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Encyclopedia > Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday, portrait by Thomas Phillips c1841-1842[1]
Born September 22, 1791(1791-09-22)
South London, England
Died August 25, 1867 (aged 75)
Hampton Court, London, England
Residence England
Nationality British
Fields Physics and Chemistry
Institutions Royal Institution
Notable awards Royal Medal (1846)
Religious stance Sandemanian
Notes
Faraday did not attend a university, but Humphry Davy can be considered his scientific mentor in light of their scientific collaboration over many years.

Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1110 × 1437 pixel, file size: 1. ... He is a fag and an asshole. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... South London area South London (known colloquially as South of the River) is the area of London south of the River Thames. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The clock tower straddles the entrance between the inner and outer courts Hampton Court Palace is a former royal place on the north bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames about 12 miles (19 km) southwest and upstream of Central London, nowadays open to... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... The Royal Institution of Great Britain was set up in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea, for diffusing the knowledge, and facilitating the general introduction, of useful mechanical inventions and improvements; and for... The Royal Medals of the Royal Society of London were established by King George IV. They were further supported with certain changes to their conditions, by King William IV and Queen Victoria. ... Glasites, or Sandemanians, were a Christian sect, founded in Scotland by John Glas. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Natural philosophy is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe before the development of modern science. ... Terminology is the study of terms and their use — of words and compound words that are used in specific contexts. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), both credited to be founders of electrochemistry as known today. ...


Faraday studied the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a DC electric current, and established the basis for the magnetic field concept in physics. He discovered electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis. He established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.[2][3] His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became viable for use in technology. For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... The magnitude of an electric field surrounding two equally charged (repelling) particles. ... In science and engineering, conductors, such as copper or aluminum, are materials with atoms having loosely held valence electrons. ... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... For magnetic induction, see Magnetic field. ... Levitating pyrolytic carbon Diamagnetism is a form of magnetism that is only exhibited by a substance in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... In optics, a ray is an idealized narrow beam of light. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... For the musical form, see Invention (music). ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ...


As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... Clathrate hydrates (or alternatively gas clathrates, gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates etc) are a class of solids in which gas molecules occupy cages made up of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. ... Look up Bunsen burner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ...


Although Faraday received little formal education and knew little of higher mathematics, such as calculus, he was one of the most influential scientists in history. Some historians[4] of science refer to him as the best experimentalist in the history of science.[5] The SI unit of capacitance, the farad, is named after him, as is the Faraday constant, the charge on a mole of electrons (about 96,485 coulombs). Faraday's law of induction states that a magnetic field changing in time creates a proportional electromotive force. For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... A scientist, in the broadest sense, refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices and traditions that are linked to schools of thought or philosophy. ... A blanket term for all sorts of scientists engaged more in experimental activity than on the theoretical side of the various sciences. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Capacitance is a measure of the amount of electric charge stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. ... Examples of various types of capacitors. ... I am the man. ... The mole (symbol: mol) is the SI base unit that measures an amount of substance. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The coulomb (symbol: C) is the SI unit of electric charge. ... Faradays law of induction (more generally, the law of electromagnetic induction) states that the induced emf (electromotive force) in a closed loop equals the negative of the time rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ... Electromotive force (emf) is the amount of energy gained per unit charge that passes through a device in the opposite direction to the electric field existing across that device. ...


Faraday was the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a position to which he was appointed for life. The Royal Institution of Great Britain was set up in 1799 by the leading lights of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea, for diffusing the knowledge, and facilitating the general introduction, of useful mechanical inventions and improvements; and for teaching...

Contents

Early life

Michael Faraday from a photograph by John Watkins, British Library
Michael Faraday from a photograph by John Watkins, British Library

