Prosecution", Lawrence E. Walsh, Independent Counsel, August 4, 1993, Washington, D.C.
  5. ^ Who Forged the Niger Documents?, Ian Masters, Alternet.com, April 7, 2005.
  6. ^ http://weekendinterviewshow.com/audio/giraldi_ledeen_clip.mp3 (MP3 Audio) interview with Philip Giraldi, July 26, 2005.
  7. ^ Forging the Case for War, Philip Giraldi, American Conservative, November 21, 2005.
  8. ^ Rolling Smear, Andrew McCarthy and Mark R. Levin, National Review Online, July 28, 2006.
  9. ^ Scowcroft Strikes Out, Michael Ledeen, National Review Online, August 6, 2002.
  10. ^ Scowcroft Strikes Out, Michael Ledeen, National Review Online, August 6, 2002.
  11. ^ To Invade Iraq or Not; That is the Question. Jamie Glazov, FrontPageMagazine.com, August 12, 2002.
  12. ^ The Latest Disinformation from Vanity Fair Michael Ledeen, National Review Online, November 04, 2006
  13. ^ a b Iran Connects the Dots, Michael Ledeen, National Review Online, June 9, 2006
  14. ^ A Theory, Michael Ledeen, National Review Online, March 10, 2003
  15. ^ Who's Really Screwing America: #26: Michael Ledeen: Improving on Mussolini, Jack Huberman, The Nation, June 23, 2006.
  16. ^ "Flirting with Fascism", John Laughland, The American Conservative, June 30, 2003.

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Flirting with Fascism (979 words)
Ledeen later made clear that he relished the ire of the left-wing establishment precisely because “De Felice was challenging the conventional wisdom of Italian Marxist historiography, which had always insisted that fascism was a reactionary movement.” What de Felice showed, by contrast, was that Italian fascism was both right-wing and revolutionary.
The young Ledeen wrote that those who exalted the position of youth in the fascist revolution—like those who argued in favor of his beloved “universal fascism”—were committed to exporting Italian fascism to the whole world, an idea in which Mussolini was initially uninterested.
As Ledeen shows, the Italian fascists expressed their desire “to tear down the old order” (his words from 2002) in terms that are curiously anticipatory of a famous statement in 2003 by the Defense Secretary, Donald Rumsfeld.
Man of the World - The Boston Globe (1354 words)
For Ledeen, early 20th-century European mass politics, rooted in a half-millennium-old cultural legacy, could serve as a wellspring for reinvigorating contemporary middle-class nationalism, particularly in the United States.
The call for the United States to be at the forefront of a global crusade to spread democracy became one of the defining features of neoconservative ideology, a heady brew of American nationalism and an internationalist crusade for democracy that transcended traditional left-right divisions.
Ledeen is especially contemptuous of leaders he regards as weak and corrupt, such as Bill Clinton.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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