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Encyclopedia > Mexico
Estados Unidos Mexicanos
United Mexican States
Flag of Mexico Coat of arms of Mexico
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Himno Nacional Mexicano
Capital
(and largest city)
Mexico City
19°03′N, 99°22′W
Official languages None at federal level
Spanish (de facto)
Government Presidential Federal republic
 -  President Felipe Calderon
( PAN)
Independence from Spain 
 -  Declared September 16, 1810 
 -  Recognized September 27, 1821 
Area
 -  Total 1,972,550 km² (15th)
758,249 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 2.5
Population
 -  2006 estimate 107,449,525 (11th)
 -  2005 census 103,263,388 
 -  Density 55 /km² (142nd)
142 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $1.191 trillion (13th)
 -  Per capita $10,186 (64th)
GDP (nominal) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $1.294 trillion (13th)
 -  Per capita $7,298 (53rd)
Gini? (2002) 49.5 (high
HDI (2004) 0.821 (high) (53rd)
Currency Peso (MXN)
Internet TLD .mx
Calling code +52

The United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos ), or simply Mexico (Spanish: México ), is a country located in North America, bounded on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the North Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico.[1][2] The United Mexican States comprise a constitutional republican federation of thirty-one states and a federal district, Mexico City, one of the most populous cities on Earth. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Mexico or, in Spanish, México, is: Mexico, a federal republic in southern North America Mexico City, that countrys capital city Mexican Federal District, the federal district containing that capital city Mexico, one of that republics 31 constituent states Mexico is also the name of some places in... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Image File history File links Mexico_coat_of_arms. ... The Flag of Mexico is a vertical tricolor of green, white, and red with the national coat of arms charged in the center of the white stripe. ... The Coat of Arms of Mexico has been an important symbol of Mexican politics and culture for centuries. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The lyrics for the National Anthem of Mexico or Himno Nacional Mexicano (spanish), was written by Francisco González Bocanegra, and the music by Jaime Nunó. In 1853, President Antonio López de Santa Anna announced a competition to write a national anthem. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1427x628, 27 KB) Summary Created by Clevelander from public domain Wikimedia Commons source Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Mexicos population pyramid (2000) With a population of 103,263,388 in 2005, Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, and the second-most populous country in Latin America after Portuguese-speaking Brazil. ... Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Mexico has a surprising lingusitic diversity; apart from Spanish, the government recognizes 62 Indigenous Amerindian languages as national languages. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where the executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separate from the legislature, to which it is not accountable, and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ... Felipe Calderon (born August 18, 1962 in Morelia, Michoacan) Is a Mexican politician that was the Ministry of Energy in Vicente Foxs administration from 2003 to 2004. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The National Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Nacional), known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian Democratic party and one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... This list compares various sizes of positive numbers, including counts of things, dimensionless numbers and probabilities. ... Map of world GDP (PPP) by country using the IMF list for 2005 There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, based on the 2005 IMF data. ... This list compares various sizes of positive numbers, including counts of things, dimensionless numbers and probabilities. ... Countries by nominal GDP. Source: IMF (2005) This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of a distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... ISO 4217 Code MXN User(s) Mexico Inflation 3. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... .mx is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Mexico. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Image File history File links EUM.ogg‎ Pronunciation of Estados Unidos Mexicanos (United Mexican States) in Mexican Spanish by native speaker. ... Image File history File links Mexico. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... The Pacific Ocean (from the Latin name Mare Pacificum, peaceful sea, bestowed upon it by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan)is the largest body of water on Earth – at 165. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean Caribbean Sea from space (top left). ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The United Mexican States are a federation made up by thirty-one free and sovereign states. ... Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ...


Covering almost 2 million square kilometers,[3] Mexico is the 5th largest country in the Americas by total area and 14th largest in the world. With a population of about 103 million,[4] it is the 11th most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Countries by area This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population, using the most recently available official figures. ...


As the only Latin American member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) since 1994, Mexico is firmly established as an upper middle-income country. Elections held in July 2000 marked the first time that an opposition party won the presidency to the Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional: PRI), that held it since 1929, culminating a process of political alternation that had begun at the local level since the 1980s. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Countries in green are considered NICs. ... Mexico held a general election on Sunday, 2 July 2000. ... The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican political party that wielded hegemonic power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Contents

Toponymy

Main article: Toponymy of Mexico

After the independence of the vice-royalty of New Spain it was decided that the country was to be named after its capital city, whose original name of foundation was Mexico-Tenochtitlan, in reference to the name of the Nahua Aztec tribe, the Mexica. The origin of the name of the tribe is rather obscure. Some argue[Who says this?] that it derives from the Nahuatl word Mexitl a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mexico means "place where Mexitl lives". Another hypothesis suggests that it derives from the words metztli ("moon"), xictli ("navel", "center" or "son"), and the suffix -co ("place"), thus it means "Place at the center of the moon" or "Place at the center of the Lake Moon", in reference to Lake Texcoco at the middle of which Mexico City was built. Image of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Mendoza codex The toponymy of Mexico entails the origin, history, and use of the name Mexico, which dates back to 14th century Mesoamerica. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ... The Nahua are a group of indigenous peoples of Mexico. ... The Aztecs is a collective term used for all of the Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples under the control of the Mexica, founders of Tenochtitlan, and their two principal allies, who built an extensive empire in the late Postclassic period in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries in Central Mexico. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Nahuatl is a native language of central Mexico. ... In Aztec mythology, Mextli (or Mexitl) was a god of war and storms and was born fully armed as a warrior. ... A pictorial representation of Huitzilopochtli from the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e História, México In Aztec mythology, Huitzilopochtli, also spelled Uitzilopochtli, (IPA: (Hummingbird of the South, He of the South, Hummingbird on the Left (South), or Left-Handed Humming Bird – huitzil is the Nahuatl word for hummingbird... Lake Texcoco is a lake in Mexico. ...


The name of the city was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative (/ʃ/). This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative (/ʒ/), represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative (/x/) during the sixteenth century, which led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years the Real Academia Española, the institution that regulates the Spanish language, determined that the normative recommended spelling in Spanish is México, and the majority of publications in all Spanish-speaking countries now adhere to the new normative, even though the disused variant is still rarely found. In English, the x in Mexico represents neither the original nor the current sound, but the double consonant /ks/. The voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy, RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...


History

Main article: History of Mexico
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, the father of Mexican independence
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, the father of Mexican independence
Palenque Maya ruins
Palenque Maya ruins
Mexican federation in 1847

For almost three thousand years, Mesoamerica was the site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations such as the Olmec, the Maya and the Aztecs. In 1519, the native civilizations of what now is known as Mexico were invaded by Spain; this was one of the most important conquest campaigns in America. Two years later in 1521, the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan was conquered by an alliance between Spanish and Tlaxcaltecs, the main enemies of the Aztecs, setting up a three-century colonial rule in Mexico. The viceroyalty of New Spain became the first and largest provider of resources for the Spanish Empire, and the most populated of all Spanish colonies. Mexico is a country of North America and the largest Spanish-speaking country in the world. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (494x717, 45 KB) From The Library of Congress http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (494x717, 45 KB) From The Library of Congress http://hdl. ... Statue of Miguel Hidalgo, Coyoacán, DF Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811) was the chief instigator of Mexicos war of independence against Spain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 982 KB) This is a view of Palenque, a Maya ruin in Chiapas, Mexico taken from the top of one of the pyramids. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 982 KB) This is a view of Palenque, a Maya ruin in Chiapas, Mexico taken from the top of one of the pyramids. ... The Palace, Ruins of Palenque Palenque is a Maya archeological site near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas, located at about 130 km south of Ciudad del Carmen (see map). ... Image File history File links Mapa_de_México_en_1847. ... Image File history File links Mapa_de_México_en_1847. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The cultural areas of Mesoamerica Mesoamerica or Meso-America (Spanish: Mesoamérica) was a geographical culture area extending from central Honduras and northwestern Costa Rica on the south, and, in Mexico, from the Soto la Marina River in Tamaulipas and the Rio Fuerte in Sinaloa on the north. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Monument 1, one of the four Olmec colossal heads at La Venta. ... 74. ... The Aztecs is a collective term used for all of the Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples under the control of the Mexica, founders of Tenochtitlan, and their two principal allies, who built an extensive empire in the late Postclassic period in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries in Central Mexico. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Tlaxcaltecs or Tlacullos were an indigenous group of the Nahuatl culture that inhabited the area in Meso-America that approximates the territory currently known as the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. ... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Military flag of the Spanish Empire from the 16th century up to 1843. ...


On September 16, 1810, independence from Spain was declared by Miguel Hidalgo in the small town of Dolores, Guanajuato state, causing a long war that eventually led to recognized independence in 1821 and the creation of an ephemeral First Mexican Empire with Agustín de Iturbide as first and only emperor, deposed in 1823 by the republican forces. In 1824, a republican constitution was drafted creating the United Mexican States with Guadalupe Victoria as its first President. The first four decades of independent Mexico were marked by a constant strife between federalists (those who supported the federal form of government stipulated in the 1824 constitution) and centralists (who proposed a hierarchical form of government in which all local authorities were appointed and subject to a central authority). General Antonio López de Santa Anna was a strong influence in Mexican politics, a centralist and a two-time dictator. In 1836, he approved the Siete Leyes, a radical amendment to the constitution that institutionalized the centralized form of government, after which Texas declared independence from Mexico, obtained in 1836. The annexation of Texas by the United States created a border dispute that would cause the Mexican-American War. Santa Anna played a big role in trying to muster Mexican forces but this war resulted in the resolute defeat of Mexico and as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848), Mexico lost one third of its surface area to the United States. September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Miguel Hidalgo Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo y Costilla Gallaga Mondarte Villaseñor (b. ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The coronation banquet for George IV 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. ... Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (September 27, 1783 – July 19, 1824) was Emperor of Mexico from 1822 to 1823. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Guadalupe Victoria, born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix in the state of Durango, served as the first President of Mexico from 1824 to 1829. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876), also known simply as Santa Anna, was a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from Spain... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... It has been suggested that Mexican Cession be merged into this article or section. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Dissatisfaction with Santa Anna's return to power, and his unconstitutional rule, led to the liberal Revolution of Ayutla, which initiated an era of liberal reforms, known as La Reforma, after which a new constitution was drafted that reestablished federalism as the form of government and first introduced freedom of religion. In the 1860s the country again underwent a military occupation, this time by France, which established the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria on the Mexican throne as Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico with support from the Catholic clergy and the conservative Mexicans. This Second Mexican Empire was victorious for only a few years, when the previous president of the Republic, the Zapotec Indian Benito Juárez, managed to restore the republic in 1867. Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The military history of Mexico consists of several millennia of armed conflicts within what is now that nations territory and includes activities of the Mexican military in peacekeeping and combat related affairs worldwide. ... The so-called War of Reform in Mexico took place from December of 1857 to January of 1861. ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico, (Emperador Maximiliano I de México) (July 6, 1832 – June 19, 1867) was a member of Austrias Imperial Habsburg-Lorraine family. ... The Mexican Empire was the name of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an Emperor. ... The Zapotec are an indigenous people of Mexico. ... Benito Pablo Juárez García () (March 21, 1806 – July 18, 1872) was a Zapotec Amerindian who served five terms [1] (1858–1861), (1861–1865), (1865–1867), (1867–1871), and (1871–1872), as President of Mexico. ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Porfirio Díaz, a republican general during the French intervention, ruled Mexico from 1876-1880 and then from 1880-1911 in five consecutive reelections. The period of his rule is known as the Porfiriato, which was characterized by remarkable economic achievements, investments in art and sciences, but also of huge economic inequality and political repression. An obvious and preposterous electoral fraud that led to his fifth reelection sparked the Mexican Revolution of 1910, initially led by Francisco I. Madero. Díaz resigned in 1911 and Madero was elected president but overthrown and murdered in a coup d'état in 1913 led by a conservative general named Victoriano Huerta after a secret council held with the American ambassador Henry Lane Wilson. This re-ignited the civil war, with participants such as Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata who formed their own forces. A third force, the constitutional army led by Venustiano Carranza, managed to bring an end to the war, and radically amended the 1857 Constitution to include many of the social premises and demands of the revolutionaries into what was eventually called the 1917 Constitution. Carranza was killed in 1920 and succeeded by another revolutionary hero, Álvaro Obregón, who in turn was succeeded by Plutarco Elías Calles. Obregón was reelected in 1928 but assassinated before he could assume power. Shortly after, Calles founded the National Revolutionary Party (PNR), later renamed the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) which became the most influential party during the next 70 years. José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mory (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915), Mexican war volunteer and French intervention hero; later President. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Term of office: 29 November 1876 to 30 November 1880 (first term) – 1 December 1884 to 1910 (second term) Preceded by: Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada (1876), Manuel González (1884) Succeeded by: Manuel González (1880), Francisco León de la Barra interim (1911) Date of birth: 15 September... This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution Francisco Ignacio Madero González (October 30, 1873 – February 22, 1913) was a politician, writer and revolutionary who served as President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (December 23, 1850 – January 13, 1916) was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico. ... Henry Lane Wilson (1927-1938) born in Columbus, New Mexico, was involved with Álvaro Obregón, Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, and Gustavo A. Madero in the Mexican Revolution. ... A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution Doroteo Arango Arámbula (June 5, 1878 – July 23, 1923) — better known as Francisco Villa or, by the nickname for Francisco Pancho. Pancho Villa — was one of the foremost leaders of the Mexican Revolution, between 1911 and 1920, and... Emiliano Zapata Salazar (August 8, 1879 – April 10, 1919) was a leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, which broke out in 1910, and which was initially directed against the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz. ... Venustiano Carranza Garza (December 29, 1859 – May 21, 1920) was one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... General Álvaro Obregón Salido (February 19, 1880 – July 17, 1928) was President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. ... Term of office: 1 December 1924 – 30 November 1928 Preceded by: Álvaro Obregón Succeeded by: Emilio Portes Gil Date of birth: 25 September 1877 Place of birth: Guaymas, Sonora Date of death: 19 October 1945 Place of death: Mexico City Profession: Schoolteacher, soldier, politician First Lady: Natalia Chacón... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican political party that wielded hegemonic power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years. ...


