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Encyclopedia > Michael Foot
The Right Honourable
 Michael Foot


In office
4 November 1980 – 2 October 1983
Preceded by James Callaghan
Succeeded by Neil Kinnock

In office
5 April 1976 – 4 November 1980
Preceded by Edward Short
Succeeded by Denis Healey

In office
8 April 1976 – 4 May 1979
Prime Minister James Callaghan
Preceded by Edward Short
Succeeded by Christopher Soames (Lord President)
Norman St John-Stevas (Leader)

In office
5 March 1974 – 8 April 1976
Prime Minister Harold Wilson
Preceded by William Whitelaw
Succeeded by Albert Booth

Born 23 July 1913 (1913-07-23) (age 94)
Plymouth, Devon, England
Political party Labour

Michael Mackintosh Foot (born 23 July 1913) is a British politician and writer. He was leader of the Labour Party from 1980 to 1983. Michael Foot could refer to: Michael Foot, the British politician Michael Richard Daniell Foot, the British historian Category: ... The Right Honourable (abbreviated as or ) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... Image File history File links Michael_Foot. ... The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Most Loyal Opposition. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, PC (born 28 March 1942) is a British politician. ... The British Labour Party has always sought to ensure that the power to shape party policy was not consolidated in the hands of the leader. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Edward Watson Short, Baron Glenamara (born 17 December 1912), is a former Labour MP for Newcastle upon Tyne, who was a minister during the Labour Governments of Harold Wilson. ... Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey, CH, MBE, PC (born 30 August 1917), is a British Labour politician. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... Edward Watson Short, Baron Glenamara (born 17 December 1912), is a former Labour MP for Newcastle upon Tyne, who was a minister during the Labour Governments of Harold Wilson. ... Arthur Christopher John, Baron Soames GCMG GCVO CBE PC (October 12, 1920 – September 16, 1987) was a British Conservative politician and the son-in-law of Winston Churchill. ... Norman Anthony Francis St John-Stevas, Baron St John of Fawsley, PC (born May 18, 1929), is a British Conservative politician, author and barrister. ... Minister of Labour re-directs here. ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Harold Wilson, see Harold Wilson (disambiguation). ... William Stephen Ian Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, KT, CH, MC, PC, DL (June 28, 1918 – July 1, 1999), commonly known as Willie Whitelaw, was a British Conservative politician. ... Albert Edward Booth (born 28 May 1928) is a Labour Party (UK) politician. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ...

Contents

Family

Foot's father, Isaac Foot, was a solicitor and founder of the Plymouth law firm, Foot and Bowden. Isaac Foot was an active member of the Liberal Party and was Liberal Member of Parliament for Bodmin in Cornwall 19221924 and 19291935 and a Lord Mayor of Plymouth.[1] The Right Honourable Isaac Foot (23 February 1880 - 13 December 1960) was a British politician and solicitor. ... A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and in a few regions of the United States. ... The Right Honourable Isaac Foot (23 February 1880 - 13 December 1960) was a British politician and solicitor. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Bodmin was a constituency in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom until 1868, when its representation was reduced to one member. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Councillor Patrick (Pat) John Stannard, Lord Mayor of Oxford (2004). ...


Michael Foot is the younger brother of the late Sir Dingle Foot MP, and also of the Liberal politician Lord Foot (previously John Foot), and of the late Lord Caradon (previously Hugh Foot), a Governor of Cyprus and a former representative of the United Kingdom at the United Nations from 1964-1970, whose late son was the campaigning journalist Paul Foot. The Right Honourable Sir Dingle Mackintosh Foot QC (1905-1978), was a British lawyer and politician, was born in Plymouth in Devon. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... John Foot, Baron Foot (1909-1999) was a Liberal Member of Parliament and Life Peer. ... Hugh Mackintosh Foot, Baron Caradon, PC (8 October 1907 - 5 September 1990) was a British diplomat who oversaw moves to independence in various colonies and was UK representative to the United Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Foot, campaigning journalist Paul Mackintosh Foot (8 November 1937 in Palestine – 18 July 2004 at Stansted Airport) was a British investigative journalist, political campaigner, author, and long-time member of the Socialist Workers Party (SWP). ...


