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Encyclopedia > Mexico City
Mexico City
Ciudad de México
Skyline of Mexico City at night
Official seal of Mexico City
Seal
Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios (City of Palaces) (given by Alexander von Humboldt)
Location of Mexico City
Location of Mexico City
Coordinates: 19°24′N 99°7′W / 19.4, -99.117
Country Mexico
Federal entity Federal District
Boroughs The 16 delegaciones
Founded c.March 18, 1325
(as Tenochtitlan)
Municipality of the New Spain 1524
Federal District 1824
Government
 - Type Republic
 - Head of Government Marcelo Ebrard (PRD)
Area 1
 - City 1,479 km² (571 sq mi)
Elevation 2,240 m (7,349 ft)
Population (2006)
 - City 8,720,916
 - Density 5,741/km² (14,869.1/sq mi)
 - Metro 19,231,829
 - Demonym Defeño, chilango, capitalino.
Time zone Central Standard Time (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) Central Daylight Time (UTC-5)
1 Area of the Federal District that includes non-urban areas at the south.
Website: http://www.df.gob.mx

Mexico City (in Spanish: México, D.F., ciudad de México, or simply México[1]) is the capital city of Mexico. It is the most important economic, industrial and cultural center in the country, and the most populous city with 8,720,916 inhabitants in 2005. Greater Mexico City (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México) incorporates 58 adjacent municipalities of Mexico State and 1 municipality of the state of Hidalgo, according to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments.[2] In 2006 Greater Mexico City had a population of 19.2 million, making it the largest metropolitan area in the western hemisphere and the second[3]largest in the world. In 2005, it ranked the eighth in terms of largest GDP (PPP) among urban agglomerations in the world.[4] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 184 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City Mexico... EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... The United Mexican States are a federation made up by thirty-one free and sovereign states. ... The Mexican Federal District is divided into 16 boroughs (delegaciones) for local government and administrative purposes. ... The Mexican Federal District is divided into 16 boroughs (delegaciones) for local government and administrative purposes. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Head of Government ( Spanish: Jefe de Gobierno) wields executive power in the Mexican Federal District (the federal district, or D.F., is the seat of national executive, legislative, and judicial power, and is largely contiguous with the core of the sprawling Mexico City conurbation). ... Marcelo Luis Ebrard Casaubón (b. ... The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD) is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ...  CST or UTC-6 The Central Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time (UTC-6) and five hours during daylight saving time (UTC-5). ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ...  CST or UTC-6 The Central Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time (UTC-6) and five hours during daylight saving time (UTC-5). ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... The Mexican Federal District, known in Spanish as Distrito Federal (D.F.), is an area within Mexico that is not part of any of the Mexican states, but an independent self-governing city-state and the seat of the Federal Government. ... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ... Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, oficially called Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México or ZMCM (Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City) in Mexico. ... The United Mexican States, or Mexico, is a federal republic, comprising 31 states. ... Hidalgo is a state in central Mexico, with an area of 20,502 km². In 2000 the state had a population of some 2,231,000 people. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... 27 metropolitan areas of at least 10 million people. ...


Along with São Paulo it is the only Beta global city with 8 points in Latin America. “World city” redirects here. ...


Mexico City is also the Federal District (Distrito Federal in Spanish). The Federal District is coextensive with Mexico City: both are governed by a single institution and are constitutionally considered to be the same entity. This has not always been the case. The Federal District, created in 1824, was integrated by several municipalities, one of which was the municipality of Mexico City. As the city began to grow, it engulfed all other municipalities into one large urban area. In 1928 all municipalities within the Federal District were abolished, an action that left a vacuum in the legal status of Mexico City vis-à-vis the Federal District, even though for most practical purposes they were traditionally considered to be the same entity. In 1993, to end the sterile discussions about whether one concept had engulfed the other, or if any of the two entities had any existence in lieu of the other, the 44th Article of the Constitution of Mexico was reformed to clearly state that Mexico City is the capital, seat of the Powers of the Union and capital of the United Mexican States.[5] A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the current Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. ... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States of America, to the southeast by Guatemala and Belize, to...


Mexico City is located in the Valley of Mexico, also called the Valley of Anáhuac, a large valley in the high plateaus at the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,349 feet). It was originally built by the Aztecs in 1325 on an island of Lake Texcoco. The city was almost completely destroyed in the siege of 1521, and was redesigned and rebuilt in the following years following the Spanish urban standards. In 1524 the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenustitlán, and as of 1585 it is officially known as ciudad de México.[6] The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ... The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of the State of Mexico. ... For other meanings, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ...

Contents

History

For the Pre-Columbian detailed history of the city, see: Tenochtitlán and Tlatelolco.

The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... Plan of Tenochtitlan (Dr Atl) Mexico City statue commemorating the foundation of Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan (pronounced ) or, alternatively, Mexico-Tenochtitlan, was the capital of the Aztec empire, which was built on an island in Lake Texcoco in what is now central Mexico. ... Tlaltelolco is an area in Mexico City, centered on the Plaza de las Tres Culturas, a square surrounded on three sides by an excavated Aztec pyramid, the 17th century church Templo de Santiago, and the modern office complex of the Mexican foreign ministry. ...

Prehispanic era and Spanish colonial period

Mexico City in 1628.

Mexico (in Spanish pronounced "Me-hi-co") City was founded as Mexico-Tenochtitlan on March 18, 1325 by the Nahua Aztec or Mexican tribe, which rapidly became the capital of a sophisticated growing empire.[7] Located on a small island on the middle of Lake Texcoco, the layout of the city forced the Aztecs to build an artificial island with a series of canals to allow the growth of the metropolis.[8][9] A number of causeways were also constructed from the shoreline to the central island. These causeways are the foundation of the various calzadas which are today principal avenues in Mexico City. In fact, although the lake was salty, dams built by the Aztecs kept the city surrounded by clear water from the rivers that fed the lake. Two double aqueducts provided the city with fresh water; this was intended mainly for cleaning and washing.[10] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1478x897, 250 KB) Summary Author: Juan Gómez de Trasmonte, 1628 (d. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1478x897, 250 KB) Summary Author: Juan Gómez de Trasmonte, 1628 (d. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... The Nahua are a group of indigenous peoples of Mexico. ... Aztec is a term used to refer to certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who achieved political and military dominance over large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the Late post-Classic... Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ... For other uses, see Aqueduct (disambiguation). ...


After centuries of pre-Columbian civilization, the Spanish conquistador (conqueror) Hernán Cortés first arrived in the area in 1519.[11] He did not succeed in conquering the city until August 13, 1521, after a 79-day siege that destroyed most of the old Aztec city.[12] A Conquistador (Spanish: []) (English: Conqueror) was a Spanish soldier, explorer and adventurer who took part in the gradual invasion and conquering of much of the Americas and Asia Pacific, bringing them under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 19th centuries. ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Combatants Spain Tlaxcallān Aztec Empire Commanders Hernán Cortés Pedro de Alvarado Cuitláhuac Cuauhtémoc Strength 86 cavalry 900 infantry 80,000 natives 100,000- 300,000 warriors[1] Casualties 20,000 natives dead 100,000 dead 100,000 civilian dead The Siege of Tenochtitlan ended in...


In 1524 the rebuilt city served as the capital of the viceroyalty of New Spain and the political and cultural centre of Mexico.[13] The importance of the city was such that the Captaincy General of Guatemala, Yucatán, Cuba, Florida, and the Philippines were administered from it. This colonial period culminated with the construction of the baroque Metropolitan Cathedral and the Basilica of Guadalupe.[14] A viceroy is somebody who governs a country or province as a substitute for the monarch. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... Captaincy General (from the Spanish Capitanía General) is a division of a viceroyalty in colonial Spanish-America and the Spanish-Philippines, established in areas under risk of foreign invasion or Indian attack. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 106 Government  - Governor Ivonne Ortega Pacheco PRI  - Federal Deputies PAN: 4 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Hugo Laviada (PAN) Alfredo Rodríguez (PAN) Cleominio Zoreda (PRI) Area Ranked 20th  - State 38,402 km²  (14,827. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Exterior view of the modern Basilica. ...


Independence

Torre Latinoamericana, Mexico City's first skyscraper
Torre Latinoamericana, Mexico City's first skyscraper

The outbreak of the Mexican War of Independence in 1810, and the eventual independence of the country in 1821 were unable to hamper the influence of the city even though it shook internal politics.[15] The capital became host of the first ruler of the Mexican Empire, Agustin de Iturbide, who abdicated a year later in 1823. The nation became a federal republic in October 1824.[16] Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 951 KB)Author: Daniel Manrique (Roadmaster). ... Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 951 KB)Author: Daniel Manrique (Roadmaster). ... Torre Latinoamericana The Torre Latinoamericana (literally, Latin American Tower) is a skyscraper in downtown Mexico City, Mexico. ... Combatants Mexico Spain Commanders Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Vicente Guerrero Spanish colonial authorities Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. ... Agust n Cosme Dami n de Iturbide y Ar mburu (September 27, 1783 – July 19, 1824) was Emperor of Mexico from 1822 to 1823. ...


In 1824, the Mexican Federal District was established by the new government and by the signing of their new constitution, where the concept of a federal district was adapted from the American constitution.[16] Before this designation, Mexico City had served as the seat of government for both the State of Mexico and the nation as a whole. Texcoco and then Toluca became the capital of the state of Mexico.[17] The Mexican Federal District, known in Spanish as Distrito Federal (D.F.), is an area within Mexico that is not part of any of the Mexican states, but an independent self-governing city-state and the seat of the Federal Government. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Ecatepec Government  - Governor Enrique Peña Nieto (PRI)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PAN: 11 PRD: 20 Convergencia: 2  - Federal Senators Yeidckol Polevnsky (PRD) Héctor Bautista (PRD) Ulises Ramírez (PAN) Area Ranked 25th  - Total 21,355 km² (8,245. ... Texcoco is a city in México State, Mexico, located to the east of Mexico City at 19. ... This article is about a city in Mexico. ...


The war with the United States led to an invasion into Mexico City by U.S. General Winfield Scott on September 14, 1847, and obligated Mexico to cede the provinces of Nuevo Mexico and Alta California, what are today the States of California, Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and parts of Utah and Wyoming to the U.S. and recognize Texas as independent. This was formally recognized in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which was signed in what is now the suburb of the city of the same name. The invasion culminated at Chapultepec Castle, the military center of the country where, according to the legend, 13 young Mexican cadets (see Niños Héroes) fought helpless and outnumbered to keep the Americans from taking the symbolic castle. This event is remembered by a series of monolithic columns that bear their names at the base of the Castle. A short-lived monarchy in 1864-1867, under Emperor Maximilian I, left its mark on the reconstruction of Chapultepec Castle and other urban planning that was said to have been modeled after the Champs-Élysées to help his consort Empress Carlota adjust to the city. For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Province is a name for a secondary, or subnational entity of government in most countries. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange). ... Aerial view of the Chapultepec Castle and the Monument of the Heroic Cadets. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico (Emperador Maximiliano I de México) (July 6, 1832 – June 19, 1867) (born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg-Lorraine family. ... Aerial view of the Chapultepec Castle and the Monument of the Heroic Cadets. ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  ) is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. ... Charlotte of Belgium (Princess Marie Charlotte Amélie Augustine Victoire Clémentine Léopoldine of Belgium), (June 7, 1840–January 19, 1927) as Charlotte (or Carlota), Empress of Mexico was the consort of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. ...


