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Encyclopedia > Michael Collins (astronaut)
Michael Collins
Michael Collins (astronaut)
Astronaut
 Nationality American
 Born October 31, 1930
Rome, Italy
 Occupation1 Test pilot
 Rank Major General, USAF
 Space time 11d 02h 04m
 Selection 1963 NASA Group
 Mission(s) Gemini 10, Apollo 11
Mission insignia
 1 previous or current

Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930) is a former American astronaut and test pilot. Selected as part of the third group of fourteen astronauts in 1963, he flew in space twice. His first spaceflight was Gemini 10, when he and command pilot John W. Young performed two rendezvous with different spacecraft and Collins undertook two EVAs. His second spaceflight was Apollo 11 where he served as the command module pilot. While he orbited the Moon, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin performed the first manned landing on the lunar surface. File links The following pages link to this file: Michael Collins (broker) ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Test pilots are aviators who fly new and modified aircraft in specific maneuvers, allowing the results to be measured and the design to be evaluated. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... 1958 1959 1960 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1976 1978 1979 1980 1982 1984 1985 1987 1990 1992 1994 1995 1996 1997 2000 2003 2004 1958 June 25 - Man In Space Soonest - USA The first group of American astronaut candidates were selected... Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ... Image File history File links Ge10Patch_orig. ... Image File history File links Apollo_11_insignia. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... Test pilots are aviators who fly new and modified aircraft in specific maneuvers, allowing the results to be measured and the design to be evaluated. ... Astronaut Group 3 was the third group of Astronauts selected by NASA in October 1963. ... Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... John W. Young in 1986 John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a former NASA astronaut who walked on the Moon on Apollo 16, April 21, 1972. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless on an untethered EVA Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) is work done by an astronaut away from the Earth and outside of his or her spacecraft. ... Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ... Neil Alden Armstrong born August 5, 1930 (age 76) is a former American astronaut, test pilot, university professor, and Naval Aviator, and was the first human to set foot on the Moon. ... Colonel Buzz Eugene Aldrin, Sc. ...


Prior to becoming an astronaut, he had attended the United States Military Academy, and from there he joined the United States Air Force and flew F-86s at Chambley-Bussieres Air Base, France. He was accepted to the USAF Experimental Flight Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base in 1960. He unsuccessfully applied for the second astronaut group but was accepted for the third group. USMA redirects here. ... Aircraft of the 379th Air Expeditionary Wing and coalition counterparts stationed together at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, in southwest Asia, fly over the desert. ... The first proposals for the North American Aviation F-86 Sabre were made in 1944, but construction was not begun until after World War II. Many elements of German jet design were implemented in the Sabre, after the American liberation troops captured a number of working Messerschmitt Me 262 experimental... Chambley-Bussieres Air Base is a former USAF base in France. ... The U.S. Air Force Flight Test School is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California. ... Edwards Air Force Base is a USAF airbase located on the border of Kern County and Los Angeles County, California in the Antelope Valley, 7 miles (11 km) due East of Rosamond, USA at 34°57′ N 117°52′ W. An airbase since 1933, Edwards has long been a home...


After retiring from NASA in 1970 he took a job in the Department of State as Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs. A year later he became the first director of the National Air and Space Museum. He held this position until 1978 when he stepped down to become undersecretary of the Smithsonian Institution. In 1980 he got the job of Vice President of LTV Aerospace. He resigned in 1985 to start his own business. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Vought is the name of several related aerospace firms. ...


He is married to Patricia, and they have three children: Kate, Ann and Michael, Jr. Kate is an actress, and is best-known for her role as Natalie Marlowe Dillon in the long-running daytime television drama All My Children. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... All My Children is an American soap opera that has been broadcast Monday through Friday on the ABC TV network since January 5, 1970. ...

Contents

Childhood and education

Michael Collins was born in Rome, Italy on October 31, 1930. His father was United States Army Major General James Lawton Collins served in the army for 38 years, and during the 17 years which Michael Collins lived at home, he would call Rome, Oklahoma, Governors Island, Puerto Rico (their house was reputed to be the second oldest in the Western Hemisphere) and Alexandria, Virginia home. He took his first ride in a plane in Puerto Rico aboard a Grumman Widgeon. His father would often tell of how his first plane ride had in been in 1911 with Frank Lahm in the Philippines[1]. Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about Governors Island in New York State. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia Founded 1718 Mayor William D. Euille Area    - City 39. ... The Grumman G-44 Widgeon is a small, six-person, twin-engine amphibious aircraft. ... Frank Purdy Lahm (1877 - July 7, 1963) was an American aviator in the US Army. ...