Early life

Michael Foot was born in Plymouth, Devon, and educated at Plymouth College Preparatory School and Leighton Park School in Reading. He then went on to read Philosophy, Politics and Economics at Wadham College, Oxford. Foot was president of the Oxford Union. He also took part in the ESU USA Tour (the debating tour of the USA run by the English-Speaking Union. On graduating in 1934, he took a job as a shipping clerk in Liverpool. Foot was profoundly influenced by the poverty and unemployment that he witnessed in Liverpool, on a different scale from anything he had seen in Plymouth. A Liberal up to this time, Foot was converted to Socialism by Oxford University Labour Club president David Lewis and others: "... I knew him [at Oxford] when I was a Liberal [and Lewis] played a part in converting me to socialism." [2] Foot joined the Labour Party and first stood for parliament at the age of 22 in the 1935 general election when he contested Monmouth. During this election Foot criticised the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, for seeking rearmament. In his election address Foot contended that "THE ARMAMENTS RACE IN EUROPE MUST BE STOPPED NOW".[3] Foot also supported unilateral disarmament, after multilateral disarmament talks at Geneva had broken down in 1933.[4] This article is about the city in England. ... For other uses, see Devon (disambiguation). ... Plymouth College (PMC) is an independent school (or public school) situated in Plymouth, Devon, England. ... Leighton Park School is an independent coeducational Quaker secondary school for both boarding and day pupils in Reading, Berkshire, England. ... , Reading is a town, unitary authority (the Borough of Reading) and urban area in the English county of Berkshire. ... Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) is a popular interdisciplinary degree which combines study from the three eponymous disciplines. ... College name Wadham College Named after Nicholas Wadham Established 1610 Sister College Christs College Warden Sir Neil Chalmers JCR President Ben Jasper Undergraduates 460 MCR President David Patrikarakos Graduates 180 Homepage Boatclub Wadham College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England, located at the southern... The Oxford Union Society, commonly referred to simply as the Oxford Union, is a private debating society in the city of Oxford, England, whose membership is drawn primarily but not exclusively from the University of Oxford. ... The English-Speaking Union is an international educational charity founded in 1918 to promote international understanding and friendship through the use of the English language. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... David Lewis (born Losz),[1] CC, MA (June 23, or October 1909 -May 23, 1981)[1][2] was a Russian-born Canadian labour lawyer and social democratic politician. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Stanley Baldwin Clement Attlee The UK general election held on 14th November 1935 resulted in a large, though reduced, majority for the National Government now led by Stanley Baldwin. ... Monmouth (Welsh: Trefynwy) is a town in south Wales, county town of the historic county of Monmouthshire. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


He became a journalist, working briefly on the New Statesman before joining the left-wing weekly Tribune when it was set up in early 1937 to support the Unity Campaign, an attempt to secure an anti-fascist United Front between Labour and the parties to its left. The campaign's members were Stafford Cripps's (Labour-affiliated) Socialist League, the Independent Labour Party and the Communist Party of Great Britain (CP). Foot resigned in 1938 after the paper's first editor, William Mellor, was fired for refusing to adopt a new CP policy of backing a Popular Front, including non-socialist parties, against fascism and appeasement. The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... Tribune is a democratic socialist weekly, currently a magazine though in the past more often a newspaper, published in London. ... Anti-Fascism is a belief and practice of opposing all forms of Fascism. ... In Leninist bogus, a united front is a coalition of Clinton likeleft-wing working class forces which put forward a common set of demands and share a common plan of action, but which do not subordinate themselves to the front, retaining their abilities for independent political action and continuing to... Sir Richard Stafford Cripps (24 April 1889 – 21 April 1952) was a British Labour politician and Chancellor of the Exchequer for several years after the Second World War. ... The Socialist League was a socialist organisation in the United Kingdom. ... The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a former political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was the largest communist party in the United Kingdom, though it never became a mass party like the Communist parties of France and Italy. ... William Mellor (1888-1942) was a leftwing UK journalist. ... A popular front is a broad coalition of different political groupings, often made up of leftists and centrists who are united by opposition to another group (most often fascist or far-right groups). ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ...