During the next four decades, Mexico experienced substantial economic growth that historians call "El Milagro Mexicano", the Mexican Miracle. The assumption of mineral rights by the government, and the subsequent nationalization of the oil industry into PEMEX during the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas del Río (1938) was a popular move, but sparked a diplomatic crisis with those countries whose citizens had lost businesses expropriated by the Cárdenas government. A Pemex gas station in Puerto Vallarta Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) is Mexicos state-owned, nationalized petroleum company. ... Term of office: November 30, 1934 – December 1, 1940 Preceded by: Abelardo L. Rodríguez Succeeded by: Manuel Ávila Camacho Date of birth: 21 May 1895 Place of birth: Jiquilpan, Michoacán Date of death: 19 October 1970 Place of death: Mexico City Profession: Army General First Lady: Amalia Sol... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Although the economy continued to flourish, social inequality remained a factor of discontent. Moreover, the PRI rule became increasingly authoritarian and at times oppressive, an example being the Tlatelolco Massacre of 1968, which by according to government officials claimed the life of around 30 protesters, even though many reputable international accounts reported that around 250 protesters were killed by security forces in a clash at the neighborhood. In the 1970s there was extreme dissatisfaction with the administration of Luis Echeverría which took missteps in both the national and international arenas. Nonetheless, it was in this decade that the first substantial changes to electoral law were made, which initiated a movement of democratization of a system that had become electorally authoritarian.[5] While the prices of oil were at historically high records and interest rates were low, Mexico made impressive investments in the state-owned oil company, with the intention of revitalizing the economy, but overborrowing and mismanagement of oil revenues led to inflation and exacerbated the crisis of 1982. That year, oil prices plunged, interest rates soared, and the government defaulted on its debt. In an attempt to stabilize the current account balance, and given the reluctance of international lenders to return to Mexico given the previous default, president de la Madrid resorted to currency devaluations which in turn sparked inflation. A 1978 silkscreen poster by Rini Templeton and Malaquías Montoya created to commemorate the ten-year anniversary of the massacre. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Luis Echeverría Álvarez (born 17 January 1922) was the President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976. ...

President Fox and American President Bush in the signature of the SPP
President Fox and American President Bush in the signature of the SPP

The first small cracks in the political monopolistic position of PRI were seen in the late 1970s with the creation of 100 deputy seats in the Chamber of Deputies assigned through proportional representation with open party-lists. Even though at the municipal level the first non-PRI mayor was elected in 1947,[6] it was not until 1989 that the first non-PRI governor of a state was elected. However, many sources claimed that in 1988 the party resorted to electoral fraud in order to prevent leftist opposition candidate Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas from winning the national presidential elections who lost to Carlos Salinas, which led to massive protests in the capital. Salinas embarked on a program of neoliberal reforms which fixed the exchanged rate, controlled inflation and culminated with the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which came into effect in 1994. However, that very same day, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) started a short-lived armed rebellion against the federal government, and has continued as a non-violent opposition movement against neoliberalism and globalization. This and a series of political assassinations and corruption scandals scared portfolio investors and reduced foreign capital investment. Being an election year, in a process that was then called the most transparent in Mexican history, authorities were reluctant to devalue the peso, a move which caused a rapid depletion of the National Reserves. In December 1994, a month after Salinas was succeeded by Ernesto Zedillo, the Mexican economy collapsed. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Vicente Fox Quesada[1] (born July 2, 1942) was President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ... The Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America, founded March 23, 2005 by the heads of state of Canada, Mexico and the United States, was born in response to what some see as the evident necessity for the North American continent to take new steps to address the threat of... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ... Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas (right) with Lionel Jospin. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The North American Free Trade Area is the trade bloc created by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and its two supplements, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC), whose members are Canada, Mexico and the United States. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... The flag of the EZLN. The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Term of office: 1 December 1994 – 1 December 2000 Preceded by: Carlos Salinas de Gortari Succeeded by: Vicente Fox Quesada Date of birth: 27 December 1951 Place of birth: Mexico City Profession: Economist First Lady: Nilda Patricia Velasco Núñez Political Party: PRI Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born... The 1994 economic crisis in Mexico, widely known as the Mexican peso crisis, was triggered by the sudden devaluation of the Mexican peso in the early days of the presidency of Ernesto Zedillo. ...


With a rapid rescue packaged authorized by American president Clinton and major macroeconomic reforms started by president Zedillo, the economy rapidly recovered and growth peaked at almost 7% in 1999. Democratic reforms under Zedillo's administration caused the PRI to lose its absolute majority in the Congress in 1997. In 2000, after 71 years the PRI lost a presidential election to Vicente Fox of the opposition National Action Party (PAN). On March 23, 2005, the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America was signed by Vicente Fox. During the 2006 elections, the PRI was further weakened and became the third political force in number of seats in the Chamber of Deputies after PAN and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). In the concurrent presidential elections, Felipe Calderón, from PAN was declared winner, with a razor-thin margin over Andrés Manuel López Obrador of the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). López Obrador, however, contested the election and pledged to create an "alternative government". William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Congress (formally: Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vicente Fox Quesada[1] (born July 2, 1942) was President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ... The National Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Nacional), known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian Democratic party and one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (83rd in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America, founded March 23, 2005 by the heads of state of Canada, Mexico and the United States, was born in response to what some see as the evident necessity for the North American continent to take new steps to address the threat of... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD) is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa (b. ... Andrés Manuel López Obrador (born 13 November 1953) is a Mexican politician, affiliated with the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). ... The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD) is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... The results of the Mexican general election of July 2, 2006, were controversial and contested. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Mexico
A picture of Mexico seen from space.
A picture of Mexico seen from space.

Mexico is situated in the mid-latitudes of the Americas. Its territory comprises much of southern North America,[7][8] or also within Middle America.[9][10] Physiographically, the lands east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec including the Yucatán Peninsula (which together comprise around 12% of the country's area) lie within the region of Central America; geologically, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt delimits the region on the north.[11] Geopolitically, however, Mexico is commonly not considered a Central American country. Map of Mexico States east of Isthmus of Tehuantepec represent 12. ... Image File history File links Mexfromspace. ... Image File history File links Mexfromspace. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Middle America For other uses, see Middle America (disambiguation). ... The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico. ... The Yucatán peninsula as seen from space The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Map of Central America Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. ... The Trans-Mexican volcanic belt (Eje Volcánico Transversal) is a mountain range that extends 900 km from west to east across central Mexico. ...


Mexico's total area is 1,972,550 km², including approximately 6,000 km² of islands in the Pacific Ocean (including the remote Guadalupe Island and the Islas Revillagigedo), Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of California. On its north, Mexico shares a 3,141 km border with the United States. The meandering Río Bravo del Norte (known as the Rio Grande in the United States) defines the border from Ciudad Juárez east to the Gulf of Mexico. A series of natural and artificial markers delineate the United States-Mexican border west from Ciudad Juárez to the Pacific Ocean. On its south, Mexico shares an 871 km border with Guatemala and a 251 km border with Belize. Southeast coast of Guadalupe Island Guadalupe Island, or Isla Guadalupe, () is a volcanic island located 241 kilometers (150 miles) off the west coast of Mexicos Baja California peninsula and some 400 kilometers (250 miles) southwest of the border city of Tijuana in Baja California state, in the Pacific Ocean. ... The Revillagigedo Islands (or Revillagigedo Archipelago) are a group of islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean Caribbean Sea from space (top left). ... The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez or Sea of Cortés; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or, much less frequently, Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. ... The border between Mexico and the United States spans four U.S. states, six Mexican states, and has over twenty commercial crossings. ... Río Bravo redirects here. ... La Catedral in downtown Ciudad Juárez Ciudad Juárez, or simply Juárez, is a city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua with an estimated population of 1,512,354. ...


Topography

Pico de Orizaba, the highest point in Mexico
Pico de Orizaba, the highest point in Mexico
Sunset in Cabo
Sunset in Cabo

The Mexican territory is crossed from north to south by two mountain ranges known as Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental, which are the extension of the Rocky Mountains from northern North America. From east to west at the center, the country is crossed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as the Sierra Nevada. A fourth mountain range, the Sierra Madre del Sur, runs from Michoacán to Oaxaca. As such, the majority of the Mexican central and northern territories are located at high altitudes, and the highest elevations are found at the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: Pico de Orizaba (5,700 m), Popocatépetl (5,462 m) and Iztaccíhuatl (5,286 m) and the Nevado de Toluca (4,577 m). Three major urban agglomerations are located in the valleys between these four elevations: Toluca, Greater Mexico City and Puebla. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In Mexico, El Pico de Orizaba is the highest volcano, and the third highest in North America at a height of 18, 490 feet, or 6,163 meters. ... Lands End, Cabo San Lucas, at sunset. ... Lands End, Cabo San Lucas, at sunset. ... Cabo San Lucas is a small city at the southern tip of the Lower California Penninsula at 22. ... The Sierra Madre Oriental is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico, spanning 1000 km from Coahuila south through Nuevo León, southwest Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Hidalgo, to northern Puebla and Querétaro, where it joins with the Sierra Madre Occidental and the Eje Volcánico Transversal of central Mexico. ... This picture shows an aerial view of the Sierra Madre Occidental crossing the territory of Durango, western Mexico The Sierra Madre Occidental is a mountain range in western Mexico and the extreme southwest of the United States, extending 1500 km from southeast Arizona (south and east of Tucson) southeast through... Confectionary Company, see Rocky Mountain Chocolate Factory. ... The Trans-Mexican volcanic belt (Eje Volcánico Transversal) is a mountain range that extends 900 km from west to east across central Mexico. ... Sierra Madre del Sur The Sierra Madre del Sur is a mountain range in southern Mexico, extending 1000 km from southern Michoacán east through Guerrero, to the Istmo de Tehuantepec in eastern Oaxaca. ... Michoacán de Ocampo (From michamacuan, Nahuatl for the place of the fishermen) is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... In Mexico, El Pico de Orizaba is the highest volcano, and the third highest in North America at a height of 18, 490 feet, or 6,163 meters. ... Popocatépetl (commonly referred to as El Popo or Don Goyo) (IPA: ) is an active volcano and the second highest peak in Mexico after the Pico de Orizaba (5,610m). ... Iztaccíhuatl (alternative spellings include Ixtaccíhuatl or either variant spelled without the accent) is the third highest mountain in Mexico, after Pico de Orizaba (5,610m) and Popocatépetl (5,452m). ... Nevado de Toluca or in nahuatl language Xinantécatl (translated literally as the the naked man)is the fourth in height among Mexicos peaks, The Xinantécatl is a extinct volcano located in central Mexico with coordinates 19. ... This article is about a city in Mexico. ... Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, oficially called Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México or ZMCM (Metropolitan Zone of Mexico City) in Mexico. ... Nickname: Angelópolis, City of the Angels Location of Puebla in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Puebla Founded 1531  - Mayor Enrique Doger (PRI) Area    - City 546 km²  (211 sq mi) Elevation 2,175 m (7,136 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,485,941  - Density 5,741/km² (14,869. ...