A three decade long dictatorship under Porfirio Díaz left a French influence upon Mexico City. The stunning, bronze Angel of Independence was built under his administration to celebrate the first centenary of the beginning of the War of Independence. Other urban highlights built at the time were the Palacio de Bellas Artes and the expansion of Paseo de la Reforma à la Champs-Élysées. Following the initial phase of the Mexican Revolution, whereby president Díaz was forced to resign and a new president was elected, Mexico City suffered from what has been called La decena trágica ("The Tragic Ten Days") in February 1913. La decena trágica was a coup d'état orchestrated by Victoriano Huerta in complicity with the United States Ambassador to Mexico Henry Lane Wilson. José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mory (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915), Mexican war volunteer and French intervention hero; later President. ... El Ángel de la Independencia (The Angel of Independence), most commonly known by the shortened name El Ángel, is a monument located on a roundabout over Paseo de la Reforma in downtown Mexico City. ... Palacio de Bellas Artes The Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) is the premier opera house of Mexico City. ... Paseo de la Reforma (Reform Avenue) is a 12 km long grand avenue in Mexico City. ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  ) is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. ... This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ... A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution Citizens throng around The Citadel (La ciudadela) building during La decena tragica in 1913. ... A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (December 23, 1850 – January 13, 1916) was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico. ... The United States has maintained diplomatic relations with Mexico since 1823, when Andrew Jackson was appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to that country. ... Henry Lane Wilson (1927-1938) born in Columbus, New Mexico, was involved with Álvaro Obregón, Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, and Gustavo A. Madero in the Mexican Revolution. ...


The post-revolutionary government of Mexico following the Mexican Revolution of 1910 reinforced the importance of the city which saw an important influx of immigrants during the rest of the 20th century. Most of the growth of Mexico City in population occurred in the late 20th century. In 1950, the city had about 3 million inhabitants. By 2000, the estimated population for the metropolitan area was around 18 million. This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ...


Recent history

Column of Independence, from Torre Mayor, showing a winged victory at the top.
Column of Independence, from Torre Mayor, showing a winged victory at the top.
Torre Mayor, the tallest skyscraper in Latin America
Torre Mayor, the tallest skyscraper in Latin America

In 1968, the city hosted the Olympic Games, an event marred by the massacre of hundreds of students in what came to be known as the Tlatelolco Massacre, which occurred only a couple of days before the inauguration ceremony. Two other sporting events hosted by the city were the 1970 FIFA World Cup and the 1986 FIFA World Cup, the final matches of which took place in the Estadio Azteca. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 944 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 944 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... The Torre Mayor dominates this view of Mexico City along Paseo de la Reforma The Torre Mayor is a skyscraper in Mexico City, Mexico. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... A 1978 silkscreen poster by Rini Templeton and Malaquías Montoya created to commemorate the ten-year anniversary of the massacre. ... The 1970 FIFA World Cup, the ninth staging of the World Cup, was held in Mexico, from May 31 to June 21. ... The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from May 31 to June 29. ... Outside the stadium. ...


At 07:19 on September 19, 1985, the city was struck by an earthquake of magnitude 8.1 on the Richter scale which resulted in the deaths of between 5,000 (government estimate) and 20,000 people and rendered 50,000-90,000 people homeless. One hundred thousand housing units were destroyed, together with many government buildings. Up to USD $4 billion of damage was caused in three minutes. There was an additional magnitude 7.5 aftershock 36 hours later.[18] When Mexico City hosted the FIFA World Cup again in 1986, the event was seen as an evidence of its rapid recovery. is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... A car destroyed by the 1985 Mexico Earthquake in Mexico City. ... The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ... Aftershocks are earthquakes in the same region of the mainshock (generally within a few rupture length) but of smaller magnitude and which occur with a pattern that follows Omoris law. ... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international association football (soccer) competition contested by the mens national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA...


During the 1990s, Mexico City continued to grow as an economic and cultural center of international importance, which has spurred the construction of new skyscrapers such as Latin America's tallest building, the Torre Mayor (a literal translation of which is Greater Tower) and a remodeled World Trade Center México, originally the Hotel de México built during the 1960s and early 70's. The Torre Mayor dominates this view of Mexico City along Paseo de la Reforma The Torre Mayor is a skyscraper in Mexico City, Mexico. ... The World Trade Center México is a building complex located in Mexico City, Mexico, which includes a convention center, cultural center, parking facilities and its most famous and recognizable feature, the 52-story, 172m (564ft) high Torre WTC; indeed, when talking about the World Trade Center México one... The World Trade Center México is a building complex located in Mexico City, Mexico, which includes a convention center, cultural center, parking facilities and its most famous and recognizable feature, the 52-story, 172m (564ft) high Torre WTC; indeed, when talking about the World Trade Center México one...


Mexico City is ranked 8th among North America’s Top Ten Major Cities of the Future 2007-2008. It is ranked 4th in Economic Potential and 4th as Most Cost Effective. Mexico City was the one of the two Mexican cities that made the top ten, along with Guadalajara, which ranked 5th place.[19]


Geography

Climate chart for Mexico City
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temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: [2]
Iztaccíhuatl volcano to the east of the city.
Iztaccíhuatl volcano to the east of the city.

The Federal District is located in central-South Mexico. It is bounded by the state of Mexico on the west, north and east, and by the state of Morelos on the south. Mexico City and its metropolitan area, which extends over the state of Mexico, are located in the Valley of Mexico or Anáhuac, a 9,560 km² (3,691 sq mi) valley that lies at an average of 2,240 m (7,349 ft) above sea level. This valley is a basin surrounded by mountains on all four sides, with only one small opening at the north. At the southern part of the basin, the mountain range reaches an altitude of 3,952 m (12,966 ft) above sea level; and to the east the volcanoes reach an altitude of more than 5,000 m (16,000 ft). The region receives anti-cyclonic systems, whose weak winds do not allow for the dispersion, outside the basin, of the air pollutants which are produced by the 50,000 industries and 4 million vehicles operating in the metropolitan area.[20] The federal and local governments have implemented numerous plans to alleviate the problem of air pollution, including the constant monitoring and reporting of environmental conditions, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides. If the levels of these two pollutants reach critical levels, contingency actions are implemented which may include closing factories, changing school hours, and extending the A day without a car program to two days of the week. To control air pollution, the government has instituted industrial technology improvements, a strict biannual vehicle emission inspection and the reformulation of gasoline and diesel fuels). Perhaps the "Anti-Tobacco Law", in force in the city since April 3, 2008, will contribute (through the prohibition of smoking at restaurants and many other close-space public establishments) to reduce the levels of air pollution. Image File history File links MountainIztaccihuatlMexico01. ... Image File history File links MountainIztaccihuatlMexico01. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Ecatepec Government  - Governor Enrique Peña Nieto (PRI)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PAN: 11 PRD: 20 Convergencia: 2  - Federal Senators Yeidckol Polevnsky (PRD) Héctor Bautista (PRD) Ulises Ramírez (PAN) Area Ranked 25th  - Total 21,355 km² (8,245. ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ... Hoy No Circula (literally in Spanish: today it [your car] does not circulate) is the name of an environmental program intended to improve the air quality of Mexico City. ... Look up gasoline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the fuel. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1986, the non-urban forest areas of the southern boroughs were declared National Ecological Reserves by president de la Madrid. Other areas of the Federal District became protected in the following years. Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Term of office: December 1, 1982 – December 1, 1988 Preceded by: José López Portillo Succeeded by: Carlos Salinas de Gortari Date of birth: December 12, 1934 Place of birth: Colima, Colima Profession: Lawyer First Lady: Paloma Cordero Tapia Political Party: PRI Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado (born December 12...


The lower region of the valley receives less rainfall than the upper regions of the south; the lower boroughs of Iztapalapa, Iztacalco, Venustiano Carranza and the west portion of Gustavo A. Madero are usually drier and warmer than the upper southern boroughs of Tlalpan and Milpa Alta, a mountainous region of pine and oak trees known as the range of Ajusco. The average annual temperature varies from 12 to 16°C (53 to 60°F), depending on the altitude of the borough. Lowest temperatures, usually registered during January and February, may reach -2 to -5°C (28 to 23°F), usually accompanied by snow showers on the southern regions of Ajusco, and the maximum temperatures of late spring and summer may reach up to 32°C (90°F). Iztapalapa is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Iztacalco is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Venustiano Carranza is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Gustavo A. Madero is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... The Ajusco Mountains in Tlalpan, Mexico City Tlalpan is the largest of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District (Mexico City) is divided. ... Milpa Alta is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... This article is about oaks (Quercus desert-oak is unrelated, and instead belongs to the genus Allocasuarina. ...


Originally much of the valley lay beneath the waters of Lake of Texcoco, a system of interconnected saline and freshwater lakes. The Aztecs built dikes to separate the fresh water used to raise crops in chinampas and to prevent recurrent floods. These dikes were destroyed during the siege of Tenochtitlan, and during colonial times the Spanish regularly drained the lake to prevent floods. Only a small section of the original lake remains, located outside the Federal District, in the State of Mexico, in the municipality of Atenco. Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Chinampas is an Aztec term referring to a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture through floating gardens—small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Ecatepec Government  - Governor Enrique Peña Nieto (PRI)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PAN: 11 PRD: 20 Convergencia: 2  - Federal Senators Yeidckol Polevnsky (PRD) Héctor Bautista (PRD) Ulises Ramírez (PAN) Area Ranked 25th  - Total 21,355 km² (8,245. ...

Geophysical maps of the Federal District
Topography Hydrology Climate patterns

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (816x1056, 184 KB) Mapa del relieve del Distrito Federal de México. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (816x1056, 122 KB) Mapa hidrológico del Distrito Federal de México File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (816x1056, 98 KB) Mapa climatológico del Distrito Federal de México File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City ...

Politics

Federal District

In 1824, when the United Mexican States were born as a federation, the Congress of the Union decided to create a Federal District containing the capital of the federation, Mexico City. Mexico City and the surrounding territories that became the Federal District originally belonged to the state of Mexico, and the city was also the capital of the state. Being now the capital of the federation, and not of a single state, the city had to be administered directly by all the states through the power vested upon the powers of the Union. The Federal District was thus created on November 18, 1824, as a perfect circle with its center at the Central Square (Plaza de la Constitución, popularly known as "el Zócalo") and a radius of 8.38 km (5.21 mi). The Federal District was constituted by the municipality of Mexico City, and six additional municipalities: Tacuba, Tacubaya, Azcapotzalco, Mixcoac, Iztacalco, and Villa de Guadalupe. Congress (formally: Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Ecatepec Government  - Governor Enrique Peña Nieto (PRI)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PAN: 11 PRD: 20 Convergencia: 2  - Federal Senators Yeidckol Polevnsky (PRD) Héctor Bautista (PRD) Ulises Ramírez (PAN) Area Ranked 25th  - Total 21,355 km² (8,245. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Zócalo, Mexico City Catedral Metropolitana Zócalo is a Mexican Spanish term for a town square or town center where social and business transactions take place. ... This article is about an authentication, authorization, and accounting protocol. ... Tacuba is a municipality in the Ahuachapán department of El Salvador. ... Azcapotzalco (Place of the ants in Nahuatl) is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Iztacalco is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ...