After the United States entered World War II, the family moved to Washington, D.C. where Collins attended St. Albans School. His mother wanted him to enter into the diplomatic service, but he decided to follow his father, two uncles, brother and cousin into the armed services, and so went to the United States Military Academy, which also had the advantage of being free. He finished 185th out 527 cadets in the same class as Ed White. His decision to join the United States Air Force for his active service was based on both the wonder of what the next fifty years may bring in aeronautics, but also to avoid any accusations of nepotism if he joined the army where among other things, his uncle, J. Lawton Collins, was the Chief of Staff of the United States Army.[2] Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Federal District District of Columbia  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack Evans... For other schools with a similar name, see St. ... USMA redirects here. ... Edward Higgins White, II (Lt. ... Aircraft of the 379th Air Expeditionary Wing and coalition counterparts stationed together at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, in southwest Asia, fly over the desert. ... Joseph Lawton Collins Joseph Lightning Joe Lawton Collins (1 May 1896 – 12 September 1987) was a general of the United States Army. ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the professional head of the United States Army who is responsible for insuring readiness of the Army. ...


Military service

After entering the Air Force, Collins completed flight training at Columbus, Mississippi in T-6 Texans, then moved to San Marcos and Waco, Texas. He was chosen for advanced day fighter training at Nellis Air Force Base, flying F-86 Sabres. This was followed by an assignment to the 21st Fighter-Bomber Wing at the George Air Force Base, where he learned how to deliver nuclear weapons. He transferred with the 21st when it was relocated to Chaumont-Semoutiers Air Base, France in June of 1954. Columbus is a city located in Lowndes County, Mississippi, on the Tombigbee River. ... The T-6 was a single-engine advanced trainer aircraft designed by North American Aviation, used to train fighter pilots of the United States Army Air Forces, United States Navy, Royal Air Force and other air forces of the British Commonwealth during World War II. The T-6 is known... Image:Marcos. ... Waco is the county seat of McLennan County, Texas. ... Map showing the locations of Nellis AFB and the NAFR Nellis Air Force Base (IATA: LSV, ICAO: KLSV) is a United States Air Force base, located in Clark County, Nevada, on the northeast side of Las Vegas. ... The North American F-86 Sabre was a subsonic combat aircraft developed for the US Air Force. ... The 21st Space Wing is a unit of the Air Force Space Command based at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. ... Southern California Logistics Airport (IATA: VCV, ICAO: KVCV), also known as Victorville Airport, is a public airport located in the city of Victorville in San Bernardino County, California, USA. It is located on the former site of George Air Force Base. ... 2003 Aerial Photo of Chaumont-Semoutiers Air Base Chaumont-Semoutiers Air Base (IATA: XCW, ICAO: LFJA) is a former United States Air Force base in France. ...


During a NATO exercise in the summer of 1956, Collins and his crewmate were forced to eject from an F-86 after a fire started aft of their cockpit. Both were safely rescued and returned to Chaumont AB, where a wait of several hours ensued, as the base's doctor had joined search parties looking for the pair. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[2] (NATO; French: ; also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance) is a military alliance established on 4 April 1949 by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty. ...


Collins met Patricia Finnegan, his future wife, in an officers' mess. She was from Boston, Massachusetts, and was working for the Air Force service club. After getting engaged, they had to overcome a difference in religion. Collins was nominally Episcopalian, while Finnegan came from a staunchly Roman Catholic family. Collins's father had been raised a Catholic, but converted to Protestantism when he married. The rest of his family remained Catholic. After seeking permission to marry from Finnegan's father, and delaying their wedding when Collins was redeployed to West Germany due to the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, they married in the summer of 1957[3]. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1 Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area    - City 232. ... The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul is the National Cathedral of the USA in Washington, D.C. The arms of the Episcopal Church are based on the Cross of St George, a symbol of England (mother of world Anglicanism), with a saltire reminiscent of the Cross of... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official...