Journalist

On the recommendation of Aneurin Bevan, Foot was soon hired by Lord Beaverbrook to work as a writer on his Evening Standard. (Bevan is supposed to have told Beaverbrook on the phone: "I've got a young bloody knight-errant here. They sacked his boss, so he resigned. Have a look at him.") At the outbreak of the second world war, Foot volunteered for military service, but was rejected due to his chronic asthma. In 1940, under the pen-name "Cato" he and two other Beaverbrook journalists (Frank Owen, editor of the Standard, and Peter Howard of the Daily Express) published Guilty Men, a Left Book Club book attacking the appeasement policy of the Chamberlain government that became a run-away best-seller. A statue of Bevan in Cardiff. ... Sir William Maxwell Max Aitken, 1st Baron Beaverbrook (May 25, 1879 - June 9, 1964) was a Canadian–British business tycoon and politician. ... Headlines of the Evening Standard on the day of London bombing on July 7, 2005, in Waterloo Station The Evening Standard is a British tabloid newspaper published and sold in London and surrounding areas of southeast England. ... Peter Howard (died 1965) was a British journalist, playwright, and the head of Moral Re-Armament in 1961-1965. ... Guilty Men was a polemic book published in the summer of 1940 in the United Kingdom, which attacked the leading politicians of the 1930s for failing to confront Nazi Germany. ... The Left Book Club, founded in 1936, was a key left-wing institution of the late 1930s and 1940s in the United Kingdom. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... This article is about the British Prime Minister. ...


Beaverbrook made Foot editor of the Evening Standard in 1942 at the age of 28. Foot left in 1945 to join the Daily Herald, then jointly owned by the TUC and Odhams Press and effectively an official Labour Party paper, as a columnist, and to fight Plymouth Devonport in the 1945 general election. He won the seat for Labour for the first time, holding it until his surprise defeat by Dame Joan Vickers at the 1955 general election. He rejoined Tribune as editor from 1948 to 1952, and was again the paper's editor from 1955 to 1960. Until 1957, he was the most prominent ally of Aneurin Bevan, who had taken Cripps's place as leader of the Labour left, though Foot and Bevan fell out after Bevan renounced unilateral nuclear disarmament at the 1957 Labour Party conference. Headlines of the Evening Standard on the day of London bombing on July 7, 2005, in Waterloo Station The Evening Standard is a British tabloid newspaper published and sold in London and surrounding areas of southeast England. ... The Daily Herald was a London newspaper. ... Trades Union Congress headquarters at Congress House in Great Russell Street near Tottenham Court Road, Camden, London. ... Odhams Press was a British publishing firm. ... Plymouth, Devonport is a borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Clement Attlee Winston Churchill The United Kingdom General Election of 1945 held on 5 July 1945 but not counted and declared until 26 July 1945 (due to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas) was one of the most significant general elections of the 20th... Joan Helen Vickers, Baroness Vickers, DBE (1907-23 May 1994) was elected Conservative Member of Parliament for Devonport in 1955, defeating Michael Foot, and sat until 1974. ... The 1955 United Kingdom general election was held on May 26, 1955, four years after the previous general election. ... Tribune is a democratic socialist weekly, currently a magazine though in the past more often a newspaper, published in London. ... A statue of Bevan in Cardiff. ... Unilateral nuclear disarmament, the policy of independently revoking nuclear arms, has been advocated in Britain by the Labour Party left and by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament since Britain became a nuclear power in the 1950s. ...


Member of Parliament

Before the cold war began in the late 1940s, Foot favoured a 'third way' foreign policy for Europe (he was joint author with Richard Crossman and Ian Mikardo of the pamphlet Keep Left in 1947), but in the wake of the communist seizure of power in Hungary and Czechoslovakia he and Tribune took a strongly anti-communist position, eventually embracing NATO. Richard Howard Stafford Crossman (15 December 1907 to April 1974) was a British politician and writer. ... Ian Mikardo (9 July 1908 - 6 May 1993), commonly known as Mik, was a British Labour and Co-operative politician. ... Keep Left was a pamphlet published in the United Kingdom in 1947 by the New Statesman, written by Michael Foot, Richard Crossman and Ian Mikardo that advocated a democratic socialist third force foreign policy – a socialist Europe acting independently from either the United States or the Soviet Union – against the... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Foot was however a critic of the west's handling of the Korean war, an opponent of West German rearmament in the early 1950s and a founder member of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. Under his editorship, Tribune opposed both the British government's Suez adventure and the Soviet crushing of the Hungarian revolution in 1956. Foot returned to parliament in 1960 at a by-election for Ebbw Vale in Monmouthshire, left vacant by Bevan's death. Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... The Wiederbewaffnung (German: Rearmament) referrs to the foundation of the Bundeswehr, the West German army in 1955. ... CND redirects here. ... Northermost part of Gulf of Suez with town Suez on map of 1856. ... There have been a number of Hungarian Revolutions: 1848 Hungarian Revolution 1919 Hungarian Revolution 1956 Hungarian Revolution This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For the Ebbw Vale in Australia, see Ebbw Vale, Queensland. ... Monmouthshire (Welsh: ) is both a historic county and principal area in south-east Wales. ...