In 1854, president Antonio López de Santa Anna, enlarged the area of the Federal District almost eightfold from the original 220 km² (80 sq mi) to 1,700 km² (660 sq mi), annexing the rural and mountainous areas in order to secure the strategic mountain passes to the south and southwest to protect the city should a foreign invasion occur again. (The Mexican-American War had just been fought). The last changes to the limits of the Federal District were made between 1898 and 1902, reducing the area to the current 1,479 km² (571 sq mi) by adjusting the southern border with the state of Morelos. By that time, the total number of municipalities within the Federal District was twenty-two. 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (February 21, 1794 – June 21, 1876), often known as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against the independence from Spain... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ...


While the Federal District was ruled by the federal government through an appointed governor, the municipalities within it were autonomous, and this duality of powers created constant tensions between the municipalities and the federal government for more than a century. In 1903 already, Porfirio Díaz largely reduced the powers of the municipalities within the Federal District. Eventually, in December 1928, the federal government decided to abolish all the municipalities of the Federal District. In place of the municipalities, the Federal District was divided into one "Central Department" and 13 delegaciones (boroughs) administered directly by the government of the Federal District. The Central Department was integrated by the former municipalities of Mexico City, Tacuba, Tacubaya and Mixcoac. Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1941, the General Anaya borough was merged to the Central Department, which was then renamed "Mexico City" (thus reviving the name, but not the autonomous municipality). From 1941 to 1970, the Federal District was comprised by 12 delegaciones and Mexico City. In 1970 Mexico City was split into four different delegaciones: Cuauhtémoc, Miguel Hidalgo, Venustiano Carranza and Benito Juárez, thus increasing the number of delegaciones to sixteen. Since then, in a de facto manner, the whole Federal District, whose delegaciones had by then almost formed a single urban area, began to be considered a synonym of Mexico City. However, the lack of a de jure stipulation left a legal vacuum that led to a number of sterile discussions about whether one concept had engulfed the other or if the latter had ceased to exist altogether. In 1993 this situation was solved by an amendment to the 44th article of the Constitution whereby Mexico City and the Federal District were set to be the same entity. This amendment was later introduced into the second article of the Statute of Government of the Federal District.[21] For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Pedro María Anaya (1794-1854) was the interim president of Mexico from 1847 to 1848. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Cuauhtémoc (disambiguation). ... Miguel Hidalgo. ... Venustiano Carranza Garza (December 29, 1859 – May 21, 1920) was one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. ... For other uses, see Benito Juárez (disambiguation). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Political structure

National Palace, former seat of the Executive power of the Union.
National Palace, former seat of the Executive power of the Union.

Mexico City, being the seat of the powers of the Union, did not belong to any particular state but to all. Therefore, it was the president, representing the federation, who used to designate the head of government of the Federal District, a position which is sometimes presented outside Mexico as the "Mayor" of Mexico City. In the 1980s, given the dramatic increase in population of the previous decades, the inherent political inconsistencies of the system—like in 1988, when the opposition candidate had received the majority of votes in the Federal District, but the president, however designated a governor form the party in power at the federal level—as well as the dissatisfaction with the inadequate response of the federal government to assist the city after the 1985 earthquake, the residents began to request political and administrative autonomy in order to manage their own local affairs. Some political groups even proposed that the Federal District be converted into the 32nd state of the federation. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2126x1061, 2633 KB) Description = México City, Regierungspalast Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created 30. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2126x1061, 2633 KB) Description = México City, Regierungspalast Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created 30. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...

Legislative Assembly of the Federal District.

In response to the demands, in 1987 the Federal District received a greater degree of autonomy, with the elaboration the first Statute of Government (Estatuto de Gobierno), and the creation of an Assembly of Representatives. In the 1990s this autonomy was further expanded and, starting from 1997, residents can directly elect the head of government of the Federal District and the representatives of a unicameral Legislative Assembly (which succeeded the previous Assembly) by popular vote. The first elected head of government was Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas. Cárdenas resigned in 1999 in order to run in the 2000 presidential elections and designated Rosario Robles to succeed him, who became the first woman (elected or otherwise) to govern Mexico City. In 2000 Andrés Manuel López Obrador was elected, and resigned in 2005 to run in the 2006 presidential elections, Alejandro Encinas Rodríguez being designated by the Legislative Assembly to finish the term. In 2006, Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon was elected for the 20062012 period. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 317 KB) EDIFICIO DE LA ASAMBLEA LEGISLATIVA DEL DISTRITO FEDERAL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 317 KB) EDIFICIO DE LA ASAMBLEA LEGISLATIVA DEL DISTRITO FEDERAL File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas (right) with Lionel Jospin. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Rosario Robles Berlanga is a left-wing Mexican politician, who was appointed substitute Head of Government of the Federal District ( Mayor of Mexico City) when Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas resigned from the post to run (unsuccessfully) for the presidency in 2000. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Andrés Manuel López Obrador (born November 13, 1953) is a Mexican politician and lier, affiliated with the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alejandro Encinas Alejandro Encinas Rodríguez is a left-wing Mexican politician affiliated to the Party of the Democratic Revolution. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marcelo Luis Ebrard Casaubón (b. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Federal District does not have a constitution, like the states of the Union, but rather a Statute of Government, and as part of its recent changes in autonomy, the budget is administered locally: it is proposed by the head of government and approved by the Legislative Assembly. Nonetheless, it is the Congress of the Union that sets the ceiling to internal and external public debt issued by the Federal District.[22] Congress (formally: Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. ...


According to the 44th article of the Mexican Constitution, in case the powers of the Union move to another city, the Federal District will be transformed into a new state, which will be called "State of the Valley of Mexico", with the new limits set by the Congress of the Union.


Elections and government

In 2006, elections were held for the post of head of government and the representatives of the Legislative Assembly. The elected and incumbent head of government is now Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon, candidate of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). Heads of government are elected for a 6-year period without the possibility of reelection. Traditionally, this position has been considered as the second most important executive office in the country.[23] Marcelo Luis Ebrard Casaubón (b. ... The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD) is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ...


The Legislative Assembly of the Federal District is formed, as it is the case in all legislatures in Mexico, by both single-seat and proportional seats, making it a system of parallel voting. The Federal District is divided into 40 electoral constituencies of similar population which elect one representative by first-past-the-post plurality (FPP), locally called "uninominal deputies". The Federal District as a whole constitutes a single constituency for the parallel election of 26 representatives by proportionality (PR) with closed-party lists, locally called "plurinominal deputies." Even though proportionality is only confined to the proportional seats, to prevent a part from being overrepresented, several restrictions apply in the assignation of the seats; namely, that no party can have more than 63% of all seats, both uninominal and plurinominal. In the 2006 elections leftist PRD got the absolute majority in the direct uninominal elections, securing 34 of the 40 FPP seats. As such, PRD was not assigned any plurinominal seat to comply with the law that prevents overrepresentation. The overall composition of the Legislative Assembly is: The Legislative Assembly of the Federal District (Spanish: Asamblea Legislativa del Distrito Federal) is the legislative branch of government of the Mexican Federal District. ... Parallel voting describes a mixed voting system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The word proportionality may have one of a number of meanings: In mathematics, proportionality is a mathematical relation between two quantities. ... A Legislative Assembly in some parts of the Commonwealth refers to a legislature, or a chamber of the legislature. ...

  • PRD (left): 34 FPP representatives
  •  PAN (right): 17 representatives (4 FFP, 13 PR)
  •  PRI (center): 4 PR representatives
  • PNA: 4 PR representatives
  • PVEM (ecologist): 3 PR representatives
  • PASD: 2 PR representatives
  • PT: 1 FFP representative
  • CON: 1 FFP representative

The politics pursued by the administrations of heads of government in Mexico City since the second half of the 20th century have usually been more liberal than those of the rest of the country, whether with the support of the federal government —as was the case with the approval of several comprehensive environmental laws in the 1980s— or through laws recently approved by the Legislative Assembly. In 2007, the Federal District became the second federal entity in the country, after the state of Coahuila, to approve same-sex unions, and the first to allow conjugal visits for homosexual prisoners[24] In April of the same year, the Legislative Assembly expanded provisions on abortions, becoming the first federal entity to expand abortion in Mexico beyond cases of rape and economic reasons, to permit it regardless of the reason should the mother request it before the twelfth week of pregnancy.[25] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD) is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The National Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Nacional), known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian Democratic party and one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican political party that wielded hegemonic power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the Mexican Party, for other political parties of the same name, see New Alliance Party (disambiguation) The New Alliance Party (in Spanish language Partido Nueva Alianza; PNA or PANAL) is one of the newest political parties in Mexico. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (Spanish: Partido Verde Ecologista de México, known by the abbreviation PVEM) is one of the six political parties to enjoy representation in the Mexican Congress. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Social Democratic Alternative Party (in Spanish: Partido Alternativa Socialdemócrata) is a Mexican political party of recent formation. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Party of Labour (Partido del Trabajo, abbreviated to PT) is a nationally recognized political party in Mexico founded on December 8, 1990. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Convergence (Spanish: Convergencia) is a political party in Mexico. ... The United Mexican States are a federation made up by thirty-one free and sovereign states. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... Same-sex union can refer to: same-sex marriage -- the civil or religious rites of marriage that make it equivalent to opposite-sex marriages in all aspects. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... A Legislative Assembly in some parts of the Commonwealth refers to a legislature, or a chamber of the legislature. ... Currently, abortion in Mexico is prohibited, except for cases of rape, health conditions or fetal defects. ...


Boroughs

See also: Boroughs of the Mexican Federal District and Colonias of Mexico City
The 16 boroughs of Mexico City.
The 16 boroughs of Mexico City.
The Colonia Roma
The Colonia Roma

For administrative purposes, the Federal District is divided into 16 "delegaciones" or boroughs. While not fully equivalent to a municipality, the 16 boroughs have gained significant autonomy, and since 2000 their heads of government are elected directly by plurality (they were previously appointed by the head of government of the Federal District). Given that Mexico City is organized entirely as a Federal District, most of the city services are provided or organized by the Government of the Federal District and not by the boroughs themselves, while in the constituent states these services would be provided by the municipalities. The 16 boroughs of the Federal District are: The Mexican Federal District is divided into 16 boroughs (delegaciones) for local government and administrative purposes. ... Polanco In general, colonias are a recurrent feature in Mexican cities and larger towns. ... Image File history File links Boroughs_of_Mexican_Federal_District_numbered. ... Image File history File links Boroughs_of_Mexican_Federal_District_numbered. ... The Mexican Federal District is divided into 16 boroughs (delegaciones) for local government and administrative purposes. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the use of the term in political theory, see Pluralism (political theory). ... Constituent State: Term given to a state that is part of a larger political entity. ...

1. Álvaro Obregón
2. Azcapotzalco
3. Benito Juárez
4. Coyoacán
5. Cuajimalpa
6. Cuauhtémoc
7. Gustavo A. Madero
8. Iztacalco
Álvaro Obregón is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Azcapotzalco (Place of the ants in Nahuatl) is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Benito Juárez is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Location of Coyoacán within the Mexican Federal District Jardín Centenario with the fountain depicting the drinking coyotes that gave the town its name Plaza Hidalgo Coyoacán is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Cuajimalpa de Morelos (more commonly known simply as Cuajimalpa) is a borough of Mexico City, and the name of a neighboring municipality within the State of Mexico. ... See other Mexico City boroughs José Luis Muñoz Soria Area 32. ... Gustavo A. Madero is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Iztacalco is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ...