After Collins was reassigned back to the United States, he attended an aircraft maintenance officer course at Chanute Air Force Base. He would later describe this school as "dismal" in his autobiography[4]. Upon completing the course, he was posted to a Mobile Training Detachment (MTD) and travelled to Air Force bases, training mechanics on the servicing of new aircraft. Aerial Photo of Chanute Air Force Base, Illinois - 1982 Chanute Air Force Base was a United States Air Force base located in Rantoul, Illinois. ...


Test pilot

With the help of his time as a member of an MTD, Collins accumulated over 1500 hours of flying, the minimum required for the USAF Experimental Flight Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base. He successfully applied and reported on August 29, 1960, becoming a member of Class 60-C (which included Frank Borman and Jim Irwin). Following months of intensive training, Collins was one of the few chosen for fighter ops.[5] August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... Apollo 15 Lunar Module Pilot Jim Irwin James Irwins Apollo 15 space suit James Benson Irwin (March 17, 1930 – August 8, 1991) was a member of the Apollo 15 mission and the eighth man to walk on the Moon. ...


The turning point for Michael Collins in his decision to become an astronaut was the Mercury Atlas 6 flight of John Glenn on February 20, 1962, and the thought of being able to circle the Earth in 90 minutes. He immediately applied for the second group of astronauts that year. To try and raise their numbers, the Air Force sent their best applicants to a "charm school". Among other things they learned was that men should always have their thumbs to the rear when they have their hands on their hips. Following medical examinations at Brooks Air Force Base and interviews at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston. In mid-September he found that he had not been accepted, something that was a blow even though he did not really expect to be accepted. Collins still rates the second group of nine as the best group of astronauts ever selected by NASA.[6] // Crew John Glenn (flew on Mercury 6 & STS-95) Backup Crew M. Scott Carpenter Mission parameters Mass: 1,352 kg Perigee: 159 km Apogee: 265 km Inclination: 32. ... For other persons named John Glenn, see John Glenn (disambiguation). ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Brooks Air Force Base was a United States Air Force base located in San Antonio, Texas. ...


That same year the USAF Experimental Flight Test Pilot School became the USAF Aerospace Research Pilot School, as the Air Force tried to enter into the research of space. Collins applied for a new course offered into the basics of spaceflight (other students included Charles Bassett, Edward Givens and Joe Engle). Along with classwork they also flew up to about 90,000 feet in F-104 Starfighters. As they passed through the top of their huge arc, they would experience a brief period of weightlessness. Finishing this course he returned to fighter ops in May 1963.[7] Astronaut Charles Bassett NAME: Charles A. Bassett , II (Captain, USAF) NASA Astronaut (Deceased) // Personal data Bassett was born in Dayton, Ohio, on December 30, 1931, and died February 28, 1966, in St. ... Edward Givens Edward Galen (Ed) Givens Jr (January 5, 1930 - June 6, 1967) was a NASA astronaut selected in the 1966 Original 19 group. ... Joseph Joe Henry Engle (born August 26, 1932 in Dickinson County, Kansas) is a former NASA astronaut and a retired U.S. Air Force colonel. ... The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter is a high-performance supersonic interceptor aircraft, capable of high speeds and climb rates. ...


At the start of June of that year, NASA once again called for astronaut applications. Collins went through the same process as with his first applications, though didn't take the psychiatric evaluation. He was at Randolph Air Force Base on October 14 when Deke Slayton called and asked if he was still interested in becoming an astronaut. Charlie Bassett was also accepted in the same group.[8] Randolph Air Force Base (Randolph AFB) is a base of the United States Air Force located in Bexar County, Texas near San Antonio. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Deke Slayton prepares for a pre-mission test leading up to his Apollo-Soyuz flight Donald Kent Deke Slayton (March 1, 1924–June 13, 1993) was an American astronaut. ...