He had the Labour whip withdrawn in March 1961 after rebelling against the Labour leadership over air force estimates. He only returned to the Parliamentary Labour Group in 1963 when Harold Wilson replaced Hugh Gaitskell as Labour leader. Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell (April 9, 1906 – January 18, 1963) was a British politician, leader of the Labour Party from 1955 until his death in 1963. ...


Harold Wilson – the subject of an enthusiastic campaign biography by Foot published by Robert Maxwell's Pergamon Press in 1964 – offered Foot a place in his first government, but Foot turned it down. Instead he became the leader of Labour's left opposition from the back benches, dazzling the Commons with his command of rhetoric. He opposed the government's moves to restrict immigration, join the Common Market and reform the trade unions, was against the Vietnam war and Rhodesia's unilateral declaration of independence, and denounced the Soviet suppression of "socialism with a human face" in Czechoslovakia in 1968. He also famously allied with the Tory right-winger Enoch Powell to scupper the government's plan to abolish the voting rights of hereditary peers and create a House of Lords comprising only life peers – a "seraglio of eunuchs" as Foot put it. For other persons named Harold Wilson, see Harold Wilson (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Robert Maxwell, see Robert Maxwell (disambiguation). ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... John Enoch Powell, MBE (June 16, 1912 – February 8, 1998) was a British politician, linguist, writer, academic, soldier and poet. ...


In 1967, Foot challenged James Callaghan but failed to win the post of Treasurer of the Labour Party. Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... The Treasurer of the Labour Party is a position on the National Executive Committee of the British Labour Party. ...


In government

After 1970 Labour moved to the left and Wilson came to an accommodation with Foot. In April 1972, he stood for the Deputy Leadership of the party, along with Edward Short and Anthony Crosland, who was eliminated in the first ballot. Short defeated Foot in the second ballot though. The British Labour Party has always sought to ensure that the power to shape party policy was not consolidated in the hands of the leader. ... Edward Watson Short, Baron Glenamara (born 17 December 1912), is a former Labour MP for Newcastle upon Tyne, who was a minister during the Labour Governments of Harold Wilson. ... Charles Anthony Raven Crosland (29 August 1918 - 19 February 1977) was a member of the Labour Party and an important socialist theorist. ...


When Labour returned to office in March 1974 under Harold Wilson, Foot became Secretary of State for Employment, in which role he played the major part in the government's efforts to keep the trade unions on side. He was also responsible for the Health and Safety at Work Act. Foot was one of the mainstays of the "no" campaign in the 1975 referendum on British membership of the European Economic Community. When Wilson retired in 1976, Foot contested the party leadership, leading in the first ballot, but was ultimately defeated by James Callaghan. Later that year he was elected deputy leader and served as Leader of the House of Commons, which gave him the unenviable task of trying to maintain the survival of the Callaghan government as its majority evaporated. Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The Health and Safety at Work Act (HASWA or HASAWA) is a United Kingdom law enacted in 1974 that set basic principles which must be followed by both employees and employers to help ensure a safe working environment. ... The United Kingdom referendum of 1975 was a postlegislative referendum held on 5 June 1975 in the whole of the UK over whether there was support for the UK to stay in the European Economic Community, which the UK had entered in 1973, under the Conservative government of Edward Heath. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Labour Party leadership election of 1976 occurred when former leader Harold Wilson resigned as Party Leader and Prime Minister. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ...


Labour Leadership

Following Labour's 1979 general election defeat by Margaret Thatcher, Foot was elected Labour leader in 1980, beating the right's candidate Denis Healey in the second round of the leadership election (the last leadership contest to involve only Labour MPs). Foot presented himself as a compromise candidate capable, unlike Healey, of uniting the party, which at the time was riven by the grassroots left-wing insurgency centred on Tony Benn. The Bennites demanded revenge for the betrayals, as they saw them, of the Callaghan government, and pushed the case for replacement of MPs who had acquiesced in them by left-wingers who would support the causes of unilateral nuclear disarmament, withdrawal from the Common Market and widespread nationalisation. (Benn did not stand for the leadership: apart from Foot and Healey, the other candidates Рboth eliminated in the first round Рwere John Silkin, like Foot a Tribunite, and Peter Shore, an anti-European right-winger.) The United Kingdom general election of 1979 was held on 3 May 1979 and is regarded as a pivotal point in 20th century British politics. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (n̩e Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey, CH, MBE, PC (born 30 August 1917), is a British Labour politician. ... Anthony Tony Neil Wedgwood Benn (born 3 April 1925), formerly 2nd Viscount Stansgate, is a British socialist politician. ... John Silkin was working with Cargo Press on his collection Testament Without Breath at the time of his death in November 1997. ... Tribune is a democratic socialist weekly, currently a magazine though in the past more often a newspaper, published in London, England. ... Peter David Shore, Baron Shore of Stepney PC (May 20, 1924 - September 24, 2001) was a British Labour politician noted for his opposition to the European Communities. ...