Michael Faraday was born in Newington Butts, part of South London, England. His family was not well off. His father, James, was a member of the Sandemanian sect of Christianity. James Faraday had come to London ca 1790 from Outhgill in Westmorland, where he had been the village blacksmith. The young Michael Faraday, one of four children, having only the most basic of school educations, had to largely educate himself.[6] At fourteen he became apprenticed to a local bookbinder and bookseller George Riebau and, during his seven-year apprenticeship, he read many books, including Isaac Watts' The Improvement of the Mind, and he enthusiastically implemented the principles and suggestions contained therein. He developed an interest in science and specifically in electricity. In particular, he was inspired by the book Conversations in Chemistry by Jane Marcet.[7] Image File history File links Michael_Faraday_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_13103. ... Image File history File links Michael_Faraday_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_13103. ... Newington Butts is a short road in Southwark, London, England, leading south-west from the Elephant and Castle. ... South London area South London (known colloquially as South of the River) is the area of London south of the River Thames. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Glasites, or Sandemanians, were a Christian sect, founded in Scotland by John Glas. ... St Marys Church, Outhgill Outhgill is a hamlet in Mallerstang, Cumbria. ... Westmorland (formerly also spelt Westmoreland, an even older spelling is Westmerland) is an area of north west England and one of the 39 historic counties of England. ... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ... Isaac Watts (July 17, 1674 – November 25, 1748) is recognised as the Father of English Hymnody, as he was the first prolific and popular English hymnwriter, credited with some 750 hymns. ... Jane Marcet (née Jane Haldimand) (January 1, 1769–June 28, 1858) was a writer of introductory science books. ...


At the age of twenty, in 1812, at the end of his apprenticeship, Faraday attended lectures by the eminent English chemist and physicist Humphry Davy of the Royal Institution and Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Many tickets for these lectures were given to Faraday by William Dance (one of the founders of the Royal Philharmonic Society). Afterwards, Faraday sent Davy a three hundred page book based on notes taken during the lectures. Davy's reply was immediate, kind, and favorable. When Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, he decided to employ Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne, one of the Royal Institution's assistants, was fired, Sir Humphry Davy was asked to find a replacement. He appointed Faraday as Chemical Assistant at the Royal Institution on March 1.[2] A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... The Royal Institution of Great Britain was set up in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea, for diffusing the knowledge, and facilitating the general introduction, of useful mechanical inventions and improvements; and for... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... John Tatum was a British scientist and philosopher in the 19th century . ... The Royal Philharmonic Society is a British music society, formed in 1813. ... Nitrogen trichloride, also known as trichloramine, is the chemical compound with the formula NCl3. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the class-based English society of the time, Faraday was not considered a gentleman. When Davy went on a long tour to the continent in 1813-5, his valet did not wish to go. Faraday was going as Davy's scientific assistant, and was asked to act as Davy's valet until a replacement could be found in Paris. Faraday was forced to fill the role of valet as well as assistant throughout the trip. Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat Faraday as an equal (making him travel outside the coach, eat with the servants, etc.) and generally made Faraday so miserable that he contemplated returning to England alone and giving up science altogether. The trip did, however, give him access to the European scientific elite and a host of stimulating ideas.[2] Jane Apreece (1780–1855), was a wealthy London socialite and widow who married Sir Humphry Davy in 1812 to become Lady Davy. ...


His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution. John Fuller (February 20, 1757 - April 11, 1834), better known as Mad Jack Fuller (although he himself preferred to be called Honest John Fuller) was Squire of the hamlet of Brightling, in Sussex (now East Sussex), and is well known as a builder of follies, and as a philanthropist, patron...


Faraday was a devout Christian and a member of the small Sandemanian denomination, an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. He later served two terms as an elder in the group's church. Glasites, or Sandemanians, were a Christian sect, founded in Scotland by John Glas. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ...


Faraday married Sarah Barnard (1800-1879) on June 2, 1821, although they would never have children. They met through attending the Sandemanian church. is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


He was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1824, appointed director of the laboratory in 1825; and in 1833 he was appointed Fullerian professor of chemistry in the institution for life, without the obligation to deliver lectures.


Scientific achievements

Chemistry

The title page of The Chemical History of a Candle (1861)
The title page of The Chemical History of a Candle (1861)