9. Iztapalapa
10. Magdalena Contreras
11. Miguel Hidalgo
12. Milpa Alta
13. Tláhuac
14. Tlalpan
15. Venustiano Carranza
16. Xochimilco Iztapalapa is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Magdalena Contreras is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Miguel Hidalgo is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Milpa Alta is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Tláhuac is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... The Ajusco Mountains in Tlalpan, Mexico City Tlalpan is the largest of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District (Mexico City) is divided. ... Venustiano Carranza is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Xochimilco within the Federal District Chalupa boats at the floating gardens of Xochimilco. ...

The boroughs are composed by hundreds of colonias or neighborhoods, which have no jurisdictional autonomy or representation. It is plausible that the name, which literally means colony, arose in the late 19th, early 20th centuries, when one of the first urban developments outside the city's core was inhabited by a French colony in the city. Some colonias have identifiable attributes: Historic Center is the oldest quarter in the city, some of the buildings dating back to the 16th century; la Condesa is known for its Art Deco architecture, and for being the newest artistic center of the city; Santa Fe is a growing business and financial district (built over areas where tons of trash used to be thrown); Roma is a beaux arts neighborhood and probably one of the oldest in the city; Polanco and Bosques de las Lomas are important commercial and economic centers known for their large and powerful Jewish communities, and Tepito and La Lagunilla are known for its impressively large flea market. Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Polanco In general, colonias are a recurrent feature in Mexican cities and larger towns. ... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city or suburb. ... Condesa is a neighborhood in the central borough of Cuauhtémoc in Mexico City. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Panoramic view of Santa Fe Santa Fe is one of Mexico Citys major central business districts, located west of the city in the delegaciones (boroughs) of Cuajimalpa and Álvaro Obregón. ... Colonia Roma is a neighborhood in the central borough of Cuauhtémoc in Mexico City. ... Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico {{{subdivision_type}}} {{{subdivision_name}}} Website: http://www. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tepito is an area located in Mexico City. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Economy

World Trade Center, Mexico City.
World Trade Center, Mexico City.
"Angel de la Independencia" in Reforma financial district
"Angel de la Independencia" in Reforma financial district

Mexico City is also one of the most important economic hubs of Latin America. The city proper (Federal District) produces 21.8% of the country's Gross domestic product.[26] According to a study conducted by accounting office PriceWaterhouseCoopers, Greater Mexico City (with a population of 19.2 million) had a GDP of $315 billion in 2005 (at purchasing power parity), ranking as the eighth-richest urban agglomeration in the world after the greater areas of Tokyo, New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Paris, London and Osaka/Kobe, and the richest in Latin America; in 2020 it is expected to rank seventh with a $608 billion GDP, displacing Osaka/Kobe.[4][27] Mexico City alone would be the 30th largest economy in the world[28] with a higher GDP than countries like Sweden or Switzerland. Mexico City is also one of the largest financial and commercial hubs in Latin America (it should be remembered that Carlos Slim, who has been ranked, in the last few months, as either the richest or the second richest person in the world, was born and has always lived in Mexico City). The Mexican stock exchange (Bolsa Mexicana de Valores) and the country's largest banks and insurers, as well as many international financial services conglomerates for Latin America, are headquartered in the city. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... GDP redirects here. ... A former PwC office building (Southwark Towers) in London, England. ... Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, oficially called Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México or ZMCM (Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City) in Mexico. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... Carlos Slim in Brazil. ... The Bolsa Mexicana de Valores or BMV is Mexicos main stock exchange. ...

Santa Fe business district
Santa Fe business district

In terms of GDP per sector, the Federal District is the greatest contributor to the country's industrial GDP (15.8%) and also the greatest contributor to the country's GDP in the service sector (25.3%). Due to the limited non-urbanized space at the south—most of which is protected through environmental laws—the contribution of the Federal District in agriculture is the smallest of all federal entities in the country.[29] The city proper's nominal GDP per capita is $17,696, the highest of any city in Latin America.[30] Mexico City's Human Development Index (HDI) is the highest in the country at 0.8830, higher than the national average. Amongst other welfare indicators, 50% of the habitants of Mexico City have access to the Internet, 58% own a cell phone, with virtually each household having a phone line. While 36% of Mexicans nationwide live in poverty, about 15% of the residents of Mexico City live in poverty. Image File history File linksMetadata Santa_fe3mxc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Santa_fe3mxc. ... Motorola T2288 mobile phone A mobile phone is a portable electronic device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (compare cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited range). ...


Over the last two decades the economic base has shifted strongly, as the manufacturing activities move to the state of Mexico (Mexico city suburbs) and even to other states, partly due to an environmental program of tax incentives offered by the government to manufacturers: existing companies could be eligible to tax-certificates if they installed pollution control equipment. New plants, on the other hand, were only eligible to the same benefits if they were to be located outside Mexico City.[31]


Demographics

Greater Mexico City, extending to the states of Mexico and Hidalgo.
Greater Mexico City, extending to the states of Mexico and Hidalgo.

Historically, and since pre-Hispanic times, the valley of Anáhuac has been one of the most densely populated areas in Mexico. When the Federal District was created in 1824, the urban area of Mexico City extended approximately to the area of today's Cuauhtémoc borough. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the elites began migrating to the south and west and soon the small towns of Mixcoac and San Ángel were incorporated by the growing conurbation. Today the city could be clearly divided into a middle and high-class area (south and west, including Polanco, Chapultepec and Santa Fe), and a lower class area to the east (Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, Pantitlán, Chalco and Moctezuma). Image File history File links Zona_Metropolitana_de_México. ... Image File history File links Zona_Metropolitana_de_México. ... The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of the State of Mexico. ... For other uses, see Cuauhtémoc (disambiguation). ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The traditional neighborhood of San Angel lies to the southeast of Mexico City. ... Polanco is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Zamboanga del Norte, Philippines. ... Chapultepec Park with Polanco at the right, as seen from Torre Mayor observation deck. ... Panoramic view of Santa Fe Santa Fe is one of Mexico Citys major central business districts, located west of the city in the delegaciones (boroughs) of Cuajimalpa and Álvaro Obregón. ... Nezahualcóyotl (also: Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl or Ciudad Neza, which is strictly the name of the municipal seat; informally: mi Nezota) is a municipality of the State of México adjacent to the eastern fringe of Mexicos Federal District: it is thus part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. ... Chalco de Díaz Covarrubias is a municipality located in Southen México State, and considered part of Mexico City despite is located in the outsides of it. ...


Up to the 1980s, the Federal District was the most populated federal entity in Mexico, but since then its population has remained stable at around 8.7 million. The growth of the city has extended beyond the limits of the Federal District to 58 municipalities of the state of Mexico and to the state of Hidalgo and, with a population of approx. 28.5 million inhabitants, it is one of the most populated conurbations in the world. Nonetheless, the annual rate of growth of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City is much lower than that of other large urban agglomerations in Mexico,[3] a phenomenon most likely attributable to the environmental policy of decentralization. The net migration rate of the Federal District from 1995 to 2000 was negative.[32] The United Mexican States are a federation made up by thirty-one free and sovereign states. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Ecatepec Government  - Governor Enrique Peña Nieto (PRI)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PAN: 11 PRD: 20 Convergencia: 2  - Federal Senators Yeidckol Polevnsky (PRD) Héctor Bautista (PRD) Ulises Ramírez (PAN) Area Ranked 25th  - Total 21,355 km² (8,245. ... Hidalgo is a state in central Mexico, with an area of 20,502 km². In 2000 the state had a population of some 2,231,000 people. ... Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, oficially called Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México or ZMCM (Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City) in Mexico. ...


While they represent around 1.3% of the city's population, indigenous peoples from different regions of Mexico have immigrated to the capital in search of better economic opportunities. Náhuatl, Otomí, Mixteco, Zapoteco, and Mazahua are the indigenous languages with the greatest number of speakers in Mexico City.[33] Mayas at San Juan Chamula, Chiapas Mexico has defined itself, in the second article of its constitution, as a pluricultural nation, in recognition of the diverse ethnic groups that constitute it. ... Nahuatl is a Native American language indigenous to central Mexico. ... The Otomí are an Native American people of Mexico. ... Jade mask found in Tomb 7, Monte Alban, c. ... Zapotec language(s) describes a group of closely-related indigenous Mesoamerican languages spoken by the Zapotec people from Mexicos southwestern-central highlands region. ... Mazahua is an ethnic group living in the Ixtlahuaca District in Mexico. ...


On the other hand, Mexico City is home to large communities of expatriates, most notably from South America (mainly from Argentina, but also from Chile, Colombia, Brazil and Venezuela), from Europe (mainly from Spain but also Germany, Italy, France and Poland),[34][35] the Middle East (mainly from Lebanon, Turkey, and Syria)[36], and recently from Asia (mainly from China and South Korea).[37] While no official figures have been reported, population estimates of each of these communities are quite significant. Mexico City is home to the largest population of Americans living outside the United States. Some estimates are as high as 600,000 Americans living in Mexico City, while in 1999 the U.S. Bureau of Consular Affairs estimates over 440,000 Americans lived in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.[38][39] For the band, see Expatriate (band). ...


The majority (90.5%) of the residents in Mexico City are Roman Catholic, higher than the national percentage, even though it has been decreasing over the last decades.[40] However, many other religions and philosophies are also practiced in the city: many different types of Protestant groups, different types of Jewish communities, Buddhist and other philosophical groups, as well as atheism. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


Landmarks

Historic Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

National Museum of Art
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, iv, v
Reference 412
Region Latin America and the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription 1987  (11th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Xochimilco Floating Gardens
Xochimilco Floating Gardens

The Historic Centre (Centro Histórico) and the "floating gardens" of Xochimilco in the southern borough have been declared World Heritage Sites by the UNESCO. Famous landmarks in the Historic Centre include the Plaza de la Constitución (Zócalo), the main central square with its time clashing Spanish-era Metropolitan Cathedral and Palacio Nacional, and ancient Aztec temple ruins Templo Mayor ("Major Temple") are all within a few steps of one another. (The Templo Mayor was discovered in 1978 while workers were digging to place underground electric cables.) Xochimilco within the Federal District Chalupa boats at the floating gardens of Xochimilco. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... ImageMetadata File history File links Xochimilco. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Xochimilco. ... Xochimilco within the Federal District Chalupa boats at the floating gardens of Xochimilco. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Zócalo, Mexico City Flag in center of the Zócalo Catedral Metropolitana La Plaza de la Constitución, informally called El Zócalo, is a square in Mexico City. ... The Catedral Metropolitana, is the oldest in the American continent. ... The Great Pyramid or Templo Mayor was the main temple of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City). ... The Great Pyramid or Templo Mayor was the main temple of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ...

Paris building, neoclassic style
Paris building, neoclassic style
Museum of Estanquillo (cartoons & magazines)
Museum of Estanquillo (cartoons & magazines)

The most recognizable icon of Mexico City is the golden Angel of Independence, found on the wide, elegant avenue Paseo de la Reforma, modeled by the order of the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico after the Champs-Élysées in Paris. This avenue was designed in the XIX Century to connect the National Palace (seat of government) with the Castle of Chapultepec, the imperial residence. Today, this avenue is an important financial district in which the Mexican Stock Market is located. Another important avenue is the Avenida de los Insurgentes, which extends 28.8 km (18 miles) and is one of the longest single avenues in the world. El Ángel de la Independencia (The Angel of Independence), most commonly known by the shortened name El Ángel, is a monument located on a roundabout over Paseo de la Reforma in downtown Mexico City. ... Paseo de la Reforma (Reform Avenue) is a 12 km long grand avenue in Mexico City. ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico, (July 6, 1832 - June 19, 1867) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg family. ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  ) is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... The National Palace of Mexico City. ... Aerial view of the Chapultepec Castle and the Monument of the Heroic Cadets. ... The Avenida de los Insurgentes (Avenue of the Insurgents) is a street in Mexico City, said to be the longest avenue in the world. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... “Miles” redirects here. ...