When he became leader, Foot was already 67 and frail – and almost immediately after his election as leader was faced with a massive crisis: the creation in early 1981 of a breakaway party by four senior Labour right-wingers, Roy Jenkins, Shirley Williams, David Owen and William Rodgers (the so-called "Gang of Four"), the Social Democratic Party. The SDP won the support of large sections of the media, and for more than a year its opinion poll ratings suggested that it could at least overtake Labour and possibly win a general election. Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead, OM, PC (November 11, 1920 – January 5, 2003) was a British politician and a prominent Labour Member of Parliament in the 1960s and 1970s, and founding member of the Social Democratic Party (SDP). ... The Baroness Williams of Crosby Shirley Williams, Baroness Williams of Crosby, PC (born July 27, 1930), is a British politician. ... For other persons named David Owen, see David Owen (disambiguation). ... William Thomas Rodgers, Baron Rodgers of Quarry Bank, PC (born 1928), usually known as William Rodgers but also often known as Bill Rodgers, was one of the Gang of Four of senior British Labour Party politicians who defected to form the Social Democratic Party (or SDP). ... The Social Democratic Party (SDP) was a political party of the United Kingdom that existed nationwide between 1981 and 1988. ...


With the Labour left still strong – in 1981 Benn decided to challenge Healey for the deputy leadership of the party, a contest Healey won by the narrowest of margins – Foot struggled to make an impact and was widely criticised for it, though his performances in the Commons, most notably on the Falklands crisis of 1982, won him widespread respect from other parliamentarians. (He was however criticised by some on the left who felt that he should not have supported the Thatcher government's immediate resort to military action in defence of 2,000 Falkland islanders' wish to remain British subjects.) The right-wing newspapers nevertheless lambasted him consistently for what they saw as his bohemian eccentricity, attacking him for wearing what they described as a "donkey jacket" at the wreath-laying ceremony at the Cenotaph on Remembrance Day. Belligerents Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties and losses 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner... Margaret Hilda Roberts Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born 13 October 1925) is a British politician and the first female Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, a position she held from 1979 to 1990. ... A Donkey jacket is a short, buttoned outer coat, typically made of black woollen material, unlined; sometimes with a plastic panel covering the shoulder-blades area. ... The Cenotaph, London. ... Remembrance Day also known as Poppy Day, Armistice Day (the event it commemorates), or Veterans Day in the United States is a day to commemorate the sacrifices of members of the armed forces and of civilians in times of war, specifically since the First World War. ...


Through late 1982 and early 1983, there was constant speculation that Labour MPs would replace Foot with Healey as leader – speculation that increased after Labour lost the 1983 Bermondsey by-election, in which the gay rights activist Peter Tatchell was its candidate – but, critically, Labour held on in a subsequent by-election in Darlington and Foot remained leader for the 1983 general election. The Bermondsey byelection of February 24, 1983 occurred after the resignation of Robert Mellish, who had represented the constituency and its predecessors since 1946. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Peter Gary Tatchell (born 25 January 1952) is an Australian-British human rights activist, who is best known internationally for his attempts to perform a citizens... The UK general election, 1983 was held on June 9, 1983 and gave the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of Labour in 1945. ...


Resignation

The 1983 Labour manifesto, strongly socialist in tone, advocated unilateral nuclear disarmament, higher personal taxation and a return to a more interventionist industrial policy. The manifesto also pledged that a Labour government would abolish the House of Lords and leave the EEC. Among the Labour MPs newly-elected in 1983 in support of this manifesto were Tony Blair and Gordon Brown. Foot's Labour Party lost to the Conservatives in a landslide. Foot resigned and was succeeded by Neil Kinnock as leader. Gerald Kaufman, once Harold Wilson's press officer and during the 1980s a key player on the Labour right, described the 1983 Labour manifesto as "the longest suicide note in history". Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, PC (born 28 March 1942) is a British politician. ... Gerald Kaufman is passionate about Palestine The Right Honourable Sir Gerald Bernard Kaufman (born June 21, 1930) is a British Labour Member of Parliament who was a government minister during the 1970s. ... For other persons named Harold Wilson, see Harold Wilson (disambiguation). ... The longest suicide note in history is an epithet originally used by Gerald Kaufman to describe the Labour Partys left-wing 1983 election manifesto. ...