Climate

The Tropic of Cancer effectively divides the country into temperate and tropical zones. Land north of the twenty-fourth parallel experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months. South of the twenty-fourth parallel, temperatures are fairly constant year round and vary solely as a function of elevation. World map showing the Tropic of Cancer The Tropic of Cancer (cancer is Latin for crab), or Northern tropic is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ...


Areas south of the twentieth-fourth parallel with elevations up to 1,000 meters (the southern parts of both coastal plains as well as the Yucatán Peninsula), have a yearly median temperature between 24°C and 28°C. Temperatures here remain high throughout the year, with only a 5°C difference between winter and summer median temperatures. Although low-lying areas north of the twentieth-fourth parallel are hot and humid during the summer, they generally have lower yearly temperature averages (from 20°C to 24°C) because of more moderate conditions during the winter. The Yucatán peninsula as seen from space The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ...


Many large cities in Mexico are located in the Valley of Mexico or in adjacent valleys with altitudes generally above 2,000m, this gives them a year-round temperate climate with yearly temperature averages (from 16°C to 18°C) and cool nighttime temperatures throughout the year. Many parts of Mexico, particularly the north have a dry climate with sporadic rainfall while parts of the tropical lowlands in the south average more than 200cm of annual precipitation. The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of Estado de Mexico. ...


Biodiversity

An axolotl or ambystoma mexicanum one of the endemic species of the lakes of the Valley of Mexico
An axolotl or ambystoma mexicanum one of the endemic species of the lakes of the Valley of Mexico

Mexico is one of the 17 megadiverse countries of the world. With over 200,000 different species, Mexico is home of 10-12% of the world's biodiversity.[12] Mexico ranks first in biodiversity in reptiles with 707 known species, second in mammals with 438 species, fourth in amphibians with 290 species, and fourth in flora, with 26,000 different species.[13] Mexico is also considered the second country in the world in ecosystems and fourth in overall species. Approximately 2,500 species are protected by Mexican legislations.[14] The Mexican government created the National System of Information about Biodiversity, in order to study and promote the sustainable use of ecosystems. Personally taken photo of an axolotl. ... Personally taken photo of an axolotl. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Megadiverse countries are a group of countries in which less than the 10% of the global surface has more than the 70% of the biodiversity. ... Subclasses Anapsida Diapsida Synonyms Reptilia Laurenti, 1768 Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane, and members of the class Sauropsida. ... Subclasses and Orders    Order Temnospondyli - extinct Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct Subclass Lissamphibia    Order Anura    Order Caudata    Order Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectotherms, and generally spend part... An ecosystem, a contraction of ecological and system, refers to the collection of biotic and abiotic components and processes that comprise and govern the behavior of some defined subset of the biosphere. ...


In Mexico, 17 million hectares are considered "Protected Natural Areas" which include 34 reserve biospheres (unaltered ecosystems), 64 national parks, 4 natural monuments (protection for its aesthetic, scientific or historical value in perpetuity), 26 areas of protected flora and fauna, 4 areas for natural resource protection (conservation of soil, hydrological basins and forests) and 17 sanctuaries (zones of abundant richness in species).[12]


Government and politics

Main article: Politics of Mexico
Palacio de San Lázaro, Chamber of Deputies, Congress of the Union
Palacio de San Lázaro, Chamber of Deputies, Congress of the Union

Politics of Mexico takes place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixel Image in higher resolution (1232 × 816 pixel, file size: 798 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mexican Congress, Chamber of Deputies (Representatives). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixel Image in higher resolution (1232 × 816 pixel, file size: 798 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mexican Congress, Chamber of Deputies (Representatives). ...

Political configuration

The United Mexican States are a federation whose government is representative, democratic and republican based on a congressional system according to the 1917 Constitution. The constitution establishes three levels of government: the federal Union, the state governments and the municipal governments. All officials at the three levels are elected by voters through first-past-the-post plurality, proportional representation or are appointed by other elected officials. Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule[1]) is a form of government. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... A presidential system, or a congressional system, is a system of government of a republic where the executive branch is elected separately from the legislative. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ... A plurality, or relative/simple majority as it is also referred to outside the United States (especially in non-English speaking countries; in the US, simple majority has another meaning), is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority in the American sense of the... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


The federal government is constituted by the Powers of the Union, the three separate branches of government:

  • Legislative: the bicameral Congress of the Union, comprised of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies, which makes federal law, declares war, imposes taxes, approves the national budget and international treaties, and ratifies diplomatic appointments.
  • Executive: the President of the United Mexican States, who is the head of state and government, as well as the commander in chief of the Mexican military forces. The President also appoints, with Senate approval, the Cabinet and other officers. The President is responsible of executing and enforcing the law, and has the authority of vetoing bills.
  • Judiciary: The Supreme Court of Justice, comprised by eleven judges appointed by the President with Senate approval, who interpret laws and judge cases of federal competency. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Electoral Tribunal, collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary.
National Palace, Seat of Executive Power, Zócalo, Mexico City
National Palace, Seat of Executive Power, Zócalo, Mexico City

All elected executive officials are elected by plurality (first-past-the-post). Seats to the legislature are elected by plurality and proportional representation at the federal and state level. The Chamber of Deputies of the Congress of the Union is conformed by 300 deputies elected through plurality and 200 deputies by proportional representation with open-party lists for which the country is divided into 5 electoral constituencies or circumscriptions. The Senate is conformed by 64 senators, two per state and the Federal District, jointly elected by plurality, 32 senators assigned to the first minority (one per state and the Federal District) and 32 elected by proportional representation with open-party lists of which the country conforms a single electoral constituency. A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Congress (formally: Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. ... The Senate (Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) is the upper house of Mexicos bicameral Congress. ... The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of Mexicos bicameral legislature, the Congress of the Union. ... The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state of Mexico. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... A Commander-in-Chief is the commander of a nations military forces or significant element of those forces. ... The Mexican Executive Cabinet is a part of the executive branch of the Mexican government. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation (SCJN) is the highest Federal court in the United Mexican States. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2126x1061, 2633 KB) Description = México City, Regierungspalast Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created 30. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2126x1061, 2633 KB) Description = México City, Regierungspalast Source = selbst fotografiert Date = created 30. ... The Zócalo, Mexico City Flag in center of the Zócalo Catedral Metropolitana La Plaza de la Constitución, informally called El Zócalo, is a square in Mexico City. ... An example of a plurality ballot. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ...


According to the constitution, all constituent states must have a republican form of government comprised of three branches: the executive, represented by a governor and an appointed cabinet, the legislative branch constituted by a unicameral congress and the judiciary, also called a Supreme Court of Justice.


In the 2006-2009 Congress eight parties are therein represented; five of them, however, have not received neither in this nor in previous congresses more than 4% of the national votes. The other three parties have historically been the dominant parties in Mexican politics: For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The PRI held an almost hegemonic power in Mexican politics since 1929. Since 1977 consecutive electoral reforms allowed opposition parties to win posts at the local and federal level. This process culminated in the 2000 presidential elections in which Vicente Fox, candidate of the PAN, became the first non-PRI president to be elected. The National Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Nacional), known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian Democratic party and one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican political party that wielded hegemonic power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ... The Party of the Democratic Revolution (in Spanish: Partido de la Revolución Democrática, PRD) is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... FDN poster, published after the election. ... Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas (right) with Lionel Jospin. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vicente Fox Quesada[1] (born July 2, 1942) was President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ...


In 2006, Felipe Calderón of the PAN faced Andrés Manuel López Obrador of the PRD in a very close election (0.58% difference). On September 6, 2006, Felipe Calderón was declared President Elect by the electoral tribunal. His cabinet was sworn in at midnight on December 1, 2006 and Calderón was handed the presidential band by outgoing Vicente Fox at Los Pinos. He was officially sworn as President on the morning of December 1, 2006 in Congress, amidst screaming, yelling and insults, in an extremely quick ceremony. Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa (b. ... Andrés Manuel López Obrador (born 13 November 1953) is a Mexican politician, affiliated with the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). ... For other elections in Mexico during 2006, see 2006 Mexican elections For election disputes and controversies, see Mexican general election 2006 controversies A general election was held in Mexico on Sunday, July 2, 2006. ... Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa (b. ... Los Pinos is Mexicos official presidential residence, the home – for a six-year period – of the President of Mexico. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Congress (formally: Congreso de la Unión or Congress of the Union) is the legislative branch of the Mexican government. ...


Administrative divisions

The United Mexican States are a federation made up by thirty-one free and sovereign states. ... This article provides a collection of the etymologies of the names of the states of Mexico. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

HG
MX

The United Mexican States are an union of thirty-one free and sovereign states which form a Union that exercises jurisdiction over the Federal District and other territories. Every state has its own constitution and congress, and its citizens elect by direct voting, a governor (gobernador) for a six-year term, as well as representatives (diputados locales) to their respective state congresses, for three-year terms. Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... Aguascalientes IPA: is a state of Mexico, situated in the center of the country. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... Baja California Sur is one of the 31 States of Mexico, occupying the part of the Baja California Peninsula south of the 28th parallel. ... The State of Campeche was long a part of Yucatán and shared its history through the mid 19th century. ... Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... For other uses, see Chihuahua (disambiguation). ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... Colima is a state in western Mexico. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... Hidalgo is a state in central Mexico, with an area of 20,502 km². In 2000 the state had a population of some 2,231,000 people. ... Jalisco is one of the states of the United Mexican States (Mexico). ... The United Mexican States, or Mexico, is a federal republic, comprising 31 states. ... Other Mexican States Capital Morelia Other major cities Lázaro Cárdenas list of municipalities Area 59,928 km² Ranked 16th Population (2000 census) 3,979,180 Ranked 7th Governor (2002-08) Lázaro Cárdenas Batel (PRD) Federal Deputies (13) PRD = 9 PRI = 2 PAN = 1 disputed = 1 Federal... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Nayarit is one of the 31 states of Mexico. ... Other Mexican States Capital Monterrey Other major cities Area 64,924 km² Ranked 13th Population (2000 census) 3,826,240 Ranked 9th Governor (2003-09) José Natividad González Parás (PRI/PVEM) Federal Deputies (11) PRI/PVEM = 10 PAN = 1 Federal Senators PAN = 2 PRI = 1 ISO 3166-2... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. ... Other Mexican States Capital Santiago de Querétaro Other major cities San Juan del Río list of municipalities Area 11,449 km² Ranked 27th Population (2000 census) 1,402,010 Ranked 24th Governor (2003-09) Francisco Garrido Patrón (PAN) Federal Deputies (4) PAN = 3 PRI/PVEM = 1 Federal... Quintana Roo is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... San Luis Potosí is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Sinaloa is bordered by the states of Sonora to the north, Chihuahua to the northeast, Durango to the east, and Nayarit to the south. ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... Tabasco is a state in Mexico. ... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... This article is about the Mexican state Tlaxcala. ... The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that compose Mexico (does not include the Mexican Federal District). ... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Zacatecas is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... The United Mexican States ( Mexico) is a federal republic comprising 31 states and one federal district (the Mexican Federal District, or Distrito Federal). ...