The Chapultepec park houses the Castle of Chapultepec, now a museum on a hill that overlooks the park and its numerous museums, monuments and the national zoo and the National Museum of Anthropology (which houses the Aztec Calendar Stone). Another magnificent piece of architecture is the Fine Arts Palace, a stunning white marble theatre/museum whose weight is such that it has gradually been sinking into the soft ground below. Its construction began during the presidency of Porfirio Díaz and ended, after being interrupted by the Mexican Revolution in the 1920s. The Plaza of the Three Cultures in the Tlatelolco neighbourhood, and the shrine and Basilicas of Our Lady of Guadalupe are also important sites. There is a double decker bus, known as the "Turibus", that circles most of these sites, and has timed audio describing the sites in multiple languages as they are passed. Chapultepec Park with Polanco at the right, as seen from Torre Mayor observation deck. ... Aerial view of the Chapultepec Castle and the Monument of the Heroic Cadets. ... Museums front entrance. ... The Aztec Calendar Stone, also known as the Sun Stone or Stone of the Sun is found in the National Museum of Anthropology (Museo Nacional de Antropología), Chapultepec Park, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico. ... Palacio de Bellas Artes The Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) is the premier opera house of Mexico City. ... José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mory (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915), Mexican war volunteer and French intervention hero; later President. ... This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ... The Plaza de las Tres Culturas (Three Cultures Square) is the main square surrounded by the Tlatelolco neighbourhood of Mexico City. ... Tlaltelolco is an area in Mexico City, centered on the Plaza de las Tres Culturas, a square surrounded on three sides by an excavated Aztec pyramid, the 17th century church Templo de Santiago, and the modern office complex of the Mexican foreign ministry. ... Look up basilica in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An image of Our Lady of Guadalupe. ...

Palace of Fine Arts
Palace of Fine Arts

In addition, the city has around 160 museums, over 100 art galleries, and some 30 concert halls, all of which maintain a constant cultural activity during the whole year. It has the fourth highest number of theatres in the world after New York, London and Toronto, and it is the city with the highest number of museums in the world. In many locales (Palacio Nacional and the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología, to name a few), there are murals painted by Diego Rivera. He and his wife Frida Kahlo lived in the southern suburb of Coyoacán, where several of their homes, studios, and art collections are open to the public. The house where Leon Trotsky was initially granted asylum and finally murdered in 1940 is also in Coyoacán. Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 979 KB)Author: Daniel Manrique (Roadmaster). ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 979 KB)Author: Daniel Manrique (Roadmaster). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957, born Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez in Guanajuato, Gto. ... Frida Kahlo (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican painter, who has achieved great international popularity. ... Location of Coyoacán within the Mexican Federal District Jardín Centenario with the fountain depicting the drinking coyotes that gave the town its name Plaza Hidalgo Coyoacán is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In addition, there are several restored haciendas that are now restaurants, such as the San Ángel Inn, the Hacienda de Tlalpan and the Hacienda de los Morales, all of which are stunning remnants of Mexican history and house some of the best food in the world.


Sports

Estadio Azteca, third largest stadium in the world.
Estadio Azteca, third largest stadium in the world.

Soccer is Mexico's most televised sport. Several first division teams, including Club América and its Primera División A youth team Socio Águila, Cruz Azul and Pumas, are based in Mexico City. The Aztec Stadium (Estadio Azteca) has capacity to seat approximately 126,000 fans. Mexico City also has an Olympic Stadium in Ciudad Universitaria, which is home of the Pumas football team. Cruz Azul plays in the Estadio Azul, which is located within Mexico City as well. Outside the stadium. ... One of the most well known Lucha Libre wrestlers (luchadores), Rey Mysterio. ... Soccer redirects here. ... Club América, most commonly known as just América, is a professional Mexican football club playing in the Primera División. ... The Primera División A (First Division A) is the second level of the Mexican League System of football. ... Socio Águila is a Mexican football which plays in the Primera División A. It is the reserve team for Club América. ... Club Deportivo Social y Cultural Cruz Azul, also known as Deportivo Cruz Azul or simply Cruz Azul, is a Mexican professional football club. ... Club Universidad Nacional, also known as Universidad, UNAM, or Pumas, is a Mexican professional football club, one of the most popular and most important in Mexico. ... Outside the stadium. ... Estadio Olímpico Universitario is a stadium located in Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City. ... Ciudad Universitaria (University City) is UNAMs main campus, located in Coyoacán borough in the southern part of Mexico City. ... Club Universidad Nacional, also known as Universidad, UNAM, or Pumas, is a Mexican professional football club, one of the most popular and most important in Mexico. ... Club Deportivo Social y Cultural Cruz Azul, also known as Deportivo Cruz Azul or simply Cruz Azul, is a Mexican professional football club. ... The Estadio Azul, formerly Estadio Azulgrana and Estadio de la Ciudad de los Deportes, is a stadium with a capacity of 39,000 seats, located in Mexico City. ...


The country hosted the Football World Cup in 1970 and 1986 and Azteca is the only stadium in the world to host the final match of the Football World Cup twice. Mexico City also hosted the 1968 Summer Olympics, winning bids against Buenos Aires, Lyon and Detroit, and being the only Latin American city to host such an event. Mexico City hosted the 1955 Pan American Games and then the 1975 Pan American Games after Santiago and São Paulo withdrew. The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... The 1970 Football World Cup was held in Mexico, from May 31 to June 21. ... The 1986 Football World Cup was held in Mexico from May 31 to June 29. ... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were held in Mexico City in 1968. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... This article is about the French city. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The 2nd Pan American Games opened on 12 March in the University Stadium (now Olympic Stadium) before a capacity crowd of 100,000 spectators. ... The 7th Pan American Games were held in Mexico City, Mexico. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... This article is about the city. ...

Foro Sol Ballpark.
Foro Sol Ballpark.

Baseball is also another popular sport with a growing fan base. Mexico City is home to the Diablos Rojos del México (Red Devils) of the Mexican Baseball League, with the team playing their home games at the Foro Sol Stadium. The Red Devils used to share the stadium with the baseball club "Tigres" (Tigers) until the club moved to Puebla, where they were known as the "Tigres de la Angelópolis" ("Tigers from the City of Angels"). Right now they play in Cancún, Quintana Roo and are known as Quintana Roo Tigres. Also in Mexico City are located around 10 little leagues for young baseball players. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Foro Sol is a sports and concerts venue built in 1995 inside the Hermanos Rodríguez racetrack in eastern Mexico City. ... This article is about the sport. ... Diablos Rojos del México is a professional baseball team in the LMB. This team is located in Mexico City. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Foro Sol is a sports and concerts venue built in 1995 inside the Hermanos Rodríguez racetrack in eastern Mexico City. ... Nickname: Location of Puebla in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Puebla Founded 1531 Government  - Mayor Enrique Doger (PRI) Area  - City 546 km²  (211 sq mi) Elevation 2,175 m (7,136 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,485,941  - Density 5,741/km² (14,869. ... Location of Cancún Location of Cancún Coordinates: , Country Mexico State Municipality Benito Juárez Foundation April 20, 1970 Government  - Mayor Francisco Antonio Alor Quezada (PRI) Highest elevation 10 m (30 ft) Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft) Population (2005)  - Total 572,973  - Demonym Cancunense Time zone CST (UTC... Quintana Roo is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... The Quintana Roo Tigers (Spanish: ) are a Mexican minor league baseball team located in Cancun, Mexico. ...


Adjacent to Foro Sol is Mexico City's Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez. From 1962 to 1970 and again from 1986 to 1992, the track hosted the Formula 1 Mexican Grand Prix. From 1980-1981 and again from 2002 to 2007, it hosted the Champ Car World Series Gran Premio de México. Since 2005, the NASCAR Nationwide Series has run the Telcel-Motorola México 200. 2005 also marked the first running of the Mexico City 250 by the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series. Foro Sol is a sports and concerts venue built in 1995 inside the Hermanos Rodríguez racetrack in eastern Mexico City. ... The Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez (or in English Rodríguez Brothers Racetrack) is a 4. ... Formula One, abbreviated to F1 and also known as Grand Prix racing, is the highest class of single-seat open-wheel auto racing. ... The Mexican Grand Prix was a Formula One auto race held at the Autodromo Hermanos Rodriguez in Mexico City. ... Nigel Mansell racing in a Champcar in 1993 Terminology Champcar, a shortened form of Championship Car, has been the name for a class of cars used in American Championship Car Racing for many decades. ... Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez The Gran Premio de México is the held on the Autodromo Hermanos Rodriguez circuit in Mexico City, Mexico and is a round of the Champ Car World Series. ... Jeff Burton (99), Elliott Sadler (38), Ricky Rudd (21), Dale Jarrett (88), Sterling Marlin (40), Jimmie Johnson (48), and Casey Mears (41) practice for the 2004 Daytona 500 The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of motorsports in the United States. ... The NASCAR Busch Series is a stock car racing series owned and operated by NASCAR. It is NASCARs minor league circuit (often compared to Triple-A baseball), and is a proving ground for drivers who wish to step up to the organizations big league circuit, the Nextel Cup. ... The Telcel Motorola México 200 is a NASCAR Busch Series stock car race first held in 2005 at the Autodromo Hermanos Rodriguez in Mexico City, Mexico. ... The Grand American Road Racing Association or Grand-Am is an auto racing sanctioning body that was established in 1999 to organize endurance road racing competitions in North America. ... ...


In 2005, Mexico City became the first city to host a NFL regular season game outside of the United States, and has also hosted several NBA pre-season exhibition games along with exhibition matches among MLB teams at the Foro Sol. NFL redirects here. ... NBA redirects here. ... Foro Sol is a sports and concerts venue built in 1995 inside the Hermanos Rodríguez racetrack in eastern Mexico City. ...


Other sports facilities in Mexico City are the Palacio de los Deportes indoor arena, Francisco Márquez Olympic Swimming Pool, the Hipódromo de Las Américas horse-race track, ice hockey, American football, and basketball. For other uses, see Palacio de los Deportes (disambiguation). ... The Alberca Olímpica Francisco Márquez is an indoor swimming pool olympic facility located in Mexico City, Mexico. ...


Bullfighting takes place every Sunday during bullfighting season at the 50,000-seat Plaza de Toros, the largest bullring in the world. The Plaza de Toros in Ronda, seen from the second (highest) story. ...