Backbenches and Retirement

Foot took a back seat in Labour politics after 1983 and retired from the House of Commons in 1992 but remained politically active. From 1987 to 1992, he was the oldest sitting British MP (preceding former Prime Minister Sir Edward Heath). He defended Salman Rushdie, the novelist who was subject to a fatwah by Ayatollah Khomeini, and took a strongly pro-interventionist position against Slobodan Milošević over Croatia and Bosnia. Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born June 19, 1947) is an Indian-British novelist and essayist. ... A fatwa (Arabic: فتوى) plural fataawa, is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ...


In 1995, an article in The Sunday Times, under the headline "KGB: Michael Foot was our agent", alleged that the Soviet intelligence services regarded Foot as an 'agent of influence', named as 'Agent Boot'. Foot denied he had been any such thing, successfully sued The Sunday Times and handed over a large part of his damages to Tribune. The article was based on the paper's serialisation of KGB defector Oleg Gordievsky's memoirs. The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Oleg Antonovich Gordievsky (born 10 October 1938 in Moscow, Russia), was a Colonel of the KGB and KGB Resident-designate (rezidentura) and bureau chief in London, who defected to the United Kingdom. ...


Foot has remained a high-profile member of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament to this day. He is the author of several books, including highly regarded biographies of Aneurin Bevan and H. G. Wells. Indeed, he is a distinguished Vice-president of the H. G. Wells Society. Many of his friends have said publicly that they regret that he ever gave up literature for politics. CND redirects here. ... A statue of Bevan in Cardiff. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... H. G. Wells in 1943. ...


Foot is an Honorary Associate of the National Secular Society and a Distinguished Supporter of the British Humanist Association. The National Secular Society is an organisation of the United Kingdom which promotes secularism. ... The British Humanist Association is an organisation of the United Kingdom which promotes Humanism. ...


Though Foot is considered by many a failure as Labour leader, his biographer Mervyn Jones makes the case that no one else could have held Labour together at the time. Foot is remembered with affection in Westminster as a great parliamentarian. He was widely liked, and admired for his integrity and generosity of spirit, by both his colleagues and opponents. Mervyn Jones (b. ...


Personal life

Foot was married to the film-maker, author and feminist historian Jill Craigie from 1949 until her death in 1999. The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Jill Craigie (7 March 1914, Fulham—13 December 1999, Camden) was a pioneering British documentary film director, actor and writer, feminist and wife of distinguished Labour Party politician, Michael Foot. ...


In 2007, it was revealed that he had had an extra-marital affair in the early 1970s which had put a considerable strain on his marriage, not least because he spent a substantial amount of money paying the woman's bills. Craigie's suspicion was said to have been raised when Foot, not known for his sartorial elegance, began taking inordinate care over his appearance. [5]


In 2003 Foot turned 90. He has been a passionate supporter of Plymouth Argyle F.C. since childhood, and served for several years as a director of the club. For his 90th birthday present, the club registered him as a player and gave him the shirt number, 90. This made him the oldest registered player in the history of football. He had stated that he would not 'conk out' until he has seen his team play in the Premiership. For details of the current season, see Plymouth Argyle F.C. season 2007-08 Plymouth Argyle Football Club (commonly known as the Pilgrims, the Greens, the Green Army or simply Argyle) are an English football team, playing in the Football League Championship. ...


As of 23 July 2006, his 93rd birthday, Michael Foot became the longest lived leader of a British political party, beating Lord Callaghan's record of 92 years, 364 days. is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ...


Foot had always rejected honours from the Queen and the government, including a knighthood and a peerage on more than one occasion.


Notes

  1. ^ Foot, John [1998]. "Isaac Foot", in Duncan Brack: Dictionary of Liberal Biography, Malcolm Baines, Katie Hall, Graham Lippiatt, Tony Little, Mark Pack, Geoffrey Sell, Jen Tankard, 1st ed., Artillery Row, London: Politico's Publishing, pp. 109-112. ISBN 1902301099. 
  2. ^ Smith, Cameron (1989). Unfinished Journey: The Lewis Family. Toronto: Summerhill Press, pp.161-162. ISBN 0-929091-04-3.  Foot in an interview with the author in 1985
  3. ^ Mervyn Jones, Michael Foot (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1994), p. 43.
  4. ^ Ibid, p. 30.
  5. ^ Michael Foot had a young black mistress - Times Online

Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...