Mexican states are also divided into municipalities (municipios), the smallest official political entity in the country, governed by a mayor or "municipal president" (presidente municipal), elected by its residents by plurality. Municipal Palace of Veracruz Municipalities (municipios in Spanish) are the second-level administrative division in Mexico (where the first-level administrative division is the estado, or state). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ...


Constitutionally, Mexico City, as the capital of the federation and seat of the powers of the Union, is the Federal District, a special political division in Mexico that belongs to the federation as a whole and not to a particular state, and as such, has more limited local rule than the nation's states. Nonetheless, since 1987 it has progressively gained a greater degree of autonomy, and residents now elect a head of government (Jefe de Gobierno) and representatives of a Legislative Assembly directly. Unlike the states, the Federal District does not have a constitution but a statute of government. Mexico City is coterminus and coextensive with the Federal District. Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Head of Government ( Spanish: Jefe de Gobierno) wields executive power in the Mexican Federal District (the federal district, or D.F., is the seat of national executive, legislative, and judicial power, and is largely contiguous with the core of the sprawling Mexico City conurbation). ...


State names and abbreviations for the 31 Mexican states and the Federal District:

Aguascalientes IPA: is a state of Mexico, situated in the center of the country. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... Baja California Sur is one of the 31 States of Mexico, occupying the part of the Baja California Peninsula south of the 28th parallel. ... For other uses, see Chihuahua (disambiguation). ... Colima is a state in western Mexico. ... The State of Campeche was long a part of Yucatán and shared its history through the mid 19th century. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... Hidalgo is a state in central Mexico, with an area of 20,502 km². In 2000 the state had a population of some 2,231,000 people. ... Jalisco is one of the states of the United Mexican States (Mexico). ... Michoacán de Ocampo (From michamacuan, Nahuatl for the place of the fishermen) is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... The United Mexican States, or Mexico, is a federal republic, comprising 31 states. ... Nayarit is one of the 31 states of Mexico. ... Nuevo León (Spanish for New León, after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in north-eastern Mexico. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. ... Quintana Roo is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Querétaro (formal name: Querétaro Arteaga) is a state in central Mexico. ... Sinaloa is bordered by the states of Sonora to the north, Chihuahua to the northeast, Durango to the east, and Nayarit to the south. ... The Mexican state of San Luis Potosí has an area of 62,848 km² (24,266 mi²). It is in the north-central part of the Mexican republic, bordered by the states of Jalisco, Guanajuato, Querétaro, Hidalgo, Veracruz, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Zacatecas. ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... Tabasco is a state in Mexico. ... This article is about the Mexican state Tlaxcala. ... Tamaulipas is a state in the northeast of Mexico. ... The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that compose Mexico (does not include the Mexican Federal District). ... Yucatán is the name of one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Zacatecas is one of the 31 constituent states of Mexico. ...

Foreign policy

President Calderón with Brazilian president Lula
President Calderón with Brazilian president Lula

Traditionally, the Mexican government has sought to maintain its interests abroad and project its influence largely through moral persuasion rather than through political or economical pressure. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3506x2337, 822 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Felipe Calderón Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3506x2337, 822 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Felipe Calderón Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Since the Mexican Revolution, and until the administration of President Ernesto Zedillo, Mexico had been known for its foreign policy or "doctrine" known as the Doctrina Estrada (Estrada Doctrine, named after its creator Genaro Estrada). The Doctrina Estrada was a foreign policy guideline of an enclosed view of sovereignty. It claimed that foreign governments should not judge, positively or negatively, the governments or changes in government of other nations, in that such action would imply a breach to its sovereignty.[15] This policy was said to be based on the principles of Non-Intervention, Pacific Solution to Controversies, and Self-Determination of all nations. However, it has been argued that the policy has been "mis-used", as it was an implied international contract between the PRI-governments and foreign nations that Mexico would not judge what happened abroad, if other countries would not judge what happened in Mexico. Term of office: 1 December 1994 – 1 December 2000 Preceded by: Carlos Salinas de Gortari Succeeded by: Vicente Fox Quesada Date of birth: 27 December 1951 Place of birth: Mexico City Profession: Economist First Lady: Nilda Patricia Velasco Núñez Political Party: PRI Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ...


During his Presidency, Vicente Fox appointed Jorge Castañeda to be his Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Castañeda immediately broke with the Estrada Doctrine, promoting what was called by critics the Castañeda Doctrine. The new foreign policy called for an openess and an acceptance of criticism from the international community, and the increase of Mexican involvement in Foreign Affairs.[16] Vicente Fox Quesada[1] (born July 2, 1942) was President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006. ... Jorge Germán Castañeda Gutman (b. ... In Mexico, the Secretary of Foreign Affairs (Secretario de Relaciones Exteriores) is a member of the federal executive cabinet. ...


In lieu with this new openess in Mexico's foreign policy, some political parties have proposed an amendment of the Constitution in order to allow the Mexican Army, Air Force or Navy to collaborate with the United Nations in peace-keeping missions, or to provide military help to countries that officially ask for it. Heroic Naval Military Academy cadets Mexicos armed forces number about 300,000. ... Mexican Air Force roundel. ... The Mexican Navy (official name Secretaría de Marina or SEMAR) is a branch of the Mexican Military responsible for conducting naval operations. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Mexico
Santa Fe business district in Mexico City
Santa Fe business district in Mexico City
Central Market in Mexico City
Central Market in Mexico City

Mexico has a free market economy, and is firmly established as an upper middle-income country[17] with the highest per capita income in nominal terms in Latin America,[18] and it is the 13th largest economy in the world as measured in Gross Domestic Product in purchasing power parity.[19] After the 1994 economic debacle, Mexico has made an impressive recovery, building a modern and diversified economy.[18] Recent administrations have also improved infrastructure and opened competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution and airports. Mexico has a free market and export-oriented economy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Santa_fe3mxc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Santa_fe3mxc. ... Panoramic view of Santa Fe Santa Fe is one of Mexico Citys major central business districts, located west of the city in the delegaciones (boroughs) of Cuajimalpa and Álvaro Obregón. ... Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Fundidora Park aerial photo Fundidora Park is a public park located west Monterrey inside the former Monterrey Foundry real estate. ... Nickname: The City of the Mountains Motto: El Trabajo templa el Espíritu Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Nuevo León Founded 20 September 1596 Government  - Mayor Adalberto Madero (PAN) Area  - City 572 km²  (220. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... IMF 2005 figures of total GDP of nominal compared to PPP. Absolute, not adjusted for population. ... The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... The 1994 economic crisis in Mexico, widely known as the Mexican peso crisis, was triggered by the sudden devaluation of the Mexican peso in the early days of the presidency of Ernesto Zedillo. ...


According to the director for Colombia and Mexico of the World Bank, the population in extreme poverty has decreased from 24.2% to 17.6% in the general population and from 42% to 27.9% in rural areas from 2000-2004.[20] Nonetheless, income inequality remains a problem, and huge gaps remain not only between rich and poor but also between the north and the south, the urban and the rural areas. Sharp contrasts in income and Human Development are also a grave problem in Mexico. The 2004 United Nations Human Development Index report for Mexico states that, Benito Juárez, one of the districts in the Distrito Federal and San Pedro Garza García, in the State of Nuevo León, would have a similar level of economic, educational and life expectancy development to that of Germany or New Zealand and Metlatonoc in the state of Guerrero, would have an HDI similar to that of Malawi.[21][22] Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Benito Juárez is one of the 16 delegaciones (boroughs) into which Mexicos Federal District is divided. ... The Mexican Federal District, known in Spanish as Distrito Federal (D.F.), is an area within Mexico that is not part of any of the Mexican states, but an independent self-governing city-state and the seat of the Federal Government. ... San Pedro Garza García, commonly referred to as either San Pedro or Garza García, is a residential and commercial suburb of the larger metropolitan city of Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. ... Nuevo León (Spanish for New León, after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in north-eastern Mexico. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ...


Many of the positive effects in poverty reduction and the increase in purchasing power of the middle class are attributed to the macroeconomic stability pursued by the last two administrations. GDP annual average growth for the period of 1995-2002 was 5.1%.[23] The economic downturn in the United States also caused a similar pattern in Mexico, of which it rapidly recovered to grow 4.1% in 2005 and 3% in 2005. Inflation has reached a record low of 3.3% in 2005, and interest rates are low, which have spurred credit-consumption in the middle class. The Fox administration also provided monetary stability: budget deficit was further reduced and foreign debt was decreased to less than 20% of GDP.[23] Mexico shares, with Chile the highest rating of long-term sovereign credit in Latin America. 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Being one of the most open countries in the world, almost 90% of Mexican trade has been put under free trade agreements with over 40 countries, of which the North American Free Trade Agreement remains the most influential: close to 90% of Mexican exports go to the United States and Canada, and close to 55% from its imports come from these two countries. Other major trade agreements have been signed with the European Union, Japan, Israel and many countries in Central and South America. Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The North American Free Trade Area is the trade bloc created by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and its two supplements, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC), whose members are Canada, Mexico and the United States. ...


Tourism in Mexico is a large industry, the third in importance. The most notable tourist draws are the ancient Meso-American ruins, and popular beach resorts. The coastal climate and unique culture – a fusion of the European (particularly Spanish) and the Meso-American – also make Mexico attractive. The peak tourists seasons in Mexico are during December and during July and August, with brief surges during the week before Easter and surges during spring break at many of the beach resort sites which are popular with vacationing college students from the United States.


Ongoing economic concerns include the commercial and financial dependence on the US,[24] low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution (top 20% of income earners account for 55% of income), and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states. In economics, the term underemployment has at least three different distinct meanings and applications. ... This graphic shows the distribution of gross annual household income. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ...


Demographics

With a population of 103 million (2005 Census), Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world. Mexicos population pyramid (2000) With a population of 103,263,388 in 2005, Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world, and the second-most populous country in Latin America after Portuguese-speaking Brazil. ...


Largest metropolitan areas

The following is a list of the major metropolitan areas of Mexico with more than a million inhabitants, in order of population (as reported in the 2005 census):[25] The following is a list of the biggest metropolitan areas in Mexico: Mexico City (22. ...