Transportation

Mexico City's Metro
Mexico City's Metro

Mexico City is served by the Sistema de Transporte Colectivo Metro, an extensive metro system (207 km), the largest in Latin America, the first portions of which were opened in 1969. The system has nowadays 11 lines in 175 stations, and a 12th line is planned to be constructed in the year 2008 along with a suburban rail system (currently under construction) similar to the French RER system. One of the busiest in the world, the metro transports approximately 4.5 million people every day, surpassed only by Moscow's (7.5 million), Tokyo's (5.9 million), and New York City's (4.9 million). It is heavily subsidized, and has the lowest fares in the world, each trip costing MXN 2 (around EUR 0.13 or USD 0.19 and taking each passenger to almost any place in this enormous city from 06:00 am to 00:00 h.). A number of stations display Pre-Columbian artifacts and architecture that were discovered during the metro's construction. However, the Metro does not extend outside the limits of the Federal District and, therefore, an extensive network of bus routes has been implemented. These are mostly managed by private companies which are allowed to operate buses as long as they adhere to certain minimal service quality standards. Transportation in Mexico City is managed by the government of the Mexican Federal District through several public companies that administer the different means of transportation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 200 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City Metro Chabacano User:Itub Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 200 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City Metro Chabacano User:Itub Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Red del Metro de Ciudad de México A distinctive orange train on surface track near Metro General Anaya on Line 2 osea no manches guey lol. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... ISO 4217 Code MXN User(s) Mexico Inflation 3. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... USD redirects here. ... Red del Metro de Ciudad de México A distinctive orange train on surface track near Metro General Anaya on Line 2 osea no manches guey lol. ...

Metrobús at Avenida Insurgentes.
Metrobús at Avenida Insurgentes.

The city government also operates a network of large buses, in contrast with the privately operated microbuses, with fares barely exceeding that of the metro. Electric transport other than the metro also exists, in the form of trolleybuses and the Xochimilco Light Rail line. The city's first bus rapid transit line, the Metrobús, began operation in June 2005 on Avenida Insurgentes (a second line is under construction on Eje Vial 4 Sur). As the microbuses were removed from its route, it was hoped that the Metrobús could reduce pollution and decrease transit time for passengers. Since late 2002, the white and green taxis have been joined by red and white ones as part of a program to replace older vehicles with new ones. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Avenida de los Insurgentes (Avenue of the Insurgents) is a street in Mexico City, said to be the longest street/avenue in the world. ... A pesero or microbús A pesero is a form of public transport, most commonly seen in Mexico City. ... A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... The Xochimilco Light Rail (locally known as el tren ligero) is a light rail line that services the south of Mexico City, Mexico. ... This article is about high-capacity bus transit systems. ... The Mexico City Metrobús is a bus rapid transit system in the capital of the Mexican Republic. ... The Avenida de los Insurgentes (Avenue of the Insurgents) is a street in Mexico City, said to be the longest street/avenue in the world. ...


Mexico City is served by Mexico City International Airport (IATA Airport Code: MEX). This airport is the largest in Latin America in traffic, transporting close to 25 million passengers per year.[41] This traffic exceeds the capacity of the airport, which had historically centralized the majority of air traffic. The government has recently engaged in an extensive restructuring that includes the building of a second adjacent terminal and the enlargement of four other airports (at the nearby cities of Toluca, Querétaro, Puebla and Cuernavaca) that, along with Mexico City's airport, comprise the Grupo Aeroportuario de la Ciudad de México, distributing traffic to different regions in Mexico. Mexico City's airport is the main hub for 10 of the 12 national airline firms. The Mexico City International Airport (Spanish: Aeropuerto Internacional de la Ciudad de México or AICM), also called Benito Juárez International Airport (IATA: MEX, ICAO: MMMX) is a commercial airport that serves Mexico City, the capital of Mexico. ... An IATA airport code, also known an IATA location identifier or simply a location identifier [1], is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This article is about a city in Mexico. ... Latitude 20. ... Nickname: Location of Puebla in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Puebla Founded 1531 Government  - Mayor Enrique Doger (PRI) Area  - City 546 km²  (211 sq mi) Elevation 2,175 m (7,136 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,485,941  - Density 5,741/km² (14,869. ... Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. ...


The city has four major bus stations (North, South, Observatorio, TAPO), with bus service to many cities across the country, and one train station, used for commercial and industrial purposes (interstate passenger trains are now virtually non-existent in Mexico). It was recently announced that a Tren Suburbano (suburban rail) will be built to serve the metropolitan area. There are also several toll expressways which connect Mexico City with several other major cities. Overview An electric regional rail system being constructed in Mexico City. ... A typical expressway in Santa Clara County, California. ...

Elevated section of Periférico ring road
Elevated section of Periférico ring road

In the late 70's many arterial roads were redesigned as ejes viales; high-volume one-way roads that cross, in theory, Mexico City proper from side to side. The eje vial network is based on a quasi-Cartesian grid, with the ejes themselves being called Eje 1 Poniente, Eje Central, and Eje 1 Oriente, for example, for the east-west roads, and Eje 2 Sur and Eje 3 Norte, for example, for north-south roads. Two freeway ring-roads serve to connect points within the city and the metropolitan area: Circuito Interior (the inner ring) and Periférico, which connect to one straight freeway: the Viaducto (Viaduct) (connecting west with east, from Observatorio to the Airport and vice versa). Traffic in this system is so dense that an elevated highway that runs on top and parallel to a part of the main ring road, the Periférico, had to be constructed and finished in 2007. This elevated highway is colloquially called segundo piso ("second level") of the Periférico); it is the largest and most secure in Latin America and directly connects places such as colonia Molino del Rey with colonia San Ángel. Image File history File linksMetadata Croppedsegundopiso. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Croppedsegundopiso. ... Cartesian means of or relating to the French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Battle of Molino del Rey Conflict Mexican-American War Date September 8, 1847 Place Mexico City, D.F. Result U.S. victory The Battle of Molino del Rey turned out to be one of the bloodiest fights of the Mexican-American War. ... The traditional neighborhood of San Angel lies to the southeast of Mexico City. ...


There is also an environmental program, called Hoy No Circula ("Not To Run Today," or "One Day without a Car"), whereby only vehicles with certain ending numbers on their license plates are allowed to circulate on certain days, in an attempt to cut down on pollution and traffic congestion. The program groups vehicles by their ending license plate digits, and every weekday vehicles having any of the day's two "Hoy No Circula" digits are banned from circulating. For instance, on Fridays, vehicles with plates ending in 9 or 0 may not drive. This program is controversial, since it has resulted in many better-off households buying extra cars, reducing the program's benefits; also, newer vehicles are exempt from complying with the program, a move said to have been pushed by auto makers to boost sales of new vehicles. Hoy No Circula (literally in Spanish: today it [your car] does not circulate) is the name of an environmental program intended to improve the air quality of Mexico City. ... Cars of Mexico refers to the automobile marketing and its evolution, as well as a comprehensive list of every car sold currently in Mexico with a short description of the cars manufacturer history in the country. ...


Culture

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (683x1024, 145 KB) Summary http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (683x1024, 145 KB) Summary http://www. ... UNAM redirects here. ...

Education

Mexico City is the location of National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). UNAM is the oldest (established in 1551) and the largest (with 269,000 students) university in the Americas. Three Nobel laureates and most of Mexico's modern-day presidents are among its former students. UNAM conducts 50% of Mexico's scientific research and has presence all across the country with satellite campuses and research centers. The National Autonomous University of Mexico ranks 74th in the Top 200 World University Ranking published by The Times Higher Education Supplement in 2006,[42] making it the highest ranked Spanish-speaking university in the world. The sprawling main campus of the university, known as Ciudad Universitaria, was named a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2007, during the period of Juan Ramón de la Fuente as the President of UNAM. UNAM redirects here. ... The Times Higher Education Supplement, also known as The Times Higher or The THES for short, is a newspaper based in London that reports specifically on issues related to higher education. ... Ciudad Universitaria (University City) is UNAMs main campus, located in Coyoacán borough in the southern part of Mexico City. ... Juan Ramón de la Fuente Juan Ramón de la Fuente (born 1951) was the rector of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) from 1999 to 2007. ...

ITESM Mexico City Campus.
ITESM Mexico City Campus.

The second largest higher-education institution is the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) (which includes, among many other relevant centers, the Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav, where high-level research is performed about very different scientific and technological disciplines such as physics, mathematics, neurosciences, and many others). Other major higher-education institutions in the city include the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM), the ITAM, the ITESM (3 campi), the Universidad Panamericana (UP), the Universidad La Salle, the Universidad del Valle de Mexico (UVM), the Universidad Anáhuac, the Alliant International University, the Universidad Iberoamericana, El Colegio de México (Colmex), and the Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económica (CIDE). The Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) or simply Tecnológico de Monterrey is a private university in Mexico founded in 1943 by Eugenio Garza Sada (an MIT graduate). ... The National Polytechnic Institute (in Spanish: Instituto Politécnico Nacional, IPN) is one of the largest Mexican public universities. ... CINVESTAV stands for Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados (Center for Research and Advanced Studies), affiliated to Mexicos IPN (National Polytechnic Institute) in Mexico. ... Metropolitan Autonomous University is a Mexican public university located in Mexico City. ... The Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (commonly known as ITAM, English: Mexico Autonomous Institute of Technology), is a private research university located in Mexico City, Federal District, Mexico. ... ITESM Main Building (Rectoría) and mural ITESM is the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, also known as the Tec de Monterrey, or simply el Tec. Originated in Monterrey, Mexico, it has currently over 30 satellite locations throughout the country. ... The Pan-American University is a private Catholic university in Mexico. ... ULSA logo Universidad La Salle (ULSA) is a private institution of higher education with 13 campuses in Mexico. ... ... Alliant International University is an independent, not-for-profit, upper-division university formed in July 2001 as a result of a merger between California School of Professional Psychology (CSPP) and United States International University (USIU). ... The Ibero-American University (commonly known as Ibero, Spanish: Universidad Iberoamericana) is a private higher education institution sponsored by the Society of Jesus. ... El Colegio de México (commonly known as Colmex, English: The School of Mexico) is a prestigious Mexican institute of higher education, specialising in teaching and research in the fields of social sciences and the humanities. ... The Collaborative International Dictionary of English, CIDE for short, was derived from the 1913 Websters Dictionary and has been supplemented with some of the definitions from WordNet. ...


Contrary to what occurs in the constituent states of the Mexican federation, the curriculum of Mexico City's public schools is managed by the federal level Secretary of Public Education. The whole funding is allocated by the government of Mexico City (in some specific cases, such as El Colegio de México, funding comes from both the city's government and other public and private national and international entities). The Secretaría de Educación Pública (SEP) is an organ of the Mexican government concentred on basic education of public and private schools in Mexico. ... El Colegio de México (commonly known as Colmex, English: The School of Mexico) is a prestigious Mexican institute of higher education, specialising in teaching and research in the fields of social sciences and the humanities. ...


A very special case is that of El Colegio Nacional, created during the governmental period of Miguel Alemán Valdés to have, in Mexico, an institution very similar to the College of France. The very selected and privileged group of Mexican scientists and artists belonging this institution (the membership is lifelong; some of the current members are Mario Lavista, Ruy Pérez Tamayo, José Emilio Pacheco, Marcos Moshinsky, Guillermo Soberón Acevedo, and many others) have the obligation of disclosing their works among the general population, through conferences and public events such as concerts and recitals. Miguel Alemán Valdés (September 29, 1900 – May 14, 1983) served as the President of Mexico from 1946 to 1952. ... The Collège de France is a higher education teaching and research establishment located in France. ... Mario Lavista (born April 3, 1943, Mexico City) is a Mexican composer and writer. ... José Emilio Pacheco at the Octavio Paz award 2003 José Emilio Pacheco (México City, 1939) is a Mexican poet, essayist, translator, novelist and short story writer. ... Marcos Moshinsky (born April 20, 1921) is a Mexican physicist of Ukrainian origin whose work in the field of elementary particles won him the Prince of Asturias Prize for Scientific and Technical Investigation in 1988. ...