Faraday's earliest chemical work was as an assistant to Humphry Davy. Faraday made a special study of chlorine, and discovered two new chlorides of carbon. He also made the first rough experiments on the diffusion of gases, a phenomenon first pointed out by John Dalton, the physical importance of which was more fully brought to light by Thomas Graham and Joseph Loschmidt. He succeeded in liquefying several gases; he investigated the alloys of steel, and produced several new kinds of glass intended for optical purposes. A specimen of one of these heavy glasses afterwards became historically important as the substance in which Faraday detected the rotation of the plane of polarisation of light when the glass was placed in a magnetic field, and also as the substance which was first repelled by the poles of the magnet. He also endeavoured, with some success, to make the general methods of chemistry, as distinguished from its results, the subject of special study and of popular exposition. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1167x1860, 330 KB) Summary The title page to the first edition of The Chemical History of a Candle (1861) by Michael Faraday. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1167x1860, 330 KB) Summary The title page to the first edition of The Chemical History of a Candle (1861) by Michael Faraday. ... The Chemical History of a Candle was the title of a series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames given by Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... John Dalton John Dalton (September 6, 1766 – July 27, 1844) was an English chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. ... Thomas Graham (December 21, 1805 – September 16, 1869) was born in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Jan or Johann Josef Loschmidt (March 15, 1821 - July 8, 1895) who referred to himself mostly as Josef Loschmidt (omitting his first name), was a notable Austrian scientist with groundbreaking work in the fields of chemistry and physics (thermodynamics, optics, electrodynamics). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


He invented an early form of what was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.[8][9] Look up Bunsen burner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Faraday worked extensively in the field of chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene (which he called bicarburet of hydrogen), inventing the system of oxidation numbers, and liquefying gases such as chlorine. In 1820 Faraday reported on the first syntheses of compounds made from carbon and chlorine, C2Cl6 and C2Cl4, and published his results the following year.[10][11][12] Faraday also determined the composition of the chlorine clathrate hydrate, which had been discovered by Humphry Davy in 1810.[13][14] For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... Hexachloroethane, C2Cl6, is a colorless solid at room temperature which is used by the US Military in contemporary base-eject smoke munitions. ... Tetrachloroethylene Cl2C=CCl2 is a manufactured chemical compound that is widely used for the dry cleaning of fabrics and for metal-degreasing. ... Clathrate hydrates (or alternatively gas clathrates, gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates etc) are a class of solids in which gas molecules occupy cages made up of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. ...


Faraday also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularized terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion, terms largely created by William Whewell. In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... William Whewell In later life William Whewell (May 24, 1794 – March 6, 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science. ...


Faraday was the first to report what later came to be called metallic nanoparticles. In 1847 he discovered that the optical properties of gold colloids differed from those of the corresponding bulk metal. This was probably the first reported observation of the effects of quantum size, and might be considered to be the birth of nanoscience.[15] Very Basic Description A nanoparticle is a microscopic particle whose size is measured in nanometers. ... A Colloid or colloidal dispersion is a type of homogeneous mixture. ... In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is an indivisible entity of energy. ... A mite next to a gear chain produced using nanotechnology Nanotechnology as a collective term refers to technological developments on the nanometer scale, usually 0. ...


Electricity

Faraday's greatest work was probably with electricity and magnetism. The first experiment which he recorded was the construction of a voltaic pile with seven halfpence pieces, stacked together with seven disks of sheet zinc, and six pieces of paper moistened with salt water. With this pile he decomposed sulphate of magnesia (first letter to Abbott, July 12, 1812). A copper-zinc Voltaic pile A Voltaic pile on display in the Tempio Voltiano The Voltaic pile is the first modern electric battery, invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting...

Michael Faraday holding a glass bar of the type he used in 1845 to show that magnetism can affect light. Detail of an engraving by Henry Adlard, based on an earlier photograph by Maull & Polyblank ca. 1857.
Michael Faraday holding a glass bar of the type he used in 1845 to show that magnetism can affect light. Detail of an engraving by Henry Adlard, based on an earlier photograph by Maull & Polyblank ca. 1857. [16]