Bibliography

  • "Cato". Guilty Men. Left Book Club. 1940.
  • "Brendan and Beverley" (as "Cassius"). Victor Gollancz. 1940.
  • Foot, Michael: The Pen and the Sword. MacGibbon and Kee. 1957. ISBN 0-261-61989-6
  • Foot, Michael: Aneurin Bevan. MacGibbon and Kee. 1962 (vol 1); 1973 (vol 2) ISBN 0-261-61508-4
  • Foot, Michael: Debts of Honour. Harper and Row. 1981. ISBN 0-06-039001-8
  • Foot, Michael: Another Heart and Other Pulses. Collins. 1984.
  • Foot, Michael: H. G.: The History of Mr Wells. Doubleday. 1985.
  • Foot, Michael: Loyalists and Loners. Collins. 1986.
  • Foot, Michael: Politics of Paradise. HarperCollins. 1989. ISBN 0-06-039091-3
  • Foot, Michael: 'Introduction' in Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver's Travels. Penguin (Penguin Classics), 1967 & 1985.
  • Foot, Michael: 'Introduction' in Russell, Bertrand: Autobiography (Routledge, 1998)
  • Foot, Michael: Dr Strangelove, I Presume (Gollancz, 1999)
  • Foot, Michael: The Uncollected Michael Foot (ed Brian Brivati, Politicos Publishing, 2003)
  • Foot, Michael: 'Foreword' in Rosen, Greg: Old Labour to New (Methuen Publishing, 2005)
  • Foot, Michael: Isaac Foot: A West Country Boy - Apostle of England. (Politicos, 2006)

Methuen Publishing Ltd is a British publishing house, and publishes in the areas of theatre and drama. ...

Biographies

  • Hoggart, Simon; & Leigh, David. Michael Foot: a Portrait. Hodder. 1981. ISBN 0-340-27040-3
  • Jones, Mervyn. Michael Foot. Gollancz. 1993. ISBN 0-575-05933-8
  • Morgan, Kenneth O. Michael Foot: A Life. HarperPress (HarperCollins) 2007. ISBN 978 0 00 717826 1

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Michael Foot
  • In-depth biographical interview marking Foot's 90th birthday

The Labour History Archive and Study Centre hold Michael Foot's archive see: http://www.phm.org.uk/ Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Leslie Hore-Belisha
Member of Parliament for Plymouth Devonport
1945–1955
Succeeded by
Joan Vickers
Preceded by
Aneurin Bevan
Member of Parliament for Ebbw Vale
1960–1992
Succeeded by
Llew Smith
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Robert Edwards
Oldest sitting member
(not Father of the House)

1987 - 1992
Succeeded by
Edward Heath
Political offices
Preceded by
William Whitelaw
Secretary of State for Employment
1974–1976
Succeeded by
Albert Booth
Preceded by
Edward Short
Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
1976–1980
Succeeded by
Denis Healey
Preceded by
Edward Short
Lord President of the Council
1976–1979
Succeeded by
The Lord Soames
Leader of the House of Commons
1976–1979
Succeeded by
Norman St John-Stevas
Preceded by
James Callaghan
Leader of the British Labour Party
1980–1983
Succeeded by
Neil Kinnock
Leader of the Opposition
1980–1983
Media offices
Preceded by
Jon Kimche
and Evelyn Anderson
Editor of Tribune
(jointly with Evelyn Anderson)