Space program

Michael Collins suiting up for the Apollo 11 flight
Michael Collins suiting up for the Apollo 11 flight

For the third group, training began with a 240-hour course of the basics of spaceflight. Geology was devoted 58 hours of this, something that Collins could not understand, and never became too interested in.[9] At the end, Alan Shepard, who was head of the astronaut office asked the fourteen to rank their fellow astronauts in the order they would want to fly with them in space. Collins picked David Scott in the number one position.[10] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2126x2835, 713 KB) Summary Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins during suiting for launch on July 16, 1969. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2126x2835, 713 KB) Summary Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins during suiting for launch on July 16, 1969. ... Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. ... David Scotts Apollo 15 training space suit on display in the Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC. Colonel David Randolph Scott (born June 6, 1932), a former NASA astronaut, was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963 and is one of only twelve...


After this basic training, the third group were assigned specializations, with Collins receiving his first choice of pressure suits and EVA. His job was to monitor the development and act as something of a go-between for the astronaut office and the contractors.[11] As such he was annoyed when during the secretive planning of Ed White's EVA on Gemini 4, he was not involved. Gemini 4 (officially Gemini IV) was a 1965 manned space flight in NASAs Gemini program. ...


In late June 1965, Collins received his first crew assignment, the backup pilot for Gemini 7. He was the first of the fourteen to receive a crew assignment (though would not be the first to fly. That honor went to David Scott on Gemini 8). Collins never rated himself up with the super athletes of the astronaut corp like his fellow backup crew member Ed White but still tried to keep in shape, especially in the run up to Gemini 7, when he could have been called upon to spend 14 days in space. He used to smoke heavily but during 1962 he had woken up with a terrible hangover and decided enough was enough. The next day he spent what he described as the worst four hours of his life in the right-hand seat of a bomber flicking switches while going through the initial stages of nicotine withdrawal.[12] Gemini 7 (officially Gemini VII) was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Gemini 8 (officially Gemini VIII) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Edward White (1910-1994) a British composer of light classical music. ... Not to be confused with Niacin, which is the oxide of Nicotine, and has a very different biological effect. ...


Gemini 10

Main article: Gemini 10
Michael Collins with John Young

After the successful completion of 7, Collins was assigned to the prime crew of Gemini 10 with John Young, with White moving onto Project Apollo. Their three-day mission called for them to rendezvous with two different Agena Target Vehicles, undertake two EVAs, and perform fifteen different experiments. The training went smoothly, as the crew learned the intricacies of orbital rendezvous, controlling the Agena and for Collins, EVA. For what was to be only the fourth ever EVA, underwater training was not undertaken, mostly because Collins just didn't have the time. To train to use the nitrogen gun he would use for propulsion, a super smooth metal surface about the size of a boxing ring was set up. He would stand on a circular pad that used gas jets to raise itself off the surface. Using the nitrogen gun he would practise propelling himself across the "slippery table".[13] For the three day flight, Collins received $24.00 in travel reimbursement. Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (678x800, 143 KB) Summary Beschreibung:Gemini 10 - prime crew (Young and Collins) Quelle: NASA Fotograf oder Zeichner: unbekannt Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Michael Collins (astronaut) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (678x800, 143 KB) Summary Beschreibung:Gemini 10 - prime crew (Young and Collins) Quelle: NASA Fotograf oder Zeichner: unbekannt Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Michael Collins (astronaut) ... Gemini 10 (officially Gemini X) was a 1966 manned spaceflight in NASAs Gemini program. ... John W. Young in 1986 John Watts Young (born September 24, 1930) is a former NASA astronaut who walked on the Moon on Apollo 16, April 21, 1972. ... Project Apollo was a series of human spaceflight missions undertaken by the United States of America (NASA) using the Apollo spacecraft and Saturn launch vehicle, conducted during the years 1961–1974. ... An Atlas launch vehicle launches GATV-5006 into orbit for the Gemini 11 mission. ...


Apollo

The backup crew for the second manned Apollo flight. Michael Collins is on the left, and on the right Thomas Stafford blocks the view of Frank Borman
The backup crew for the second manned Apollo flight. Michael Collins is on the left, and on the right Thomas Stafford blocks the view of Frank Borman