In 1821, soon after the Danish physicist and chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and British scientist William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor.[3] Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire and a wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside would rotate around the magnet if supplied with current from a chemical battery. The latter device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. Faraday published his results without acknowledging his debt to Wollaston and Davy, and the resulting controversy caused Faraday to withdraw from electromagnetic research for several years. At this stage, there is also evidence to suggest that Davy may have been trying to slow Faraday’s rise as a scientist (or natural philosopher as it was known then). In 1825, for instance, Davy set him onto optical glass experiments, which progressed for six years with no great results. It was not until Davy's death, in 1829, that Faraday stopped these fruitless tasks and moved on to endeavors that were more worthwhile. Two years later, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction. Joseph Henry likely discovered self-induction a few months earlier and both may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi in Italy in 1829 and 1830.[17] Image File history File links Faraday_photograph_ii. ... Image File history File links Faraday_photograph_ii. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ørsted redirects here. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... William Hyde Wollaston William Hyde Wollaston FRS (August 6, 1766 – December 22, 1828) was an English chemist and physicist who is famous for discovering two chemical elements and for developing a way to process platinum ore. ... For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... This article is about the element. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For magnetic induction, see Magnetic field. ... Joseph Henry Joseph Henry (December 17, 1797 – May 13, 1878) was a Scottish-American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. ... For magnetic induction, see Magnetic field. ... Francesco Zantedeschi Francesco Zantedeschi (August 20, 1797 – March 29, 1873) was an Italian priest and physicist. ...


Faraday's breakthrough came when he wrapped two insulated coils of wire around a massive iron ring, bolted to a chair, and found that upon passing a current through one coil, a momentary current was induced in the other coil.[3] This phenomenon is known as mutual induction. The iron ring-coil apparatus is still on display at the Royal Institution. In subsequent experiments he found that if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was mathematically modelled by Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn have evolved into the generalization known today as field theory. Inductance (or electric inductance) is a measure of the amount of magnetic flux produced for a given electric current. ... Faradays law of induction (more generally, the law of electromagnetic induction) states that the induced emf (electromotive force) in a closed loop equals the negative of the time rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. ... For thermodynamic relations, see Maxwell relations. ... Field theory (mathematics), the theory of the algebraic concept of field. ...

Faraday in later life
Faraday in later life

Faraday later used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ...


In 1839 he completed a series of experiments aimed at investigating the fundamental nature of electricity. Faraday used "static", batteries, and "animal electricity" to produce the phenomena of electrostatic attraction, electrolysis, magnetism, etc. He concluded that, contrary to scientific opinion of the time, the divisions between the various "kinds" of electricity were illusory. Faraday instead proposed that only a single "electricity" exists, and the changing values of quantity and intensity (voltage and charge) would produce different groups of phenomena.[3] Electrostatics (also known as static electricity) is the branch of physics that deals with the phenomena arising from what seem to be stationary electric charges. ... For other uses, see Battery. ... Bioelectromagnetism (sometimes equated with bioelectricity) refers to the electrical, magnetic or electromagnetic fields produced by living cells, tissues or organisms. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ...


Near the end of his career Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor. This idea was rejected by his fellow scientists, and Faraday did not live to see this idea eventually accepted. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualize electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices which dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


In 1845, he discovered the phenomenon that he named diamagnetism, and what is now called the Faraday effect: The plane of polarization of linearly polarized light propagated through a material medium can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the propagation direction. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light". This established that magnetic force and light were related. Levitating pyrolytic carbon Diamagnetism is a form of magnetism that is only exhibited by a substance in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. ... In physics, the Faraday effect or Faraday rotation is a magneto-optical phenomenon, or an interaction between light and a magnetic field. ... In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. ... Line of force Line of flux. ...


In his work on static electricity, Faraday demonstrated that the charge only resided on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage. Entrance to a Faraday room A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure formed by conducting material, or by a mesh of such material. ...


Faraday was an excellent experimentalist who conveyed his ideas in clear and simple language. However, his mathematical abilities did not extend as far as trigonometry or any but the simplest algebra. It was James Clerk Maxwell who took the work of Faraday, and others, and consolidated it with a set of equations that lie at the base of all modern theories of electromagnetic phenomena. On Faraday's uses of the lines of force, James Clerk Maxwell wrote that they show Faraday "to have been in reality a mathematician of a very high order--one from whom the mathematicians of the future may derive valuable and fertile methods."[18] James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... Line of force or line of flux , usually taken in the context of electromagnetism, is the curve whose tangent gives the direction of the field at that point. ...


Public service

Michael Faraday meets Father Thames, from Punch (July 21, 1855)
Michael Faraday meets Father Thames, from Punch (July 21, 1855)

Beyond his scientific research into areas such as chemistry, electricity, and magnetism at the Royal Institution, Faraday undertook numerous, and often time-consuming, service projects for private enterprise and the British government. This work included investigations of explosions in mines, being an expert witness in court, and the preparation of high-quality optical glass. Image File history File linksMetadata FaradayFatherThames. ... Image File history File linksMetadata FaradayFatherThames. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about mineral extractions. ...