Rank Core City State(s) Population
1 Mexico City Federal District, Mexico, Hidalgo 19.23 million
2 Guadalajara Jalisco 4.10 million
3 Monterrey Nuevo León 3.66 million
4 Puebla Puebla, Tlaxcala 2.11 million
5 Toluca México 1.61 million
6 Tijuana Baja California 1.48 million
7 León Guanajuato 1.43 million
8 Ciudad Juárez Chihuahua 1.31 million
9 Torreón Coahuila, Durango 1.11 million

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 184 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City Mexico... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 184 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mexico City Mexico... Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... The Mexican Federal District, known in Spanish as Distrito Federal (D.F.), is an area within Mexico that is not part of any of the Mexican states, but an independent self-governing city-state and the seat of the Federal Government. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 592 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Guadalajara, Mexico. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 592 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Guadalajara, Mexico. ... This article is about the Mexican city of Guadalajara. ... Jalisco is one of the states of the United Mexican States (Mexico). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x683, 1396 KB) Nightview of the city of Monterrey, Mexico. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x683, 1396 KB) Nightview of the city of Monterrey, Mexico. ... Nickname: The City of the Mountains Motto: El Trabajo templa el Espíritu Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Nuevo León Founded 20 September 1596 Government  - Mayor Adalberto Madero (PAN) Area  - City 572 km²  (220. ... Nuevo León (Spanish for New León, after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in north-eastern Mexico. ... Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... The Mexican Federal District, known in Spanish as Distrito Federal (D.F.), is an area within Mexico that is not part of any of the Mexican states, but an independent self-governing city-state and the seat of the Federal Government. ... Hidalgo is a state in central Mexico, with an area of 20,502 km². In 2000 the state had a population of some 2,231,000 people. ... This article is about the Mexican city of Guadalajara. ... Jalisco is one of the states of the United Mexican States (Mexico). ... Nickname: The City of the Mountains Motto: El Trabajo templa el Espíritu Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Nuevo León Founded 20 September 1596 Government  - Mayor Adalberto Madero (PAN) Area  - City 572 km²  (220. ... Nuevo León (Spanish for New León, after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in north-eastern Mexico. ... Nickname: Angelópolis, City of the Angels Location of Puebla in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Puebla Founded 1531  - Mayor Enrique Doger (PRI) Area    - City 546 km²  (211 sq mi) Elevation 2,175 m (7,136 ft) Population (2005)  - City 1,485,941  - Density 5,741/km² (14,869. ... The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. ... This article is about the Mexican state Tlaxcala. ... This article is about a city in Mexico. ... The State of México (often abbreviated to Edomex from Estado de México in Spanish) is a state in the center of the nation of Mexico. ... Tijuana (Spanish [tixwana], English usually [ËŒtiːəˈwÉ‘nÉ™]), is the largest city in the Mexican state of Baja California and the seat of the municipality of Tijuana. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... Calle 5 de Mayo. ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... La Catedral in downtown Ciudad Juárez Ciudad Juárez, or simply Juárez, is a city in the Mexican state of Chihuahua with an estimated population of 1,512,354. ... For other uses, see Chihuahua (disambiguation). ... Torreon Centennary logo Torreón is a city and its surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Coahuila. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... Durango (IPA pronunciation ) is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ...

Demographic Dynamics

Mexican annual population growth has drastically decreased from a peak of 3.5% in 1965 to 0.99% in 2005. Life expectancy in 2006 was estimated to be at 75.4 years (72.6 male and 78.3 female). The states with the highest life expectancy are Baja California (75.9 years) and Nuevo Leon (75.6 years). The Federal District has a life expectancy of the same level as Baja California. The lowest levels are found in Chiapas (72.9), Oaxaca (73.2) and Guerrero (73.2 years). The mortality rate in 1970 was 9.7 per 1000 people; by 2001, the rate had dropped to 4.9 men per 1000 men and 3.8 women per 1000 women. The most common reasons for death in 2001 were heart problems (14.6% for men 17.6% for women) and cancer (11% for men and 15.8% for women). 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Mexican population is increasingly urban, with close to 75% living in cities. The five largest urban areas in Mexico (Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla and Toluca) are home of 30% of the country's population. Migration patterns within the country show positive migration to north-western and south-eastern states, and a negative rate of migration for the Federal District. While the annual population growth is still positive, the national net migration rate is negative (-4.7/1000), attributable to the emigration phenomenon of people from rural communities to the United States. Aside from the Metropolitan area of Mexico City, megacities in Mexico are usually not well defined. ...


Immigration

Mexico is home of the largest number of American citizens abroad (estimated at one million),[26] which represents 1% of the Mexican population and 25% of all American citizens abroad. Other significant communities of foreigners are those of Central and South Americans, most notably from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Cuba, Venezuela, Guatemala and Colombia. Though estimations vary, the Argentine community is considered to be the second largest foreign community in the country (estimated somewhere between 30,000 and 150,000).[27][28] Throughout the 20th century, the country followed a policy of granting asylum to fellow Latin Americans and Europeans (mostly Spaniards in the 1940s) fleeing political persecution in their home countries. Map of Central America Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Discrepancies between the figures of official legal aliens and all foreign-born residents are quite large. The official figure for foreign-born residents in Mexico is 493,000 (since 2004), with a majority (86.9%) of these born in the United States (except Chiapas, where the majority of immigrants are from Central America). The five states with the most immigrants are Baja California (12.1% of total immigrants), Mexico City (the Federal District; 11.4%), Jalisco (9.9%), Chihuahua (9%) and Tamaulipas (7.3%). More than 54.6% of the immigrant population are fifteen years old or younger, while 9% are fifty or older. Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ...


Ethnography

Mexican Mennonite
Mexican Mennonite
Indigenous peoples in a Chiapas street.
Indigenous peoples in a Chiapas street.
See also: Indigenous peoples of Mexico

Mexico is ethnically diverse, and the constitution defines the country to be a "pluricultural nation". Image File history File linksMetadata Menonita_mexicano. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Menonita_mexicano. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 493 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 631 pixel, file size: 455 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A friend of mine took this picture, and allow me to use it. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 493 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 631 pixel, file size: 455 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A friend of mine took this picture, and allow me to use it. ... Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... Mayas at San Juan Chamula, Chiapas Mexico has defined itself, in the second article of its constitution, as a pluricultural nation, in recognition of the diverse ethnic groups that constitute it. ...


Mestizos (those of European and Amerindian ancestry) form the largest group, making up to 60-75% of the total population. The percentage of Amerindians, called indigenous peoples (indígenas) in Mexico, is estimated to be between 11% (pure Amerindian) and 30% (predominantly Amerindian). Indigenous peoples are considered the foundation of the Mexican pluricultural nation and therefore enjoy self-determination in certain areas. Indigenous languages are also considered "national languages" and are protected by law. Mestizo (Brazil Portuguese. ... Mayas at San Juan Chamula, Chiapas Mexico has defined itself, in the second article of its constitution, as a pluricultural nation, in recognition of the diverse ethnic groups that constitute it. ... Mexico has a surprising lingusitic diversity; apart from Spanish, the government recognizes 62 Indigenous Amerindian languages as national languages. ...


Ethnic Europeans make up 10-15% of the population, mostly descendants of the first Spanish settlers, although many have German, French, Italian, Portuguese, Irish, Polish, Romanian, Russian and British ancestry,[29][30] after the waves of immigration that brought many Europeans at the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, along with some Euro-Americans from the United States and Canada. 2000 density of European Americans A European American, or more commonly a Euro-American, is an American of European descent, usually referring to white people or Caucasians. ...


Mexico also received a number of Middle Eastern immigrants, mostly from Lebanon and Turkey.[31] It has also received a considerable number of Chinese, Japanese[29] and Koreans[32] throughout the twentieth century. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Afro-Mexicans, mostly of mixed ancestry, live in the coastal areas of Veracruz, Tabasco and Guerrero. The term Afro-Mexican (Spanish: afromexicano) refers to Mexican citizens who are black or of African descent. ... The state of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave is one of the 31 states that compose Mexico (does not include the Mexican Federal District). ... Tabasco is a state in Mexico. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ...


Mexicans of Filipino descent are estimated at 600,000, mostly located in Baja California, Sonora and Guerrero.[33][34][35] Mexicans of Filipino descent refers to Mexican citizens who posses Filipino ancestry. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... Guerrero is a state in the United Mexican States. ...


Languages

Main article: Languages of Mexico

There is no de jure official language at the federal level in Mexico. Spanish, however, is used as a de facto official language and is spoken by 97% of the population. The Law of Linguistic Rights, however, grants all 62 indigenous languages spoken in Mexico (regardless of the number of speakers) the same validity as Spanish in all territories in which they are spoken, and indigenous peoples are entitled to request some public services and documents in their languages.[36] Along with Spanish, the law has granted them the status of "national languages". The Mexican government has promoted and established bilingual primary and secondary education in some indigenous rural communities. Approximately 6% of the population speaks an indigenous language and 3% do not speak Spanish. Nahuatl is spoken by 1.5 million and Yucatec Maya by 800,000. Some of the national languages are in danger of extinction; Lacandon is spoken by fewer than a hundred people. Mexico has a surprising lingusitic diversity; apart from Spanish, the government recognizes 62 Indigenous Amerindian languages as national languages. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Nahuatl is a native language of central Mexico. ... Yucatec Maya is a Maya language spoken in the Yucatan Peninsula, northern Belize and parts of Guatemala. ... The Lacandon people are indigenous Native American Maya people who live mostly in the jungles in Chiapas, Mexico (until 1854 a part of Guatemala). ...


English is widely used in business, at the border cities, as well as by the one million American citizens that live in Mexico, mostly retirees in small towns in Baja California, Guanajuato and Chiapas. Other European languages spoken by sizable communities Mexico are Venetian, Plautdietsch, German, French and Romani. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... Chiapas is a state in the southeast of Mexico. ... A business sign in Venetian Venetian or Venetan is a Romance language spoken by over two million people, mostly in the Veneto region of Italy. ... Plautdietsch, or Mennonite Low German, is a language spoken by the Mennonites, who are ethnically Dutch, but who adopted an East Low German dialect while they were refugees in the Vistula delta area of Royal Prussia (later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), beginning in the early-to-mid 1500s. ... Romani (or Romany) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ...


Religion

Unlike some other Latin American countries, Mexico has no official religion, and the Constitution of 1917 and the anti-clerical laws marked a great limitation on the Church and sometimes codified state intrusion into Church matters. The Mexican constitution does not require (not even as a formal convention) the president to profess Catholicism (and in fact, he was usually expected not to manifest his beliefs publicly). The government does not provide any financial contribution to the Church, and the latter does not participate in public education. In 1992 Mexico lifted almost all restrictions on the Catholic Church, including granting all religious groups legal status, conceding them limited property rights, and lifting restrictions on the number of priests in the country. [37] Until recently, priests did not have the right to vote, and even now, they cannot be elected for public office.


Nonetheless, the Mexican population is predominantly Roman Catholic (89%[38]); in absolute terms, after Brazil, Mexico has the second largest population of Catholics in the world. About 6% of the population is Protestant, of which Pentecostals and Charismatics (called Neo-Pentecostals in the census), are the largest group. Geographically, northern and central Mexico are mostly Catholic (where Protestants are usually less than 3% of the total population) whereas at the south-east, while still predominantly Catholic a little more than 15% of the population is either Protestant or non-religious. Weekly church attendance is 46% of the Mexican population.[39] The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Pentecostal movement within Evangelical Christianity places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit, as shown in the Biblical account of the Day of Pentecost. ... The charismatic movement began with the adoption of certain beliefs typical of those held by Pentecostal Christians —specifically what are known as the biblical charisms of Christianity: speaking in tongues, prophesying, etc. ...


The existence of Jews in Mexico dates back to as early as 1521, when Hernando Cortés conquered the Aztecs, accompanied by several Conversos. The Mexican Jewish population numbers more than 40,000, and it is one of just a handful of countries whose Jewish population is projected to grow in the future.[citation needed] Spanish for converted one, converso (feminine conversa) referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted, sometimes unwillingly, to Catholicism in Spain, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ...


Official data estimates that Islam in Mexico accounts for about 318,608 people, representing 0.3 percent of the total population.[citation needed] Official data estimates that there are 318,608 Muslims in Mexico, representing 0. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Mexico

Mexican culture is the result of a historical process of violent and peaceful exchange of ideas, the assimilation of exogenous cultural elements and the reinterpretations of the endogenous cultural elements. As was the case in most Latin American countries, when Mexico became an independent nation, it had to slowly create a national identity, being an ethnically diverse country in which, for the most part, the only connecting element amongst the newly independent inhabitants was Catholicism. The culture of Mexico reflects the complexity of Mexicos history through the blending of pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican civilizations and the culture of Spain, imparted during Spains 300-year colonization of Mexico. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


The Porfirian era (el Porfiriato), in the second quarter of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth century, was marked by economic progress and peace which finally allowed, after four decades of civil unrest and wars with foreign nations, for the development of the arts and philosophy, which was promoted by President Díaz himself. Since that time, though accentuated during the Mexican Revolution, cultural identity had its foundation in the mestizaje, of which the indigenous (i.e. Amerindian) element was the core. In light of the various ethnicities that formed the Mexican people, José Vasconcelos in his publication La Raza Cósmica (1925) defined Mexico to be the melting pot of all races (thus extending the definition of the mestizo) not only biologically but culturally as well. This exalting of mestizaje was a revolutionary idea that sharply contrasted with the idea of a superior pure race prevalent in Europe at the time. This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ... José Vasconcelos (Oaxaca, Oaxaca, 1882 – Mexico City, 1959) was a Mexican writer, thinker and politician. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...