Shortly after Gemini 10, Collins was assigned to the backup crew for the second manned Apollo flight, with commander Frank Borman, command module pilot (CMP) Thomas Stafford and Collins as lunar module pilot (LMP). Along with learning the new Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM) and the Apollo Lunar Module (LM), Collins received helicopter training, as these were thought to be the best way to simulate the landing approach of the LM. After the completion of Project Gemini, it was decided to cancel the Apollo 2 flight, since it would just repeat the Apollo 1 flight. In the process of crews being reassigned, Collins was moved to the CMP position, since his new crew was Borman, Collins and William Anders. Deke Slayton had decided that the CMP should have some spaceflight experience, something that Anders did not have. Three years later, this change would be the reason why Michael Collins orbited the Moon, while Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on its surface.[14] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2244x2835, 1054 KB) Summary Early Apollo 205 backup crew, Frank Borman, Thomas Stafford and Michael Collins during a CSM-014 equipment bench display at North American Aviation on August 23, 1966. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2244x2835, 1054 KB) Summary Early Apollo 205 backup crew, Frank Borman, Thomas Stafford and Michael Collins during a CSM-014 equipment bench display at North American Aviation on August 23, 1966. ... Thomas P. Stafford (born September 17, 1930) is an American astronaut and Air Force general. ... Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... Frank Borman (right) poses with Jim Lovell (left) and Bill Anders (center) for an Apollo 8 publicity photo Frank Borman (born March 14, 1928) was a NASA astronaut, best remembered as one of the three crewmembers of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon. ... Thomas P. Stafford (born September 17, 1930) is an American astronaut and Air Force general. ... The Command/Service Module (CSM) was a spacecraft built for NASA by North American Aviation. ... The LEM flight instrumentation panel and front windows. ... Project Gemini was the second human spaceflight program of the United States of America. ... Due to budget constraints there were many canceled Apollo missions during Project Apollo. ... William A. Anders (born October 17, 1933) former National Aeronautics and Space Administration astronaut. ... Deke Slayton prepares for a pre-mission test leading up to his Apollo-Soyuz flight Donald Kent Deke Slayton (March 1, 1924–June 13, 1993) was an American astronaut. ...


Staff meetings were always held on Fridays in the astronaut office and it was here that Collins found himself on January 27, 1967. Don Gregory was running the meeting in the absence of Alan Shepard and so it was he who answered the red phone to be informed that there was a fire in the Apollo 1 CM. When the enormity of the situation was ascertained, it fell on Collins to go the Chaffee household to tell Martha Chaffee that her husband was dead. The astronaut office had learned from the death of Theodore Freeman in an aircraft crash, when a newspaper reporter was the first to his house.[15] January 27 is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Alan Bartlett Shepard, Jr. ... Apollo One is the official name given retroactively to the Apollo/Saturn 204 (AS-204) spacecraft, destroyed by fire during a training exercise on January 27, 1967, at Pad 34 (Launch Complex 34 at Cape Canaveral) atop a Saturn IB rocket. ... Theodore Cordy Freeman (born February 18, 1930, in Haverford, Pennsylvania; died October 31, 1964 at Ellington Air Force Base, Houston, Texas) was a NASA astronaut and a captain in the United States Air Force. ...


Following the delays to training as Frank Borman took part in the fire investigation, the crew of what would become Apollo 8 started back. It would be the first manned flight of the Saturn V and only its third launch. They would use the S-IVB third stage to boost them into a highly elliptical Earth orbit with a high point of 4000 miles. Apollo 8 was the second manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to orbit around the Moon. ... This article is about the rocket. ... The S-IVB (sometimes S4b) was built by the Douglas Aircraft Company and served as the third stage on the Saturn V and second stage on the Saturn IB. It had one J-2 engine. ...


During all this Collins and David Scott were sent by NASA to the Paris Air Show in May 1967. There they met cosmonauts Pavel Belyayev and Konstantin Feoktistov, with whom they drank vodka on the Soviet's Tupolev Tu-134. Collins found it interesting that some cosmonauts were doing helicopter training like their American compatriots and Belyayev said that he hoped to make a circum-lunar flight soon. The astronauts' wives had accompanied them on the trip and Collins and his wife Pat were somewhat forced by NASA and their friends to travel to Metz where they had been married ten years before. There they found a third wedding ceremony had been arranged (ten years previously they had already had a civil and religious ceremony).[16] The Paris Air Show (Salon International de lAéronautique et de lEspace, Paris-Le Bourget) is an international trade fair for the aerospace business. ... Pavel Belyayev Pavel Ivanovich Belyayev (Russian: Павел Иванович Беляев), June 26, 1925, Chelizshevo – January 10, 1970, Moscow, was a cosmonaut who flew on the historic Voskhod 2 mission. ... Konstantin Feoktistov Konstantin Petrovich Feoktistov (Russian: Константин Петрович Феоктистов; born February 7, 1926 in Voronezh) was a cosmonaut and space engineer. ... An Aeroflot Tu-134 sits on the tarmac The Tupolev Tu-134 (NATO reporting name Crusty) was a Russian twin-engined airliner, similar to the American Douglas DC-9. ... For other uses of Metz, see Metz (disambiguation) City motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) City proper (commune) Région Lorraine Département Moselle (57) Mayor Jean-Marie Rausch Area 41. ...