As a respected scientist in a nation with strong maritime interests, Faraday spent extensive amounts of time on projects such as the construction and operation of light houses and protecting the bottoms of ships from corrosion. Eddystone Lighthouse, one of the first wavewashed lighthouses For other uses, see Lighthouse (disambiguation). ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ...


Faraday also was active in what would now be called environmental science, or engineering. He investigated industrial pollution at Swansea and was consulted on air pollution at the Royal Mint. In July of 1855, Faraday wrote a letter to The Times on the subject of the foul condition of the River Thames, which resulted in an oft-reprinted cartoon in Punch. (See also The Great Stink.) Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... For other places with the same name, see Swansea (disambiguation). ... The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture, or mint, coins in the United Kingdom. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Look up punch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Michael Faraday giving his card to Father Thames, caricature commenting on a letter of Faradays on the state of the river in the Times in Summer 1855 The Great Stink or The Big Stink was a time in the summer of 1858 during which the smell of untreated sewage...


Faraday assisted with planning and judging of exhibits for the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. He also advised the National Gallery on the cleaning and protection of its art collection, and served on the National Gallery Site Commission in 1857. The Great Exhibition: Paxtons Crystal Palace enclosed full-grown trees in Hyde Park. ... Londons National Gallery, founded in 1824, houses a rich collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900 in its home on Trafalgar Square. ...


Education was another area of service for Faraday. He lectured on the topic in 1854 at the Royal Institution, and in 1862 he appeared before a Public Schools Commission to give his views on education in Great Britain. Faraday also weighed in, negatively, on the public's fascination with table-turning, mesmerism, and seances, chastising both the public and the nation's educational system.[19]


Later life

Faraday in old age
Faraday in old age

In June of 1832, the University of Oxford granted Faraday a Doctor of Civil Law degree (honorary). During his lifetime, Faraday rejected a knighthood and twice refused to become President of the Royal Society. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... The President of the Royal Society (PRS) is the elected head of the Royal Society of London. ...


In 1848, as a result of representations by the Prince Consort, Michael Faraday was awarded a grace and favour house in Hampton Court, Surrey free of all expenses or upkeep. This was the Master Mason's House, later called Faraday House, and now No.37 Hampton Court Road. In 1858 Faraday retired to live there.[20] Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (in full Francis Charles Augustus Albert Emmanuel), later The Prince Consort, (26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... A Grace and favour is a house or flat owned by the British sovereign and lent to persons rent-free in gratitude for past services. ... The clock tower straddles the entrance between the inner and outer courts Hampton Court Palace is a former royal place on the north bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames about 12 miles (19 km) southwest and upstream of Central London, nowadays open to... This article is about the English county. ...


Faraday died at his house at Hampton Court on August 25, 1867. He turned down burial in Westminster Abbey, but he has a memorial plaque there, near Isaac Newton's tomb. Faraday was interred in the Sandemanian plot in Highgate Cemetery. The clock tower straddles the entrance between the inner and outer courts Hampton Court Palace is a former royal place on the north bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames about 12 miles (19 km) southwest and upstream of Central London, nowadays open to... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Circle of Lebanon, West Cemetery Entrance to the Egyptian Avenue, West Cemetery Highgate Cemetery is a famous cemetery located in Highgate, London, England. ...


Miscellaneous

Michael Faraday's grave at Highgate Cemetery
Michael Faraday's grave at Highgate Cemetery

Faraday gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a Candle. This was one of the earlier Christmas lectures for young people, which are still given each year. Between 1827 and 1860, Faraday gave the Christmas lecture a record nineteen times. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 402 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1188 × 1772 pixel, file size: 555 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Personal photo taken in 1986; no rights claimed I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 402 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1188 × 1772 pixel, file size: 555 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Personal photo taken in 1986; no rights claimed I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Circle of Lebanon, West Cemetery Entrance to the Egyptian Avenue, West Cemetery Highgate Cemetery is a famous cemetery located in Highgate, London, England. ... The Royal Institution of Great Britain was set up in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea, for diffusing the knowledge, and facilitating the general introduction, of useful mechanical inventions and improvements; and for... The Chemical History of a Candle was the title of a series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames given by Michael Faraday at the Royal Institution. ... Michael Faraday delivering a Christmas Lecture in 1856. ...