The fine arts

Post-revolutionary art in Mexico had its expression in the works of renowned artists such as Frida Kahlo, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, Rufino Tamayo and David Alfaro Siqueiros, amongst others. Diego Rivera is the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism, who painted the Man at the Crossroads in Rockefeller Center. Some of his murals are also displayed at the Mexican National Palace and the Palace of Fine Arts. Academic music composers of Mexico include Manuel M. Ponce, Mario Lavista, Silvestre Revueltas and Juventino Rosas, many of whom incorporated traditional elements into their music. Finally, Carlos Fuentes, Juan Rulfo, Elena Poniatowska José Emilio Pacheco, and the Nobel Prize winner Octavio Paz, are some of the greatest exponents of the Mexican literature. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 580 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Palacio de las Bellas Artes (Palace of the Fine Arts), downtown Mexico City. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 580 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Palacio de las Bellas Artes (Palace of the Fine Arts), downtown Mexico City. ... Palacio de Bellas Artes The Palacio de las Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) is an opera house in Mexico City. ... Frida Kahlo (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954) was a Mexican painter who depicted the indigenous culture of her country in a style combining Realism, Symbolism and Surrealism. ... Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957), (full name Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez) was a Mexican painter and muralist born in Guanajuato City, Guanajuato. ... José Clemente Orozco. ... Rufino Tamayo (August 26, 1899 – June 24, 1991) was a popular modern Mexican painter. ... David Alfaro Siquerios (December 29, 1896 in Camargo, Chihuahua, Mexico - January 6, 1974 in Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico) was a painter and muralist known for his social realism work. ... A mural is a painting on a wall, ceiling, or other large permanent surface. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lower Plaza at Rockefeller Center. ... The National Palace of Mexico City. ... Palacio de Bellas Artes The Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) is the premier opera house of Mexico City. ... Manuel M. Ponce Born: 8 December 1882, Fresnillo, Zacatecas (Mexico). ... Mario Lavista (born April 3, 1943, Mexico City) is a Mexican composer and writer. ... Silvestre Revueltas (December 21, 1899 - October 5, 1940) was a Mexican composer of classical music, violinist and conductor. ... José Juventino Policarpo Rosas Cadenas 25 January 1868 - 9 July 1894) was a Mexican composer, violinist, and band leader. ... Carlos Fuentes Carlos Fuentes Macías (born November 11, 1928) is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. ... Juan Rulfo (16 May 1917 [not 1918 as he often told people after 1936, see note below] – 7 January 1986) was a Mexican novelist, short story writer, and photographer. ... Elena Poniatowska Elena Poniatowska (born May 19, 1932 in Paris, France as Princess Hélène Elizabeth Louise Amelie Paula Dolores Poniatowska Amor) is a Polish-Mexican journalist and author. ... José Emilio Pacheco at the Octavio Paz award 2003 José Emilio Pacheco (México City, 1939) is a Mexican poet, essayist, translator, novelist and short story writer. ... Octavio Paz, Mexican writer, poet, diplomat, and 1990 Nobel Prize winner for literature Octavio Paz Lozano (March 31, 1914 – April 19, 1998) was a Mexican writer, poet, and diplomat, and the winner of the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature. ...


Popular music

Maná, one of the most renowned Mexican rock band

The vast array of popular music genre in Mexico shows the great diversity of its culture. Endogenous music includes mariachi, banda, duranguense, norteño (grupero), ranchera and corridos. Contemporary music includes Mexican rock (or Rock nacional, represented, among many other, by Maná, El Tri, Molotov and Jaguares), heavy metal, rap, pop (like the group RBD), punk, reggaeton, and alternative music. Image File history File links Maná_publicity_still. ... Image File history File links Maná_publicity_still. ... Mariachi is a type of musical group, originally from Mexico. ... Banda is a brass-based form of traditional Mexican music. ... Duranguense (also known as el pasito duranguense) is a genre of Mexican music. ... Norteño (literally meaning northern in Spanish) is a style of traditional Mexican music that originated in rural northern Mexico in the early 20th century, a form of conjunto based largely on corridos and polka. ... The ranchera is a genre of the traditional music of Mexico. ... The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry form of the mestizo Mexican cultural area (which includes the Southern states of the United States, taken from Mexican sovereignship in the mid to late 19th. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Maná is a three-time Grammy Award and five-time Latin Grammy Award-winning Mexican rock band from Guadalajara whose career has spanned almost three decades. ... Note: El Tri is also the nickname for the Mexico national football team El Tri is a Mexican Blues/Hard Rock band from Mexico City fronted by Alex Lora. ... Molotov is a Mexican rock and hip hop band formed in Mexico City on September 23, 1995. ... Caption In 1995, Jaguares was formed out of the skeleton of Califanes, a Mexico City rock group. ... Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... RAP may mean: the IATA airport code for Rapid City Regional Airport Rassemblement pour lalternative progressiste, a Québecois political party. ... For popular music (music produced commercially rather than art or folk music), see Popular music. ... RBD is a Latin Grammy Award-nominated Mexican musical Pop group that gained popularity from Televisas teenage-oriented telenovela Rebelde. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Reggaeton (spelled rarely with the acute diacritic in English and known as Reguetón and Reggaetón in Spanish) is a form of dance music which became popular with Latin American (or Latino) youth during the early 1990s and spread to North American, European, Asian, and Australian audiences during the... The term alternative rock or alternative music1 was coined in the early 1980s to describe bands which didnt fit into the mainstream genres of the time. ...


Many Mexican singers are famous in all of Latin America and Spain. Mexico is often referred to as the "capital of Spanish-speaking entertainment", due to the fact that any Latin or Spanish singer wanting to become an international success in the region, they must seek to enter first to the Mexican music industry.


Film

Mexican movies from the Golden Era in the 1940s and 1950s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years. Mexican movies were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. The film Maria Candelaria (1944) by Emilio Fernández, won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. Famous actors and actress from this period include María Félix, Pedro Infante, Dolores del Río, Jorge Negrete and comedian Cantinflas. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (805x453, 37 KB) A screenshot of the film Pans Labyrinth, depicting the faun (Pan) and Ofelia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (805x453, 37 KB) A screenshot of the film Pans Labyrinth, depicting the faun (Pan) and Ofelia. ... Pans Labyrinth is a 2006 Academy Award-winning Spanish language film written and directed by Mexican film-maker Guillermo del Toro. ... The history of Mexican cinema goes back to the beginning of the 20th century, when several enthusiasts of the new medium documented historical events – most particularly the Mexican Revolution – and produced some movies that have been only recently been rediscovered. ... The Golden age of the cinema of Mexico (in Spanish: Época de oro del cine mexicano) is the name given to the period between 1935 and 1959 where the quality and economic success of the cinema of Mexico reached its peak. ... ... El Indio Fernández (born Emilio Fernández Romo March 26, 1904 Mineral del Hondo, Coahuila – August 6, 1986) was a Mexican actor, screenwriter and director of the Cinema of Mexico. ... Palme dOr The Palme dOr (Golden Palm) is the highest prize given to a film at the Cannes Film Festival. ... Cannes Film Festival logo. ... María Félix (8 April 1914 - 8 April 2002) was a Mexican actress, one of the leading figures of the golden era of the Cinema of Mexico. ... Pedro Infante (left) and Jorge Negrete José Pedro Infante Cruz, better known as Pedro Infante, is perhaps the most famous actor and singer of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema and idol of the Mexican people, together with Jorge Negrete or singers like Javier Solís. ... Dolores del Río (August 3, 1905 – April 11, 1983) was a Mexican film actress. ... Jorge Alberto Negrete Moreno (November 30, 1911 - December 5, 1953) was a Mexican singer and movie star. ... Mario Moreno Reyes (August 12, 1911 – April 20, 1993) was a comedian of the Mexican theatre and film industry. ...


More recently, movies such as Como agua para chocolate (1992), Cronos (1993), Amores Perros (2000), Y tu mamá también (2001), Pan's Labyrinth (2006) and Babel (2006) have been successful in creating universal stories about contemporary subjects, and were internationally recognised, as in the prestigious Cannes Film Festival. Mexican directors Alejandro González Iñárritu, Alfonso Cuarón (Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban), Guillermo del Toro and screenwriter Guillermo Arriaga are some of the most known present-day film makers. Like Water for Chocolate is a popular novel, published in 1992 by Mexican author Laura Esquivel. ... Cronos is a film written and directed by Mexican director Guillermo del Toro in 1993 and starring veteran Argentine actor, Federico Luppi and American actor Ron Perlman, the first of several films that del Toro and Perlman have collaborated on. ... Amores perros (Loves a Bitch in some English-speaking markets) is a 2000 Mexican film. ... Y tu mamá también (literally And your mother, too, released in English-speaking markets under the original Spanish title) is a 2001 Mexican film directed by Alfonso Cuarón. ... Pans Labyrinth is a 2006 Academy Award-winning Spanish language film written and directed by Mexican film-maker Guillermo del Toro. ... Babel is a Golden Globe- and Academy Award-winning 2006 film, directed by Alejandro González Iñárritu and written by Guillermo Arriaga. ... Contemporary is an adjective which in its basic form merely means that two individuals, events or movements overlapped in time. ... Cannes Film Festival logo. ... Alejandro González Iñárritu (IPA: ; born 15 August 1963 in Mexico City) is an Academy Award-nominated Mexican film director. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is the third book in the Harry Potter series of books by J. K. Rowling. ... Guillermo del Toro Guillermo del Toro (born 9 October 1964 in Guadalajara, Jalisco) is a Mexican film director. ... Guillermo Arriaga Jordán (b. ...


Broadcast media

Two of the major television networks based in Mexico are Televisa and TV Azteca. Televisa is also the largest producer of Spanish-language content in the world and also the world's largest Spanish-language media network. Soap operas (telenovelas) are translated to many languages and seen all over the world with renowned names like Verónica Castro, Lucía Méndez, Lucero, and Thalía. Even Gael García Bernal and Diego Luna from Y tu mamá también and current Zegna model have appeared in some of them. Some of their TV shows are modeled after American counterparts like Family Feud (100 Mexicanos Dijeron or "A hundred Mexicans said" in Spanish) and Que Dice la Gente, Big Brother, American Idol, Saturday Night Live and others. Nationwide news shows like Las Noticias por Adela on Televisa resemble a hybrid between Donahue and Nightline. Local news shows are modeled after American counterparts like the Eyewitness News and Action News formats. Border cities receive American television and radio stations, while satellite and cable subscription is common for the upper-classes in major cities, often watch American movies and TV shows. Televisa is the largest media company in the Spanish-speaking world, followed by TV Azteca, and a major player in the international entertainment business. ... TV Azteca is the second largest Mexican television network. ... For Philippine soap opera, see Teleserye. ... It has been suggested that Drama Serial (Philippines) be merged into this article or section. ... Verónica Castro in the opening credits for Los ricos también lloran Verónica Castro (born October 19, 1952 in Mexico City) is a Mexican actress, singer and host. ... Lucía Leticia Méndez (born January 26, 1955) is a Mexican actress and singer. ... For the punk/country band named Lucero, see Lucero (band) Lucero (born Lucero Hogaza León on August 29, 1969 in Mexico City), is an actress and singer. ... For other uses, see Thalia (disambiguation). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Diego Luna (born December 29, 1979 in Mexico City) is a Mexican actor. ... Y tu mamá también (literally And your mother, too, released in English-speaking markets under the original Spanish title) is a 2001 Mexican film directed by Alfonso Cuarón. ... Ermenegildo Zegna logo The high-fashion clothing company Ermenegildo Zegna (pronounced Zenya) was founded in 1910 in Trivero, Italy by tailor and entrepreneur Ermenegildo Zegna. ... Marco Antonio Regil hosting the show 100 Mexicanos Dijeron (A hundred Mexicans said in Spanish) is a Spanish-language version of the Goodson-Todman game show from the 1970s, Family Feud, produced in Mexico City by the Televisa Mexican television network. ... Que Dice la Gente is a Spanish language television game show produced in the United States modelled after Family Feud. ... The original Big Brother logo Big Brother is a popular reality television format, where for around three months, a number of contestants (normally fewer than fifteen at any one time) try to win a cash prize by avoiding periodic publicly-voted evictions from a communal house. ... AMERICAN IDOL HAS BEEN CANCELLED DUE TO DEATH OF SIMON ... Saturday Night Live (SNL) is a weekly late night 90-minute American comedy-variety show based in New York City which has been broadcast live by NBC on Saturday nights since October 11, 1975. ... Las Noticias por Adela is a nightly 90 minutes news show on the Televisa network from Mexico. ... Phil Donahue Phillip John Donahue (born December 21, 1935 in Cleveland, Ohio) is the creator and star of The Phil Donahue Show, also known as Donahue, the first of the syndicated talk shows where the host walks through the audience to let audience members make comments and ask questions. ... Nightline is a late-night hard news program broadcast by ABC in the United States, and has a franchised formula to other networks and stations elsewhere in the world. ... Eyewitness News is a local television newscast format, widely used in different markets across the United States. ... WPVI-TV Action News open, 2006. ... An Earth observation satellite, ERS 2 For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... 6 or 15cm outside diameter, oil-cooled cables, traversing the Grand Coulee Dam throughout. ...