Medical problems

During 1968, Collins noticed that his legs were not working as they should, first during handball games, then as he walked down stairs, his knee would almost gave way. His left leg also felt weird to hot and cold water. Reluctantly he sought medical advice and the diagnosis was a cervical disc herniation, requiring two vertebrae to be fused together. The surgery was performed at the USAF Wilford Hall Hospital at Lackland Air Force Base and he spent three months in a neck brace. It also removed Collins from the crew of Apollo 8 and moved Jim Lovell up to the prime crew. And 8's mission was changed from a CSM/LM in Earth orbit, to a CSM-only flight around the Moon.[17] American (or court) handball is an American form of fives played against one or more walls. ... In anatomy, cervical is an adjective that has two meanings: of or pertaining to the neck. ... Stages of Spinal Disc Herniation A spinal disc herniation is a pathological condition in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus) of an intervertebral disc allows the soft, central portion (nucleus pulposus) to be extruded (herniated) to the outside of the disc. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... Lackland Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force located west of San Antonio, Texas, USA. It is located at 29°2323 North, 98°3645 West (29. ... Apollo 8 was the second manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to orbit around the Moon. ... James Jim Arthur Lovell, Jr. ...


Apollo 8

Main article: Apollo 8

Having trained for the flight, Collins was made a CapCom, the only people who usually spoke to the crew during the mission. As part of the Mission Control's Green Team, he was responsible for the launch phase up to trans-lunar injection, the rocket burn that sent them to the Moon. The successful completion of the first manned circum-lunar flight was followed by the announcement of the Apollo 11 crew of Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins. At the time in January 1969, it was not certain this would be the lunar landing crew with Apollos 9 and 10 still needing to be flown successfully.[18] Apollo 8 was the second manned mission of the Apollo space program, in which Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot James Lovell and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders became the first humans to orbit around the Moon. ... Apollo 9 was the third manned mission in the Apollo program, a ten day earth-orbital mission launched 3 March 1969. ... Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the Apollo program, and the first (and only manned Saturn V) mission to launch from pad 39B. The mission included the second crew to orbit the Moon, and the test of the lunar module in lunar orbit. ...


Apollo 11

Michael Collins in Command Module simulator during simulated rendezvous and docking maneuver on June 19, 1969
Michael Collins in Command Module simulator during simulated rendezvous and docking maneuver on June 19, 1969
Main article: Apollo 11

As CMP, Collins training was completely for the CSM and was sometimes done without Armstrong or Aldrin being present. Along with simulators, there were size measurements for pressure suits, centrifuge training to simulate the 10 g reentry, and practicing docking with a huge rig at Langley, Virginia, just to name a few. Since he would be the active participant in the rendezvous with the LM, Collins compiled a book of 18 different rendezvous schemes for different scenarios including where the LM didn't land, or launched too early or too late. This book ran for 117 pages. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x633, 125 KB) Summary Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins in Command Module simulator during simulated rendezvous and docking maneuver. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x633, 125 KB) Summary Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins in Command Module simulator during simulated rendezvous and docking maneuver. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... Year 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Apollo 11 was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. ... The nominal acceleration due to gravity at sea level on the Earths surface, also known as standard gravity, is defined as exactly 9. ... Langley is an unincorporated community in the census-designated place of McLean in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ...