Faraday refused to participate in the production of chemical weapons for the Crimean War citing ethical reasons. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought...

Michael Faraday - statue in Savoy Place, London. Sculptor John Henry Foley RA
Michael Faraday - statue in Savoy Place, London.
Sculptor John Henry Foley RA

A statue of Faraday stands in Savoy Place, London, outside the Institution of Electrical Engineers. John Henry Foley (born May 24, 1818 in Dublin; died August 27, 1874 in Hampstead) was an Irish sculptor. ... Not to be confused with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE, I-triple-E). ...


A recently built hall of accommodation at Brunel University is named after Faraday. Statue of Brunel at the University Brunel University is a university situated in West London, England. ...


A hall at Loughborough University was named after Faraday in 1960. Near the entrance to its dining hall is a bronze casting, which depicts the symbol of an electrical transformer, and inside there hangs a portrait, both in Faraday's honour. Loughborough University is located in the market town of Loughborough, Leicestershire in the East Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see Transformer (disambiguation). ...


A five-story building at the University of Edinburgh's science campus is named for Faraday. The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ...


Faraday's picture was printed on British £20 banknotes from 1991 until 2001.[21] British banknotes are the banknotes of the United Kingdom and British Islands, denominated in pounds sterling (GBP). ...


The former UK Faraday Atmospheric Research Station in Antarctica was named after him.


Faraday was one of the then eight foreign members of the French Academy of Sciences. Louis XIV visiting the Académie in 1671 The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ...


Writings by Faraday

Michael Faraday's signature
Michael Faraday's signature

Faraday's books, with the exception of Chemical Manipulation, were collections of scientific papers or transcriptions of lectures.[22] Since his death, Faraday's diary has been published, as have several large volumes of his letters and Faraday's journal from his travels with Davy in 1813 - 1815. Image File history File links Faraday-signature. ... Image File history File links Faraday-signature. ...

  • Chemical Manipulation, Being Instructions to Students in Chemistry, John Murray, 1st ed. 1827, 2nd ed. 1830, 3rd ed. 1842
  • Experimental Researches in Electricity, vols. i. and ii., Richard and John Edward Taylor, vols. i. and ii.. 1844 and 1847; vol. iii., 1844; vol. iii. Richard Taylor and William Francis, 1855
  • Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics, Taylor and Francis, 1859
  • A Course of Six Lectures on the Chemical History of a Candle, edited by W. Crookes, Griffin, Bohn & Co., 1861 PDF/DjVu from Internet Archive
  • On the Various Forces in Nature, edited by W. Crookes, Chatto & Windus, 1873
  • Faraday's Diary edited by T. Martin was published in eight volumes, 1932 - 1936
  • Curiosity Perfectly Satisfyed: Faraday's Travels in Europe 1813-1815, edited by B. Bowers and L. Symons, Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1991
  • The Correspondence of Michael Faraday, edited by F. A. J. L. James, INSPEC, Inc., volume 1, 1991; volume 2, 1993; volume 3, 1996; volume 4, 1999
  • Course of six lectures on the various forces of matter, and their relations to each other London ; Glasgow : R. Griffin, 1860.
  • The liquefaction of gases Edinburgh: W. F. Clay, 1896.
  • The letters of Faraday and Schoenbein 1836-1862. With notes, comments and references to contemporary letters London: Williams & Norgate 1899.

Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ...

Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • "Nothing is too wonderful to be true if it be consistent with the laws of nature, and in such things as these, experiment is the best test of such consistency."[23]
  • "Work. Finish. Publish." — his advice to the young William Crookes
  • "The important thing is to know how to take all things quietly."
  • Regarding the hereafter, "Speculations? I have none. I am resting on certainties. I know whom I have believed and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day."
  • "Next Sabbath day (the 22nd) I shall complete my 70th year. I can hardly think of myself so old."
  • Above the doorways of the Pfahler Hall of Science at Ursinus College in Collegeville, Pennsylvania, there is a stone inscription of a quote attributed to Michael Faraday which reads "but still try, for who knows what is possible..."[24]
  • "One day sir, you may tax it." Faraday's reply to William Gladstone, then British Minister of Finance, when asked of the practical value of electricity.
  • "If you would cause your view ... to be acknowledged by scientific men; you would do a great service to science. If you would even get them to say yes or no to your conclusions it would help to clear the future progress. I believe some hesitate because they do not like their thoughts disturbed."[25]

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Sir William Crookes, OM, FRS (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was an English chemist and physicist. ... Ursinus College is a liberal arts college in Collegeville, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. ... Taxes redirects here. ... Gladstone redirects here. ...