Sports

See also: 1968 Summer Olympics, 1970 FIFA World Cup, and 1986 FIFA World Cup
Mexico City 1968 Olympics
Mexico City 1968 Olympics
FIFA World Cup Mexico 1970, 1986
FIFA World Cup Mexico 1970, 1986
Tecnológico Stadium in Monterrey
Tecnológico Stadium in Monterrey

Mexico hosted the XIX Olympic Games in 1968, making it the only Latin American country to do so. The country has also organized 2 times the FIFA World Cup, both in 1970 and 1986. The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were held in Mexico City in 1968. ... Qualifying countries The 1970 FIFA World Cup, the ninth staging of the World Cup, was held in Mexico, from May 31 to June 21. ... Qualifying countries The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from May 31 to June 29. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... Image File history File linksMetadata EstadioTecnologico. ... Image File history File linksMetadata EstadioTecnologico. ... The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were held in Mexico City in 1968. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ... Qualifying countries The 1970 FIFA World Cup, the ninth staging of the World Cup, was held in Mexico, from May 31 to June 21. ... Qualifying countries The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from May 31 to June 29. ...


The national sport of Mexico is Charreria. Bullfighting is also a popular sport in the country. Almost all large cities have bullrings. La Monumental in Mexico City, has the largest bullring in the world, which seats 55,000 people. Charrería is the Mexican style of traditional Spanish horsemanship that developed in central and northern Mexico under the hacienda system. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Plaza México is the world´s largest bullring. ... Nickname: Ciudad de los Palacios Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ...


The favorite sport, however, is football, with two National First Divisions Leagues. Baseball, is also popular, especially in the Gulf of Mexico and the northern states.. The season runs from March to July with playoffs held in August. The Mexican professional league is named the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol. But the most important baseball league in Mexico is the Liga Mexicana del Pacífico. The States of Sinaloa, Sonora and Baja California have this league, with the highest professional level. The players of this league play in the MLB in The USA, Japan and Korea. This league participes in the "Mini World Series" with teams from Venezuela, Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic in the "Caribbean Series" Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A view of the playing field at Busch Memorial Stadium, St. ... // History Founded in 1925, with six teams (74 Regimiento, México, Agraria, Nacional, Guanajuato and Aguila). ... The Mexican Pacific league (Spanish: Liga Mexicana del Pacífico) is a developmental Baseball league playing in the winter months in northwestern Mexico. ...


The most important professional basketball league is the Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional and covers the whole Mexican territory, where the Soles de Mexicali are the current champions. In 2007 three Mexican teams will be competing in the American Basketball Association. In the northwestern states is the CIBACOPA Competition, with professional basketball players from Mexico and the American Universities and some teams from the American NBA. Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... The National Professional Basketball League (Spanish: LNBP- Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional) is a major professional basketball league in Mexico. ... Soles de Mexicali is a team in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico playing in the Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional (LNBP). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


American football is played at the major universities like ITESM (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey), UANL (Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León), UDLA (University of the Americas), and UNAM. The college league in Mexico is called ONEFA. There is also a strong following of the NFL in Mexico with the Steelers, Cowboys, Dolphins and Raiders being the most popular teams. Rugby is played at the amateur level throughout the country with the majority of clubs in Mexico City and others in Monterrey, Guadalajara, Celaya, Guanajuato and Oaxaca. United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... ITESM Main Building (Rectoría) and mural ITESM is the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, also known as the Tec de Monterrey, or simply Tec. Originated in Monterrey, Mexico, it has currently over 30 satellite locations throughout the country. ... ITESM Main Building (Rectoría) and mural ITESM is the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, also known as the Tec de Monterrey, or simply el Tec. Originated in Monterrey, Mexico, it has currently over 30 satellite locations throughout the country. ... UANL is the Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León, located in San Nicolás de los Garza, Mexico. ... The Autonomous University of Nuevo León (Spanish: Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL) is a public higher-education institution with its headquarters in the suburbs of Monterrey and several campuses in various municipalities of the northern Mexican state of Nuevo León. ... The Universidad de las Américas, whose official name is Fundación Universidad de las Américas, Puebla (also known as UDLA or UDLAP), is one of the most important private universities in Mexico. ... The National Autonomous University of Mexico (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; abbreviation: UNAM) was founded in 1551, and is now the largest university in Latin America and it is considered the best University of this region based on the Beijing University and the London Times suplemments. ... The Mexican College American Football Organization, (in Spanish, ONEFA: Organización Nacional Estudiantil de Fútbol Americano) is a professional American football league in Mexico. ... A BCRFC match at Boston College Rugby football, often just referred to as rugby, refers to sports descended from a common form of football developed at Rugby School in England. ... Nickname: The City of the Mountains Motto: El Trabajo templa el Espíritu Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Nuevo León Founded 20 September 1596 Government  - Mayor Adalberto Madero (PAN) Area  - City 572 km²  (220. ... This article is about the Mexican city of Guadalajara. ...


Professional wrestling (or Lucha libre in Spanish) is a major crowd draw with national promotions such as AAA, LLL, CMLL and others. One of the most well known Lucha Libre wrestlers, Rey Mysterio. ... Asistencia Asesoría y Administración (AAA) is a Lucha Libre Professional wrestling promotion based in Mexico. ... The Logo of CMLL Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre (CMLL) is a lucha libre promotion based in Mexico City while running cards in Guadalajara and Puebla. ...


Sport fishing, is popular in Baja California and the big Pacific coast resorts, while freshwater bass fishing is growing in popularity too. The gentler arts of diving and snorkeling are big around the Caribbean, with famous dive sites at Cozumel and on the reefs further south. The Pacific coast is becoming something of a center for surfing, with few facilities as yet; all these sports attract tourists to Mexico.


Cuisine

Main article: Mexican cuisine

Mostly known internationally for its tacos, fajitas, quesadillas and enchiladas, Mexican cuisine is extremely diverse. Regional dishes include mole poblano, chiles en nogada and chalupas from Puebla; cabrito and machaca from Monterrey, cochinita pibil from Yucatán, as well as barbacoa, chilaquiles, milanesas, and many other dishes. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... barbacoa tacos. ... It has been suggested that chicken fajita be merged into this article or section. ... A quesadilla is a tortilla folded over a cheese (often a Mexican-style soft farmers cheese such as Queso Fresco), cooked meat and/or bean filling, which is then fried, deep fried or toasted using a broiler, griddle, or open fire, and sometimes spiced with salsa. ... Enchiladas with mole sauce An enchilada is a traditional Mexican dish. ... Mole (MOH-leh, IPA: /ˈmo. ... Chiles en nogada is a dish from Mexican cuisine. ... Chalupa boats at Xochimilco. ... The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. ... Cabrito is roast goat-kid. ... Most references to Machaca refer to traditional Mexican dish of shredded beef (often dried), and sometimes cooked with eggs, onions and peppers (with some regional and economic variations). ... Nickname: The City of the Mountains Motto: El Trabajo templa el Espíritu Location of Monterrey in northern Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico State Nuevo León Founded 20 September 1596 Government  - Mayor Adalberto Madero (PAN) Area  - City 572 km²  (220. ... Cochinita pibil (also puerco pibil) is a traditional Mexican slow-roasted pork dish from Yucatán. ... Yucatán is the name of one of the 31 states of Mexico, located on the north of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Cookbook:Barbacoa Barbacoa specialty market in Corpus Christi, Texas Barbacoa generally refers to meats or a whole sheep slow cooked over an open fire, or more traditionally, in a pit covered with leaves, although the interpretation is loose, and in the present... Chilaquiles verdes con pollo Chilaquiles is a traditional Mexican dish consisting of fried tortilla chips, bathed in green or red salsa or mole. ... Milanesas (plural) are a common meat dish in Argentina as well in other Latin American countries. ...


Education

UNAM, University City, Mexico City.
UNAM, University City, Mexico City.
Tecnológico de Monterrey
Tecnológico de Monterrey
Main article: Education in Mexico

Mexico has made improvements in education in the last two decades. In 2004, the literacy rate was at 92.2%, and the youth literacy rate (ages 15-24) was 96%. Primary and secondary education (9 years) is free and mandatory. Even though different bilingual education programs have existed since the 1960s for the indigenous communities, after a constitutional reform in the late 1990s, these programs have had a new thrust, and free text books are produced in more than a dozen indigenous languages. Image File history File links Unam_biblio_central. ... Image File history File links Unam_biblio_central. ... The National Autonomous University of Mexico (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, commonly abbreviated as UNAM) was founded in 1551, making it the oldest in America. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1797x1001, 698 KB) Summary The CIAP building on the campus of ITESM, Monterrey, Mexico. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1797x1001, 698 KB) Summary The CIAP building on the campus of ITESM, Monterrey, Mexico. ... Educational oversight Minister of Public Education Secretariat of Public Education Josefina Vázquez Mota National education budget MXN$501. ... World literacy rates by country The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ...


In the 1970s, Mexico established a system of "distance-learning" through satellite communications to reach otherwise inaccessible small rural and indigenous communities. Schools that use this system are known as telesecundarias in Mexico. The Mexican distance learning secondary education is also transmitted to some Central American countries and to Colombia, and it is used in some southern regions of the United States as a method of bilingual education. There are approximately 30,000 telesecundarias and approximately a million telesecundaria students in the country.[40] Telesecundaria is a system of distance education programs for secondary and high school students created by the government of Mexico and available in rural areas of the country as well as Central America, South America, Canada and the United States via satellite (Solidaridad 1 and Satmex 5). ... // Distance Education is a field of expertise exploring situations in which the learner and the teacher are separated in time, space or both. ... Map of Central America Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. ...


The largest and most prestigious public university in Mexico, today numbering over 269,000 students, is the National Autonomous University of Mexico (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM) founded in 1551. Three Nobel laureates and most of Mexico's modern-day presidents are among its former students. UNAM conducts 50% of Mexico's scientific research and has presence all across the country with satellite campuses and research centers. The National Autonomous University of Mexico ranks 74th place in the Top 200 World University Ranking published by The Times Higher Education Supplement in 2006,[41] making it the highest ranked Spanish-speaking university in the world as well as the first Latin American university. The second largest university is the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN). These institutions are public, and there are at least a couple of public universities per state. The National Autonomous University of Mexico (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, abbreviated as UNAM) is today the most important Mexican university and was founded in 1551 by Royal Decree signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor at Valladolid, Spain. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... The Instituto Politécnico Nacional (National Polytechnic Institute) or IPN is one of Mexicos public universities. ...