The famous mission patch of Apollo 11 was the creation of Collins. Jim Lovell, the backup commander, mentioned the idea of eagles, a symbol of the United States. Collins liked the idea and found a photo in a National Geographic magazine, traced it and added the lunar surface below and Earth in the background. The idea of an olive branch, a symbol of peace, came from a computer expert at the simulators. The call sign Columbia for the CSM came from Julian Scheer, the NASA Assistant Administrator for Public Affairs. He mentioned the idea to Collins in a conversation and Collins couldn't think of anything better.[19] The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...


It was during the training for Apollo 11 that Collins told Deke Slayton that he didn't want to fly again. Slayton offered to get him back into the crew sequence after the flight, and according to Collins, this would probably have been as backup commander of Apollo 14 followed by commander of Apollo 17. Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the Apollo program and the third mission to land on the Moon. ... Apollo 17 was the eleventh manned space mission in the NASA Apollo program and was the sixth and last manned mission to date to land on the Moon. ...

Michael Collins sits in hatch of Apollo 11 Command Module after its return to the MSC's Lunar Receiving Laboratory for detailed examination
Michael Collins sits in hatch of Apollo 11 Command Module after its return to the MSC's Lunar Receiving Laboratory for detailed examination

During his day of solo flying around the Moon, Collins never felt lonely. Although it had been said that "not since Adam has any human known such solitude", Collins felt very much a part of the mission. In his autobiography he wrote that "this venture has been structured for three men, and I consider my third to be as necessary as either of the other two". During the 48 minutes of each orbit that he was out of radio contact with Earth, the feeling was not loneliness, but as "awareness, anticipation, satisfaction, confidence, almost exultation".[20] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (883x900, 219 KB) Summary Michael Collins sits in hatch of Apollo 11 Command Module after its return to the MSCs Lunar Receiving Laboratory for detailed examination. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (883x900, 219 KB) Summary Michael Collins sits in hatch of Apollo 11 Command Module after its return to the MSCs Lunar Receiving Laboratory for detailed examination. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ...


After spending so much time with the CSM, Collins felt compelled to leave his mark on her, so during their second night on Earth, he went to the lower equipment bay of the CM and wrote:

"Spacecraft 107 — alias Apollo 11 — alias Columbia. The best ship to come down the line. God Bless Her. Michael Collins, CMP"[21]

Post-NASA activities

After being released from a 21-day quarantine, the crew were feted across the United States and around the world as part of a 45-day "Giant Leap" tour. Prior to this trip NASA administrator Thomas O. Paine had approached Collins and said that Secretary of State William P. Rogers was interested in appointing Collins to the position of Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs. It wasn't until they returned to the U.S. in November that he sat down with Rogers and accepted the position on the urgings of Richard Nixon.[22] In this position he was in charge of various areas including exhibitions, speeches and history. Thomas Otten Paine (November 9, 1921 - May 4, 1992), American scientist, was the third Administrator of NASA, serving from March 21, 1969 to September 15, 1970. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... William Pierce Rogers (June 23, 1913 – January 2, 2001) was an American politician, who served as a Cabinet officer in the administrations of two U.S. Presidents in the third quarter of the 20th century. ...


A year later, he left this position to become the first director of the National Air and Space Museum. He held this position until 1978 when he stepped down to become undersecretary of the Smithsonian Institution. That same year he retired from the United States Air Force with the rank of Major General. In 1974 he attended the Harvard Business School and in 1980 became Vice President of LTV Aerospace in Arlington, Virginia. He resigned in 1985 to start his own business. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Harvard Business School, officially named the Harvard Business School: George F. Baker Foundation, and also known as HBS, is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Vought is the name of several related aerospace firms. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000...


He wrote an autobiography in 1974 entitled Carrying the Fire: An Astronaut's Journeys. He has also written Liftoff: The Story of America's Adventure in Space (1988), a history of the American space program, Mission to Mars (1990), non-fiction book on human spaceflight to Mars, and Flying to the Moon : An Astronaut's Story (1994), a children's book on his experiences. Along with his writing, he has painted watercolors mostly relating to his Florida Everglades home, or aircraft that he flew, and rarely are space-related. Until recently he did not sign his paintings to avoid them increasing in price just because they had his autograph on them.[23]. An Anhinga perched on the boardwalk railing The Florida Everglades is a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida, specifically in parts of Monroe, Collier, Palm Beach, Miami-Dade, and Broward counties. ...