See also

Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... A Faraday rotator is an optical device that rotates the polarization of light due to the Faraday effect. ... Entrance to a Faraday room A Faraday cage or Faraday shield is an enclosure formed by conducting material, or by a mesh of such material. ... A homopolar generator, also known as a unipolar generator, acyclic generator, or disk dynamo, is an electrical generator in which the magnetic field has the same polarity at every point, so that the armature passes through the magnetic field lines of force continually in the same direction. ... I am the man. ... Faradays law of induction (more generally, the law of electromagnetic induction) states that the induced emf (electromotive force) in a closed loop equals the negative of the time rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. ... In physics, the faraday (not to be confused with the farad) is a unit of electrical charge; one faraday is equal to the charge of 6. ... Examples of various types of capacitors. ... Line of force or line of flux , usually taken in the context of electromagnetism, is the curve whose tangent gives the direction of the field at that point. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ See National Portrait gallery NPG 269
  2. ^ a b c Michael Faraday entry at the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica hosted by LovetoKnow Retrieved January 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d Institution of Engineering and Technology, London Archives, Michael Faraday
  4. ^ Russell, Colin (2000). Michael Faraday: Physics and Faith. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  5. ^ "best experimentalist in the history of science." Quoting Dr Peter Ford, from the University of Bath’s Department of Physics. Accessed January 2007.
  6. ^ "Michael Faraday." History of Science and Technology. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 4 June 2007
  7. ^ "Jane Marcet's Books". John H. Lienhard. The Engines of Our Ingenuity. NPR. KUHF-FM Houston. 1992. No. 744. Transcript. Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
  8. ^ Jensen, William B. (2005). "The Origin of the Bunsen Burner". Journal of Chemical Education 82 (4). 
  9. ^ See page 127 of Faraday's Chemical Manipulation, Being Instructions to Students in Chemistry (1827)
  10. ^ Faraday, Michael (1821). "On two new Compounds of Chlorine and Carbon, and on a new Compound of Iodine, Carbon, and Hydrogen". Philosophical Transactions: 47. 
  11. ^ Faraday, Michael (1859). Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics. London: Richard Taylor and William Francis, 33–53. 
  12. ^ Williams, L. Pearce (1965). Michael Faraday: A Biography. New York: Basic Books, 122–123. 
  13. ^ Faraday, Michael (1823). "On Hydrate of Chlorine". Quartly Journal of Science 15: 71. 
  14. ^ Faraday, Michael (1859). Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics. London: Richard Taylor and William Francis, 81–84. 
  15. ^ The Birth of Nanotechnology. Nanogallery.info (2006). Retrieved on 2007-07-25. “"Faraday made some attempt to explain what was causing the vivid coloration in his gold mixtures, saying that known phenomena seemed to indicate that a mere variation in the size of [gold] particles gave rise to a variety of resultant colors."”
  16. ^ See National Portrait Gallery, UK
  17. ^ Brother Potamian (1913). Francesco Zantedeschi article at the Catholic Encyclopedia. Wikisource. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  18. ^ The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell Volume 1 page 360; Courier Dover 2003, ISBN 0486495604
  19. ^ See The Illustrated London News, July 1853, for Faraday's comments.
  20. ^ Twickenham Museum on Faraday and Faraday House, Accessed June 2006
  21. ^ Bank of England, Withdrawn Notes
  22. ^ See page 220 of Hamilton's A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution (2002)
  23. ^ From the entry of 19 March 1849 in Faraday's Diary
  24. ^ See but still try
  25. ^ From Life and Letters, 2:389.