Media

Mexico City is the country's most important center for the television, advertising, music, newspaper and book publishing industries. Two national newspapers are published here, El Universal and Excélsior, as well as important regional newspapers such as Reforma and La Jornada. Other major papers include Milenio, Crónica, El Economista and El Financiero. // Advert redirects here. ... El Universal is a major Mexican newspaper. ... Excélsior is a daily newspaper, founded by Rafael Alducin and published in Mexico City since 1903. ... For other uses, see Reforma (disambiguation). ... La Jornada is one of Mexico Citys leading daily newspapers. ... Milenio Diario is a major national newspaper in Mexico, owned by Grupo Multimedios. ... Crónica is a newspaper from Buenos Aires city in Argentina. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ...


The two largest media companies in the Spanish-speaking world, Televisa and TV Azteca, are headquartered in Mexico City. Other local television networks include Canal 11, Canal 22, Cadena Tres, Teveunam and 11 free-access channels. For the article on the defunct Venezuelan television channel, see Televisa Venezuela. ... TV Azteca is the second largest Mexican television network. ... XEIPN (Channel 11) is the flagship TV station of Once TV. Categories: | ... XEIMT-TV channel 22, also known as Canal 22, is an culture television station owned and operated by Televisión Metropolitana S.A. de C.V. for the National Council for Culture and the Arts (Conaculta) in Mexico City. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... XHUNAM channel 60, also known as Teveunam, is an educational television station owned and operated by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City. ...


There are 60 radio stations operating in the city and a huge number of local community radio stations. This is a list of the radio stations in the Mexican Federal District that are found on the FM and AM bands. ...


Art

Aztec sculpture of Coatlicue.
Aztec sculpture of Coatlicue.

Mexico City is one of the most important cultural centers in the world boasting more museums than any other city. It is also the fourth city in number of theaters after New York City, London and Toronto.[43] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 386 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1297 × 2016 pixel, file size: 421 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Coatlicue, Nationalmuseum für Anthropologie, Mexiko-Stadt Photograph: Luidger 29. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 386 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1297 × 2016 pixel, file size: 421 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Coatlicue, Nationalmuseum für Anthropologie, Mexiko-Stadt Photograph: Luidger 29. ... Statue of Coatlicue displayed in National Museum of Anthropology and History in Mexico City Coatlicue, also known as Teteoinan (also transcribed Teteo Inan) (The Mother of Gods), is the Aztec goddess who gave birth to the moon, stars, and Huitzilopochtli, the god of the sun and war. ...


Having been capital of a vast pre-Hispanic empire, the richest viceroyalty within the Spanish Empire, and capital of the Mexican federation, Mexico City has a rich history of artistic expressions. Since the Mesoamerican pre-Classical period the inhabitants of the settlements around Lake Texcoco produced many works of arts, some of which are today displayed at the world-renown National Museum of Anthropology and the Templo Mayor Museum. While many pieces of pottery and stone-engraving have survived, the great majority of the Amerindian iconography was destroyed during the Conquest of Mexico. An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Museums front entrance. ...

El Caballito, equestrian sculpture of King Charles IV of Spain by Manuel Tolsá.
El Caballito, equestrian sculpture of King Charles IV of Spain by Manuel Tolsá.

During colonial times the first art produced was that of the codices generated to preserve or recuperate Amerindian iconography and history. From then, artistic expressions in Mexico were mostly religious in theme. The Metropolitan Cathedral still displays works by Juan de Rojas, Juan Correa and an oil painting whose authorship has been attributed to Murillo. Secular works of art of this period include the equestrian sculpture of Charles IV of Spain, locally known as El Caballito ("The little horse"). This piece, in bronze, was the work of Manuel Tolsá and it has been placed at the Plaza Tolsá, in front of the Palacio de Minería (Mining Palace). Directly in front of this building is the beautiful Museo Nacional de Arte (Munal) (the National Museum of Art). Image File history File linksMetadata El_caballito_de_Tolsa_a. ... Image File history File linksMetadata El_caballito_de_Tolsa_a. ... Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ... Bust of Manuel Tolsá, by Martín Soriano Manuel Tolsá (Enguera, Valencia, Spain, May 4, 1757—Mexico City, December 24, 1816) was a prolific Neoclassical architect and sculptor in Spain and Mexico. ... The Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral (Spanish: Catedral Metropolitana de Buenos Aires) is the main Catholic church in Buenos Aires, Argentina. ... Murillo Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (January 1, 1618 - April 3, 1682) was a Spanish painter from Seville. ... The equestrian Marcus Aurelius on Capitoline Hill displayed uninterruptedly for eighteen centuries was the prototype of Renaissance equestrian sculptures An equestrian sculpture (from the Latin equus meaning horse) is a statue of a mounted rider. ... Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ... Bust of Manuel Tolsá, by Martín Soriano Manuel Tolsá (Enguera, Valencia, Spain, May 4, 1757—Mexico City, December 24, 1816) was a prolific Neoclassical architect and sculptor in Spain and Mexico. ...


During the 19th century, an important producer of art was the Academia de San Carlos (San Carlos Art Academy), founded during colonial times, and which later became the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas (the National School of Visual Arts), which is currently one of the art schools of UNAM. Many of the works produced by the students and faculty of that time are now displayed in the Museo Nacional de San Carlos (National Museum of San Carlos). One of the students, José María Velasco, is considered one of the greatest Mexican landscape painters of the 19th century. It was during Porfirio Diaz's regime that the government sponsored arts, especially those that followed the French school. In spite of that, popular arts in the form of cartoons and illustrations flourished like those of José Guadalupe Posada and Manuel Manilla. The permanent collection of the San Carlos Museum also includes paintings by European masters such as Rembrandt, Velázquez, Murillo, and Rubens. José María Velasco Gómez, famous 19th century Mexican painter. ... Porfirio Díaz José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915) was President of Mexico, considered a dictator, who ruled Mexico from 1876 until 1911 (with the exception of one single four-year period). ... Posada in front of his workshop Calavera Oaxaqueña, 1910 José Guadalupe Posada (2 February 1852 – 20 January 1913) was a Mexican engraver and illustrator. ...

Diego Rivera's mural depicting Mexico's history at the National Palace in Mexico City.
Diego Rivera's mural depicting Mexico's history at the National Palace in Mexico City.

After the Mexican Revolution, an avant-garde artistic movement originated in Mexico City: muralism. Many of the works of muralists José Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros and Diego Rivera are displayed in numerous buildings in the city, most notably at the National Palace and the Palacio de Bellas Artes. Frida Kahlo, wife of Rivera, with a strong nationalist expression, was also one of the most renowned of Mexican painters. Her house has become a museum that displays many of her works. This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... A mural is a painting on a wall, ceiling, or other large permanent surface. ... José Clemente Orozco (born November 23, 1883, in Zapotlán el Grande (now Ciudad Guzmán), Jalisco; died September 7, 1949, in Mexico City) was a famous Mexican social realist painter, who specialized in bold murals, which co-established Mexican Mural Renaissance. ... David Alfaro Siquerios (December 29, 1896 in Camargo, Chihuahua, Mexico - January 6, 1974 in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico) was a painter and muralist known for his social realism work. ... Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957, born Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez in Guanajuato, Gto. ... Buildings called National Palace include: National Palace (Ethiopia), in Addis Ababa. ... Palacio de Bellas Artes The Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) is the premier opera house of Mexico City. ... Frida Kahlo (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican painter, who has achieved great international popularity. ...


The former home of Rivera muse Dolores Olmedo house the namesake museum. The facility lies in the Xochimilco precinct in the southern part of the city and includes several buildings surrounded by sprawling manicured lawns. It house a large collection of Rivera and Kahlo paintings and drawings, as well as living Xoloizcuintles (the Prehispanic dogs). It also regularly hosts small but important temporary exhibits of classical and modern art (e.g. Venetian Masters and Contemporary New York artists).


During the 20th century, many artists immigrated to Mexico City from different regions of Mexico, like Leopoldo Méndez, an engraver from Veracruz, who supported the creation of the socialist Taller de la Gráfica Popular (Popular Graphics Workshop), designed to help blue-collar workers find a venue to express their art. Other painters came from abroad, like Catalan painter Remedios Varo and other Spanish and Jewish exiles. It was in the second half of the 20th century that the artistic movement began to drift apart from the Revolutionary theme. José Luis Cuevas opted for a modernist style in contrast to the muralist movement associated with social politics. Capital Barcelona Official languages Spanish and Catalan In Val dAran, also Aranese. ... Useless Science or the Alchemist, 1955 Remedios Varo Uranga (December 16, 1908 - October 8, 1963) was a surrealist painter. ... We dont have an article called José Luis Cuevas Start this article Search for José Luis Cuevas in. ...


Mexico City has numerous museums dedicated to modern and contemporary art. The Museo Tamayo was opened in the mid-1980's to house the collection of international contemporary art donated by famed Mexican (born in the state of Oaxaca) painter Rufino Tamayo. The Museo de Arte Moderno (Museum of Modern Art) is a repository of Mexican artists from the 20th century, and also regularly hosts temporary exhibits of international modern art. In southern Mexico City, the Museo Carrillo Gil (Carrillo Gil Museum) showcases avant-garde artists. The Museo Soumaya (Soumaya Museum), named after the wife of Mexican tycoon Carlos Slim, has the largest private collection of original Rodin sculptures outside Paris. La Colección Jumex (The Jumex Collection) is a museum housed on the grounds of the Jumex juice company in the northern industrial suburb of Ecatepec (within the State of Mexico). It shows pieces from its permanent collection and hosts traveling exhibits by leading contemporary artists. This article is about the museum in New York City. ... Carlos Slim in Brazil. ... Rodins The Burghers of Calais in Calais, France. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Ecatepec Government  - Governor Enrique Peña Nieto (PRI)  - Federal Deputies PRI: 7 PAN: 11 PRD: 20 Convergencia: 2  - Federal Senators Yeidckol Polevnsky (PRD) Héctor Bautista (PRD) Ulises Ramírez (PAN) Area Ranked 25th  - Total 21,355 km² (8,245. ...


Music, movies and entertainment

Arcos Tower
Santa Fe Financial District
José Vasconcelos Library in Mexico City.
José Vasconcelos Library in Mexico City.


Mexico City is a mecca of classical music, with a number of orchestras offering season programming. These include the Mexico City Philharmonic,[44] which performs at the Sala Ollin Yoliztli; the National Symphony Orchestra, whose home base is the Palacio de Bellas Artes (The Fine Arts Palace), a masterpiece of art nouveau and art decó styles; the Philharmonic Orchestra of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (OFUNAM),[45] and the Minería Symphony Orchestra,[46] both of which perform at the acoustically renown Sala Nezahualcóyotl, which was the first wrap-around concert hall in the Western Hemisphere when inaugurated in 1976. There are also many smaller ensembles that enrich the city's musical scene, including the Carlos Chávez Youth Symphony, the New World Orchestra (Orquesta del Nuevo Mundo), the National Polytechnical Symphony and the Bellas Artes Chamber Orchestra (Orquesta de Cámara de Bellas Artes). The José Vasconcelos Library, labeled by the press as the Megabiblioteca (megalibrary), is considered the largest investment in infrastructure in the Vicente Fox administration. ... The Hall of Nations in the Kennedy Center, with the banner of the NSO. The National Symphony Orchestra (NSO) in Washington DC is a major American symphony orchestra that performs at the Kennedy Center. ... Palacio de Bellas Artes The Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) is the premier opera house of Mexico City. ...