The most prestigious private university is Monterrey's Technological and Higher Education Institute (ITESM), which is ranked by the Wall Street Journal as the 7th top International Business School worldwide[42] and was ranked 74th in the world's top arts and humanities universities ranking of The Times Higher Education Supplement published in 2005; it has thirty-two secondary campuses, apart from the Monterrey Campus. Other important private universities include Mexico's Autonomous Technological Institute (ITAM), Universidad de las Américas Puebla (UDLAP), the Ibero-American University (Universidad Iberoamericana). ITESM Main Building (Rectoría) and mural ITESM is the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, also known as the Tec de Monterrey, or simply el Tec. Originated in Monterrey, Mexico, it has currently over 30 satellite locations throughout the country. ... The Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM), is a private research university located in Mexico City, Federal District, Mexico. ... The Universidad de las Américas, whose official name is Fundación Universidad de las Américas, Puebla (also known as UDLA or UDLAP), is one of the most important private universities in Mexico. ... The Ibero-American University (in Spanish: Universidad Iberoamericana) its a private institution of higher education sponsored by the Society of Jesus. ...


Science and technology

Rodolfo Neri Vela, the first Mexican in space
Rodolfo Neri Vela, the first Mexican in space

Throughout history many engineers, doctors, scientists, etc. have helped the country to its development, and have participated in many important projects. Some of them are Luis E. Miramontes co-inventor of the compound used in the contraceptive pill and Guillermo González Camarena who invented the "Chromoscopic adapter for television equipment", the first color television transmission system. Rodolfo Neri Vela an UNAM graduate, was the first Mexican to travel to space on the STS-61-B mission in 1985 and Mario J. Molina who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Rodolfo Neri Vela, Mexican Astronaut. ... Rodolfo Neri Vela, Mexican Astronaut. ... Rodolfo Neri Vela, Ph. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a telescope being built for observing radio waves in the wave lengths from 1 to 4 mm. ... Luis E. Miramontes ca. ... Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ... Guillermo González Camarena (Guadalajara, Jalisco, February 17, 1917 - Puebla, April 18, 1948), was a mexican engineer that invented the color television and founded the first television station in Mexico from his basement. ... Rodolfo Neri Vela, Ph. ... The National Autonomous University of Mexico (Spanish: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; abbreviation: UNAM) was founded in 1551, and is now the largest university in Latin America and it is considered the best University of this region based on the Beijing University and the London Times suplemments. ... Crew Brewster H. Shaw, Jr. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mario Molina (left) with Luis E. Miramontes Mario José Molina Henríquez (born March 19, 1943) was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his role in elucidating the threat to the Earths ozone layer of chlorofluorocarbon gases (or CFCs). ... The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awards in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, physiology or medicine. ...


In recent years, the biggest scientific project being developed in Mexico was the construction of the Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (GMT) or Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT), the world's largest and most sensitive single-aperture telescope. It was designed to observe regions of the space obscured by stellar dust. The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) is a telescope being built for observing radio waves in the wave lengths from 1 to 4 mm. ...


Nonetheless, the government currently spends only 0.31% of GDP in science and technology,[43] a low percentage in comparison with other countries. Mexico has the lowest number of researchers of the OECD countries, with only 6 researchers per 10,000 inhabitants.[43] Mexico trains only one PhD per 1 million inhabitants.[43] Moreover, there is a regional disparity in the allocation of scientific resources, in that 75% of all doctorate degrees are awarded from institutions in Mexico City area.[43]


Bibliography

  • Krauze, Enrique (1998). Mexico: Biography of Power: A history of Modern Mexico 1810-1996. Perennial, 896 p. ISBN 0-06-092917-0. 
    Standard work by a renowned Mexican author.
  • Meyer, Michael C.; William H. Beezley, editors (2000). The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford University Press, 736 p. ISBN 0-19-511228-8. 
    Twenty essays on Mexican history, including cultural history.
  • Parkes, Henry Bamford (1972). A History of Mexico, 3rd edition, Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-08410-5. 

Henry Bamford Parkes (born in 1904 in Sheffield, England) was an author and professor of history at New York University. ...

See also

Infrastructure, communications and transportation

While many Mexican water supply and sewer service providers rank among the best in Latin America, in general, the Mexican water and sanitation sector is characterized by the following issues (i) poor technical and commercial efficiency of service provision; (ii) inadequate water service quality; and (iii) inadequate sanitation service quality... Cover of Automóvil Panamericano of June, feauturing the 2007 Opel Astra Automóvil Panamericano (Panamerican automobile) is a Mexican automotive enthusiast magazine founded in March 15, 1995 and its the most-popular auto magazine in Mexico. ... Cars in Mexico refers to the car marketing and its evolution, as well as a comprehensive list of every car sold currently in Mexico with a short description of the cars manufacturer history in the country. ... Logo of El Universal El Universal is a major Mexican newspaper. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Excélsior is daily newspaper, founded by Rafael Alducin and published in Mexico City since 1917. ... Grupo Reforma is media company that controls a number of Mexican daily newspapers including El Norte in Monterrey, Reforma in Mexico City, Mural in Guadalajara, and Palabra in Saltillo . ... 2004 SIAM The Salón Internacional del Automóvil México (Mexico Autoshow in English) or simply SIAM is an annual auto show held at the Centro Banamex of the Hipódromo de las Américas racecourse in Mexico City, Mexico. ... Mexicos land transportation network is one of the most extensive in Latin America. ...

Geography, history and politics

Traditionally, the Government of Mexico has sought to maintain its interests abroad and project its influence largely through moral persuasion. ... Mexicos Protected Natural Areas are 158 designated Natural Areas in Mexico, representing 11% of the nations surface area, and are protected and administrated by the Mexican National Commission of Protected Natural Areas (Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas, or CONANP), a federal agency. ... The Mexican military forces are composed of the Mexican Army (which includes the Mexican Air Force as a subordinate entity) and the Mexican Navy. ... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ... The flag of the EZLN. The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. ... The postal system of Mexico may be said to have begun with the Aztecs, who operated a system of messengers; they worked well enough that Hernando Cortes continued using them after the 1521 conquest. ...

Lists

List of largest cities in Mexico: See also: List of cities List of Cities and States and information about them in English and Spanish (in Spanish and English) Database of all Towns, cities, municipalities, and postal codes in Mexico (in Spanish) Ranking of Mexican Cities Categories: | ... International trade - an overview Absolute advantage Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) APEC Autarky Balance of trade barter Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) Bimetallism branch plant Bretton Woods Conference Bretton Woods system British timber trade Cash crop Comparative advantage Continental trading bloc Cost, insurance and freight Currency... Famous Latin American artists (in alphabetical order): A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Caesar Andrade Faini - (Ecuador) Raúl Anguiano - (Mexico) Devora Arango - (Colombia) Félix Arauz - (Ecuador) Artefactoría... This is a list of famous and notable Mexicans in alphabetical order by last names, where applicable. ... A listing of universities in Mexico: // Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN) Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo (UMSNH), Morelia, Michoacán Universidad de Colima (UCOL), Colima, Colima Universidad de Guanajuato Universidad de Quintana Roo Universidad de Sonora (Unison), Hermosillo, Sonora Universidad...

References

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.; p. 733
  2. ^ "Mexico". The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2001-6. New York: Columbia University Press.
  3. ^ The CIA World Fact Book "Area: total: 1,972,550 sq km"
  4. ^ Población total según sexo, 1950 a 2005
  5. ^ Using the phrase, Electoral Authoritarianism by Schedler A (2004) From Electoral Authoritarianism to Democratic Consolidation" in Mexico's Democracy at Work, Crandall R, Paz G, Roett R (editors), Lyenne Reinner Publisher, Colorado USA
  6. ^ Efemérides del PAN
  7. ^ Mexico The American Heritage Reference Collection, et al.
  8. ^ Mexico The Columbia Encyclopedia
  9. ^ "Mexico" CIA World Factbook. 2007. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency
  10. ^ North America The Columbia Encyclopedia
  11. ^ Nord-Amèrica, in Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana
  12. ^ a b Biodiversidad SEMARNAT
  13. ^ Biodiversidad en México
  14. ^ Sistema Nacional de Información sobre la Biodiversidad en México
  15. ^ "La doctrina Estrada dice que México no debe juzgar, ni para bien ni para mal, los gobiernos ni los cambios en el gobierno de otras naciones porque implicaría una intromisión en su soberanía."
  16. ^ "La nueva diplomacia mexicana se definió con base en el cambio político inaugurado el 2 de julio del 2000 y en las transformaciones del mundo. Por tanto, México será activo en defensa de la democracia que le costó muchos años consolidar por la vía de la alternancia."
  17. ^ List of upper middle-income countries by the World Bank
  18. ^ a b World Bank's Mexico Country Brief
  19. ^ Countries Ranked by GDPCIA Factbook
  20. ^ Baja pobreza en México de 24.2 a 17.6%: Banco Mundial, from El Universal
  21. ^ 2004 UNPD Mexico Report on HDI.
  22. ^ "Sobresale Nuevo León por su alto nivel de vida" El Norte, Requires Subscription (In Spanish). "Al realizar por primera vez un estudio a nivel municipal, el organismo de la ONU ubicó a San Pedro Garza García como el segundo municipio con mejor Índice de Desarrollo Humano, después de la delegación Benito Juárez; y a San Nicolás de los Garza como el sexto, de los 2 mil 426 municipios de todo el País."
  23. ^ a b CRANDALL, R (2004) "Mexico's Domestic Economy: Policy Options and Choices" in Mexico's Democracy at Work, Crandall, Paz and Roett (editors): Lynne Reinner Publishers, USA
  24. ^ Financial Times Mexico The US casts a long shadow "Economists say that Mexico’s long-term growth potential is severely hampered by two things: the lack of structural reform; and the country’s growing dependence on the US"
  25. ^ Consulta de datos del Conteo 2005, INEGI
  26. ^ American Citizens Abroad
  27. ^ Migrantes, votos, remesas: La apuesta política de los ausentes
  28. ^ Argentinos en el exterior
  29. ^ a b Asociaciones de Inmigrantes Extranjeros en la Ciudad de México. Una Mirada a Fines del Siglo XX
  30. ^ Los Extranjeros en México, La inmigración y el gobierno ¿Tolerancia o intolerancia religiosa?
  31. ^ Los árabes de México. Asimilación y herencia cultural
  32. ^ Conmemoran 100 años de inmigración coreana
  33. ^ Filipinos Living Abroad
  34. ^ Filipinos in Mexican History
  35. ^ Asian-Latino Intermarriages in the Americas
  36. ^ Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas
  37. ^ U.S. Dept. of State International Religious Freedom Report 2003
  38. ^ 2000 Tabulados de Religión
  39. ^ University of Michigan-Study of worldwide rates of religiosity, church attendance (1997), Accessed Jan. 3, 2007
  40. ^ Current Trends in Telesecundaria
  41. ^ Rector: urgente, aumentar acceso a universidades El Universal
  42. ^ Recruiter's Scoreboard Highlights from The Wall Street Journal/Harris Interactive survey of corporate recruiters on business schools
  43. ^ a b c d Science and Technology in Mexico

The World Factbook 2007 (government edtion) cover. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... El Norte founded by Alejandro Junco de la Vega is a major newspaper in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico. ... The Financial Times (FT) is an international business newspaper printed on distinctive salmon pink broadsheet paper. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Mercosur_flag. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mexico - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (9092 words)
Mexico is a powerful and influential neighbor of the United States, in terms of trade, culture, diplomacy, and a history of emigration of Mexicans into the U.S. since the early 1900's.
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Mexico is blessed with a wonderfully vibrant culture, naturally beautiful landscape, and a politcally and socially stable environment, all of which make it an ideal destination for any tourist.
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Mexico is a large and diverse country, and trips there are made even better with a little planning.
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