A blanket term for all sorts of scientists engaged more in experimental activity than on the theoretical side of the various sciences. ... The Engines of Our Ingenuity is a radio program that is regularly broadcast on National Public Radio. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Biographies

  • Bence Jones, Henry (1870). The Life and Letters of Faraday. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott and Company. 
  • Cantor, Geoffrey (1991). Michael Faraday, Sandemanian and Scientist. Macmillian. ISBN 0-333-55077. 
  • Gladstone, J. H. (1872). Michael Faraday. London: Macmillan. 
  • Hamilton, James (2002). Faraday: The Life. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-716376-2. 
  • Hamilton, James (2004). A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution. ISBN 1-4000-6016-8. 
  • Thompson, Silvanus (1901). Michael Faraday, His Life and Work. Cassell and Company. ISBN 1-4179-7036-7. 
* Reprinted in 2005 by Adamant Media Corporation
  • Tyndall, John (1868). Faraday as a Discoverer. London: : Longmans, Green, and Company. 
  • Williams, L. Pearce (1965). Michael Faraday: A Biography. New York: Basic Books. 
  • The British Electrical and Allied Manufacturers Association (1931). Faraday. R. & R. Clark, Ltd., Edinburgh, 1931.

Others

  • Agassi, Joseph (1971). Faraday as a Natural Philosopher. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  • Ames, Joseph Sweetman (Ed.) (c1900). The Discovery of Induced Electric Currents 2. New York: American Book Company. 
  • Gooding, David (Ed.) (1985). Faraday Rediscovered: Essays on the Life and Work of Michael Faraday, 1791-1867. London/New York: Macmillan/Stockton. 
  • Thomas, John Meurig (1991). Michael Faraday and the Royal Institution: The Genius of Man and Place. Bristol: Hilger. ISBN 0-7503-0145-7. 

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

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Biographies

Others

Awards
Preceded by
George Biddell Airy
Copley Medal
1832
jointly with Siméon Denis Poisson
Succeeded by
Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana
Preceded by
Antoine César Becquerel and John Frederic Daniell
Copley Medal
1838
jointly with Carl Friedrich Gauss
Succeeded by
Robert Brown
Persondata
NAME Faraday, Michael
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION British Physicist and Chemist
DATE OF BIRTH September 22, 1791
PLACE OF BIRTH Newington Butts, England
DATE OF DEATH August 25, 1867
PLACE OF DEATH Hampton Court, London, England
The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... George Biddell Airy Sir George Biddell Airy FRS (July 27, 1801–January 2, 1892) was an English mathematician and astronomer, Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for distinguished achievement in any field of science and it is the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... Poisson redirects here. ... Giovanni Antonio Amedeo Plana (November 6, 1781–January 20, 1864) was an Italian astronomer and mathematician. ... Antoine César Becquerel (March 8, 1788 – January 18, 1878) was a French scientist and a pioneer in the study of electric and luminescent phenomena. ... John Frederic Daniell (March 12, 1790 - March 13, 1845) was an English chemist and physicist. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for distinguished achievement in any field of science and it is the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (pronounced ,  ; in German usually Gauß, Latin: ) (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, electrostatics, astronomy, and optics. ... Robert Brown (1773–1858) Robert Brown (December 21, 1773–June 10, 1858) is acknowledged as the leading British botanist to collect in Australia during the first half of the 19th century. ... Not to be confused with physician, a person who practices medicine. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Newington Butts is a short road in Southwark, London, England, leading south-west from the Elephant and Castle. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The clock tower straddles the entrance between the inner and outer courts Hampton Court Palace is a former royal place on the north bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames about 12 miles (19 km) southwest and upstream of Central London, nowadays open to... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC - History - Michael Faraday (1791-1867) (405 words)
Faraday was a British chemist and physicist who contributed significantly to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
Michael Faraday was born on 22 September 1791 in south London.
Faraday's scientific knowledge was harnessed for practical use through various official appointments, including scientific adviser to Trinity House (1836-1865) and Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Military Academy in Woolwich (1830-1851).
Michael Faraday - LoveToKnow 1911 (2225 words)
MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867), English chemist and physicist, was born at Newington, Surrey, on the 22nd of September 1791.
A specimen of one of these heavy glasses afterwards became historically important as the substance in which Faraday detected the rotation of the plane of polarization of light when the glass was placed in the magnetic field, and also as the substance which was first repelled by the poles of the magnet.
Faraday had for a long time kept in view the possibility of using a ray of polarized light as a means of investigating the condition of transparent bodies when acted on by electric and magnetic forces.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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