The city is also a leading center of popular culture and music. There are a multitude of venues hosting the top Spanish and English-language performers. These include the 10,000-seat National Auditorium that regularly schedules pop and rock artists, as well as many of the world's leading performing arts ensembles. Other popular sites for pop-artist performances include the Teatro Metropolitan, the 15,000-seat Palacio de los Deportes, and the larger Foro Sol Stadium, where top-name international artists perform on a regular basis. The Cirque du Soleil has held several seasons at the Carpa Santa Fe, in the Santa Fe district in the western part of the city. National Auditorium (Spanish:Auditorio Nacional) is one of the main concert and performance centres in the Mexico City, which also was a sports venue in the past. ... For other uses, see Palacio de los Deportes (disambiguation). ... Foro Sol is a sports and concerts venue built in 1995 inside the Hermanos Rodríguez racetrack in eastern Mexico City. ... Cirque du Soleil (French for Circus of the Sun) is an entertainment empire based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada and founded in Baie-Saint-Paul in 1984 by two former street performers, Guy Laliberté and Daniel Gauthier. ... Santa Fe (Spanish for holy faith) or Santa Fé (Portuguese) is the name of a number of places in the world: United States of America: Santa Fe, the state capital of New Mexico Santa Fe, Florida Santa Fe, Missouri Santa Fe, Tennessee Santa Fe, Texas Rancho Santa Fe, California It...


It is said that Mexico City has more theaters than any other city in the Spanish-speaking world. At any given time, plays being staged run the gamut from Spanish versions of Broadway shows, such as Beauty and the Beast and Chicago to mainstream Spanish-language originals and alternative theatre. For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ...


The Centro Nacional de las Artes (National Center for the Arts), in southern Mexico City, has several venues for music, theatre, dance. UNAM's main campus, also in the southern part of the city, is home to the Centro Cultural Universitario (the University Culture Center) (CCU), which includes the Sala Nezahualcóyotl (Nezahualcóyotl Concert Hall) (music), the Sala Juan Ruiz de Alarcón (theatre), Sala Miguel Covarrubias (dance), Sala Carlos Chávez (chamber music), as well as the Salas Julio Bracho and José Revueltas, that regularly show a very interesting mix of non-commercial films from all over the world. The CCU also houses the National Library, the interactive Universum, Museo de las Ciencias[47] and slated to open in 2008, the new University Museum of Contemporary Art (MUAC).[48] A branch of the National University's CCU cultural center was inaugurated in 2007 in the facilities of the former Ministry of Foreign Affairs, known as Tlatelolco, in north-central Mexico City.


The Biblioteca José Vasconcelos (José Vasconcelos Library), also a national library, is located on the grounds of the former Buenavista railroad station in the northern part of the city. José Vasconcelos (Oaxaca, Oaxaca, 1882 – Mexico City, 1959) was a Mexican writer, thinker and politician. ... The José Vasconcelos Library, labeled by the press as the Megabiblioteca (megalibrary), is considered the largest investment in infrastructure in the Vicente Fox administration. ... Buenavista may refer to: Buenavista is a city in Michoacan, Mexico Buenavista is a city in Guimaras, Philipines Buenavista is a city in Colombia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The Papalote children's museum is located in Chapultepec Park (within Chapultepec woods), near the Museo Tecnológico, and the La Feria amusement park. The Six Flags (formerly Reino Aventura) amusement park is located in the Ajusco neighborhood, in the south of the city. Chapultepec (ChapoltepÄ“c = at the grasshopper hill in the Nahuatl language) is a large hill on the outskirts of central Mexico City with much significance in Mexican history. ... La Feria is a city located in Cameron County, Texas. ... For the national flags of Texas, see Six flags over Texas. ... Reino Aventura (Spanish: Adventure Kingdom) was an amusement park located in Tlalpan in the south-western part of Mexico City. ...


The Cineteca Nacional (the Mexican Film Collection), near the Coyoacán suburb, shows a wide variety of films, and stages many film festivals, including the annual International Film Festival, and many smaller ones ranging from Scandinavian and Uruguayan cinema, to Jewish and GLBT-themed films. Cinemex, one of the biggest film business chain, also has more than one film festivals during the year, with both national and international movies. Cinemex is a cineplex company based in Mexico that has built a nationally branded cineplex chain. ...


Cuisine

Mexico City offers a huge array of culinary experiences. Restaurants specializing in the regional cuisines of Mexico's 32 states are available in the city. Also available are restaurants representing a broad spectrum of international cuisines, including French, Italian, Polish, Hungarian, Portuguese, Spanish (including Spanish regional variations such as Castillian, Asturian, Galician and Basque), Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Lebanese, Moroccan, as well as Peruvian, Argentinean, and Brazilian.


Other names

Mexico City was traditionally known as La Ciudad de los Palacios ("the City of Palaces"), a nickname attributed to Baron Alexander von Humboldt when visiting the city in the 19th century. An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ...


During López Obrador's administration a new nickname was introduced: la Ciudad de la Esperanza ("The City of Hope"). It has been replaced by Capital en Movimiento ("Capital in Movement") by the recently elected administration headed by Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon. Andrés Manuel López Obrador (born November 13, 1953) is a Mexican politician and lier, affiliated with the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). ... Marcelo Luis Ebrard Casaubón (b. ...


The city is colloquially known as Chilangolandia after the locals' nickname chilangos.[49] Chilango is a Mexican slang demonym used to describe a person from or living in Mexico City or its surrounding areas. ...


Residents of Mexico City are more formally called capitalinos (in reference to the city being the capital of the country) or, more recently defeños (a word which derives from the postal abbreviation of the Federal District in Spanish: D.F., which is read "De-Efe").


See also

A car destroyed by the 1985 Mexico Earthquake in Mexico City. ... The Mexican Federal District is divided into 16 boroughs (delegaciones) for local government and administrative purposes. ... The history of Mexican cinema goes back to the beginning of the 20th century, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented historical events – most particularly the Mexican Revolution – and produced some movies that have been only recently been rediscovered. ... The Large Cities Climate Leadership Group is a group of cities committed to the reduction of urban carbon emissions and adapting to climate change. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 This is a list of the 100 largest urban agglomerations in the world according to the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report (2005 revision). ...

References

  1. ^ In some Spanish-speaking countries, the spelling Méjico [1] is used, albeit rarely. Recently, the Real Academia Española stated that the recommended spelling is "México"
  2. ^ Escenarios Demográficos y Urbanos de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México, published by the Consejo Nacional de Población (Conapo) [National Population Council]
  3. ^ a b Síntesis de Resultados del Conteo 2005 INEGI
  4. ^ a b PriceWaterhouseCoopers, "UK Economic Outlook, March 2007", page 5. "Table 1.2 – Top 30 urban agglomeration GDP rankings in 2005 and illustrative projections to 2020 (using UN definitions and population estimates)" (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-03-09.
  5. ^ Article 44, Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, Second Title, Second Chapter, 44rd article
  6. ^ Historia de la Ciudad de México Gobierno del Distrito Federal
  7. ^ (August 8, 2005) Tenochtitlán (in English). Research Machines plc.. 
  8. ^ (August 3, 2005) Tenochtitlán (in English). Research Machines plc.. 
  9. ^ Pohl, John M. D.. "Aztecs: A new perspective", History Today, December 1, 2002, p. 10. Retrieved on 2006-10-20. (English ) 
  10. ^ Nichols, Deborah L.. "Chinampas", Calliope, December 1, 2005, p. 12. Retrieved on 2006-10-20. (English ) 
  11. ^ "La compañera indígena de Hernán Cortés sigue haciendo soñar a los escritores", Agence France Presse Spanish, December 2, 2004. Retrieved on 2006-10-20. (Spanish ) 
  12. ^ (November 1, 2003) Hernán Cortés (in Spanish). Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.. 
  13. ^ (1949) History of the Conquest of Mexico (in English). Allen & Unwin, 578. 
  14. ^ Adair, Marita (May 1, 1996). Mexico City: Exploring Mexico City (in English). Simon & Schuster, Inc.. 
  15. ^ Van Young, Eric. "The Time of Liberty: Popular Political Culture in Oaxaca, 1750-1850", Journal of Social History, October 1, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-10-20. (Spanish ) 
  16. ^ a b Weil, Thomas E. (January 1, 1991). Mexico: Chapter 3B. Evolution of a Nation (in English). Bureau Development, Inc.. 
  17. ^ Mody, Ashoka (October 31, 1996). Infrastructure Delivery (in English). World Bank Publications, 187. 
  18. ^ http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eq_depot/world/1985_09_19.html USGS Earthquake Report
  19. ^ North American Cities of the Future. Financial Times (April 23, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-12-03.
  20. ^ Secretaría del Medio Ambiente del Distrito Federal, SMA (2002) Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México, Gobierno del Distrito Federal
  21. ^ Statute of Government of the Federal District
  22. ^ Código Financiero del Distrito Federal
  23. ^ Hamnett, Brian (1999) A Concise History of Mexico Cambridge University Press; Cambridge, UK, p. 293
  24. ^ "Mexico's conservative image changing", USA Today, 2007-04-03. Retrieved on 2007-04-03. .
  25. ^ "Aprueba ALDF en lo general reforma sobre el aborto", El Universal, 2007-04-24. Retrieved on 2007-04-25. .
  26. ^ Producto interno bruto por entidad federativa. Participación sectorial por entidad federativa
  27. ^ 150 Richest Cities in the World, 2005
  28. ^ Emporis
  29. ^ Producto interno bruto por entidad federativa. Participación sectorial por entidad federativa
  30. ^ Índices de Desarrollo Humano 2000, Consejo Nacional de Población, Ciudad de México.
  31. ^ Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD, Environment Policy Committee (April 2002) Environmental Issues in Policy Based Competition for Investment: A Literature Review
  32. ^ Tasa de emigración, inmigración y migración neta de las entidades federativas
  33. ^ Población de 5 y más años hablante de lengua indígena por principales lenguas, 2005 INEGI
  34. ^ Asociaciones de Inmigrantes Extranjeros en la Ciudad de México. Una Mirada a Fines del Siglo XX
  35. ^ Los extranjeros en México, la inmigración y el gobierno ¿Tolerancia o intolerancia religiosa?
  36. ^ Los árabes de México. Asimilación y herencia cultural
  37. ^ Conmemoran 100 años de inmigración coreana
  38. ^ How Many Americans Live in Mexico?
  39. ^ Private American Citizens Residing Abroad
  40. ^ Volumen y porcentaje de la población de 5 y más años católica por entidad federativa, 2000 INEGI
  41. ^ http://www.aeropuertosmexico.com/DF/aptoDFes.htm Aeropuertos Mexico
  42. ^ Times Higher Education Supplement, 2006
  43. ^ http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/ci/?id=101008 Emporis
  44. ^ Mexico City Philharmonic
  45. ^ Philharmonic Orchestra of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
  46. ^ Minería Symphony Orchestra
  47. ^ Universum, Museo de las Ciencias
  48. ^ University Museum of Contemporary Art
  49. ^ 1994 Oxford Spanish-English Dictionary

The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy, RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ... A former PwC office building (Southwark Towers) in London, England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... El Universal is a major Mexican newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Ciudad de México
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  • Mexico City is at coordinates 19°24′34″N 99°07′51″W / 19.4095, -99.1307 (Mexico City)Coordinates: 19°24′34″N 99°07′51″W / 19.4095, -99.1307 (Mexico City)


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