Michael Collins and his fellow Apollo 11 crew members meet with President George W. Bush during the 35th anniversary celebrations of their flight
Michael Collins and his fellow Apollo 11 crew members meet with President George W. Bush during the 35th anniversary celebrations of their flight

He has been awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, Air Force Distinguished Flying Cross, Air Force Command Pilot Astronaut Wings, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Together with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, he received the Collier Trophy in 1969. The International Astronomical Union honored him by naming an asteroid after him, 6471 Collins. Image File history File links Apollo_11_-_Crew_at_the_White_House. ... Image File history File links Apollo_11_-_Crew_at_the_White_House. ... For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The NASA Distinguished Service Medal is the second highest award which may be bestowed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, ranking immediately below the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. ... The Distinguished Flying Cross. ... An Astronaut Badge is a military badge of the United States, awarded to military aviation pilots who have completed Astronaut training with NASA and performed a successful space flight. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other major civilian award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor, which... The Collier Trophy is the most prestigious award in the aviation field, given once a year to those that have made the greatest achievement in aeronautics or astronautics in America, with respect to improving the performance, efficiency, and safety of air or space vehicles, the value of which has been... Logo of the IAU The International Astronomical Union (French: Union astronomique internationale) unites national astronomical societies from around the world. ...


In the 1996 TV movie Apollo 11, Collins was played by Jim Metzler. In the 1998 HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon, he was played by Cary Elwes. Jim Metzler (June 23, 1951, Oneonta, New York, USA), televison actor, mainly known for guest-appearances on popular tv-series. ... From the Earth to the Moon is a twelve-part HBO television miniseries (1998) co-produced by Ron Howard, Brian Grazer, Tom Hanks, and Michael Bostick detailing the landmark Apollo expeditions to the Moon during the 1960s and early 1970s. ... Ivan Simon Cary Elwes (born October 26, 1962) is an English actor credited as Cary Elwes, best known for his performances in The Princess Bride, Robin Hood: Men in Tights and Saw. ...


Unlike many of his fellow Apollo astronauts, Collins is not divorced, still married to Pat. They live together in Marco Island, Florida, and Avon, North Carolina. Marco Island is a city and island located in Collier County, Florida. ... Categories: US geography stubs | Villages in North Carolina | Dare County, North Carolina ...


Trivia

English rock group Jethro Tull has a song "For Michael Collins, Jeffrey and Me" which appears on the Benefit album from 1970, which shows the feelings of a man on duty, left behind the other two, who had the privilege to walk on the surface of the moon. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Benefit is the third album by Jethro Tull. ...


Norwegian post-rock group The Samuel Jackson five has an instrumental song "Michael Collins autograph" which appears on the Easily Misunderstood album from 2005.


Despite being an American citizen, is credited by the Irish Government [1] as being the first Irishman in space.


References

February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Collins, Michael; Charles Lindbergh (2001). Carrying the Fire: An Astronaut's Journeys. Cooper Square Press, 8–13. ISBN 0-8154-1028-X. 
  2. ^ Ibid, pages 7–8
  3. ^ Hansen, James (2005). First Man: The Life of Neil Armstrong. Simon & Schuster, 346–347. ISBN 0-7432-5631-X. 
  4. ^ Collins, Michael; Charles Lindbergh (2001). Carrying the Fire: An Astronaut's Journeys. Cooper Square Press, 8–13. ISBN 0-8154-1028-X. 
  5. ^ Ibid, pages 13–17
  6. ^ Ibid, pages 25–33
  7. ^ Ibid, pages 34–40
  8. ^ Ibid, pages 40–46
  9. ^ Ibid, pages 72–73
  10. ^ Ibid, page 77
  11. ^ Ibid, page 114
  12. ^ Ibid, pages 153–155
  13. ^ Ibid, pages 177–198
  14. ^ Ibid, pages 267–268
  15. ^ Ibid, pages 269–274
  16. ^ Ibid, pages 278–282
  17. ^ Ibid, pages 288–294
  18. ^ Ibid, pages 295–314
  19. ^ Ibid, pages 332–335
  20. ^ Ibid, page 402
  21. ^ Ibid, page 446
  22. ^ Ibid, pages 454–455
  23. ^ NovaSpace biography. Retrieved February 14, 2006.

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