1948–1952
Succeeded by
Bob Edwards
Preceded by
Bob Edwards
Editor of Tribune
1955–1960
Succeeded by
Richard Clements
Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Speaker of the House of Lords Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist... For other uses, see Belisha (disambiguation). ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Plymouth, Devonport is a borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Joan Helen Vickers, Baroness Vickers, DBE (1907-23 May 1994) was elected Conservative Member of Parliament for Devonport in 1955, defeating Michael Foot, and sat until February 1974 when she was defeated by Dr David Owen. ... A statue of Bevan in Cardiff. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Blaenau Gwent is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Llewellyn Thomas Smith (born 16 April 1944) is the Labour MP for Blaenau Gwent in Wales. ... Robert Edwards is a former Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom. ... Father of the House is a term that has by tradition been unofficially bestowed on certain members of some national legislatures, most notably the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1992 was held on 9 April 1992, and was the fourth consecutive victory for the Conservative Party. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... William Stephen Ian Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, KT, CH, MC, PC, DL (June 28, 1918 – July 1, 1999), commonly known as Willie Whitelaw, was a British Conservative politician. ... Minister of Labour re-directs here. ... Albert Edward Booth (born 28 May 1928) is a Labour Party (UK) politician. ... Edward Watson Short, Baron Glenamara (born 17 December 1912), is a former Labour MP for Newcastle upon Tyne, who was a minister during the Labour Governments of Harold Wilson. ... The British Labour Party has always sought to ensure that the power to shape party policy was not consolidated in the hands of the leader. ... Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey, CH, MBE, PC (born 30 August 1917), is a British Labour politician. ... Edward Watson Short, Baron Glenamara (born 17 December 1912), is a former Labour MP for Newcastle upon Tyne, who was a minister during the Labour Governments of Harold Wilson. ... The Office of Lord President of the Council is a British cabinet position, the holder of which acts as presiding officer of the Privy Council. ... Arthur Christopher John, Baron Soames GCMG GCVO CBE PC (October 12, 1920 – September 16, 1987) was a British Conservative politician and the son-in-law of Winston Churchill. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... Norman Anthony Francis St John-Stevas, Baron St John of Fawsley, PC (born May 18, 1929), is a British Conservative politician, author and barrister. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, PC (born 28 March 1942) is a British politician. ... The Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom is the politician who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... Jon Kimche (17 June 1909 - 9 March 1994) was a journalist and author. ... Tribune is a democratic socialist weekly, currently a magazine though in the past more often a newspaper, published in London. ... Robert Edwards (1925- ) is a British journalist. ... Robert Edwards (1925- ) is a British journalist. ... Tribune is a democratic socialist weekly, currently a magazine though in the past more often a newspaper, published in London. ... Richard Clements (1928-) was editor of the left-wing weekly Tribune from 1960 to 1982. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... James Keir Hardie (15 August 1856 - 26 September 1915) was a Scottish socialist and labour leader, and one of the first two Labour Party Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the UK Parliament after the establishment of the Labour Party. ... The Right Honourable Arthur Henderson (September 13, 1863 – October 20, 1935) was a British politician and union leader. ... George Nicoll Barnes (January 2, 1859 - April 21, 1940) was a Scottish politician. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable Arthur Henderson (September 13, 1863 – October 20, 1935) was a British politician and union leader. ... William Adamson (1863–1936) was born in Dunfermline, Scotland and worked as a miner in Fife where he became involved with the National Union of Mineworkers. ... Rt. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable Arthur Henderson (September 13, 1863 – October 20, 1935) was a British politician and union leader. ... George Lansbury (21 February 1859 – 7 May 1940) was a British politician, socialist, Christian pacifist and newspaper editor. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell (April 9, 1906 – January 18, 1963) was a British politician, leader of the Labour Party from 1955 until his death in 1963. ... George Alfred Brown, later George Alfred George-Brown, Baron George-Brown, PC (2 September 1914 – 2 June 1985) was a British politician who served as Deputy Leader of the Labour Party from 1960 to 1970, and was a senior Cabinet minister (including as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs) in... For other persons named Harold Wilson, see Harold Wilson (disambiguation). ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, PC (born 28 March 1942) is a British politician. ... John Smith QC (September 13, 1938 – May 12, 1994) was a British politician who served as leader of the Labour Party from July 1992 until his sudden and unexpected death from a heart attack on 12 May 1994. ... Margaret Mary Beckett (née Jackson; born 15 January 1943) is a British Labour politician and Member of Parliament (MP) for Derby South. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Michael Foot (438 words)
Michael Foot (born July 23, 1913) was a British politician and leader of the Labour Party from 1980 to 1983.
Following the Labour Party's general election defeat by Margaret Thatcher Foot was elected leader, gaining support through appearing to offer a compromise between Denis Healey (the candidate of right of the party) and the leftwing feeling centered around the figure of Tony Benn.
Foot was not a natural leader, nor was he a good orator or political campaigner.
Michael Foot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1631 words)
Isaac Foot was an active member of the Liberal Party and was Liberal MP for Bodmin in Cornwall 1922–1924 and 1929–1935 and a Lord Mayor of Plymouth.
Foot was however a critic of the west's handling of the Korean war, an opponent of West German rearmament in the early 1950s and a founder member of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.
Foot was married to the film-maker, author and feminist historian Jill Craigie from 1949 until her death in 1999.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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