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Encyclopedia > Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
Date 1810-1821
Location Mexico
Result Expulsion of the Spanish colonial government and the signing of the Treaty of Cordoba. Mexico gains independence from Spain.
Combatants
Mexico Spain
Commanders
Miguel Hidalgo
José María Morelos
Vicente Guerrero
Spanish colonial authorities
Strength
 ?  ?
Casualties
 ?  ?

Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. The Mexican War of Independence movement was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Afro-mexicans and mestizos who sought independence from Spain. It started as an idealistic peasants' rebellion against their colonial masters, but finally ended as an unlikely alliance between liberales (liberals) and conservadores (conservatives). The Treaty of Córdoba gave Mexico independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence. ... A painting of Miguel Hidalgo. ... Portrait of José María Morelos, oil painting José María Teclo Morelos y Pavón (30 September 1765 - 22 December 1815) was one of the main early leaders of Mexicos struggle for independence from Spain. ... Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña (August 10, 1782 – February 14, 1831) was one of the leaders of Mexicos struggle for independence from Spain and an early President of Mexico. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ...


The struggle for Mexican Independance dates back to the conquest of Mexico, when Martín Cortés, son of Hernán Cortés and La Malinche, lead a revolt against the Spanish colonial government in order to fight against the removal of privileges for the conquistadors[1]. According to some historians, the struggle for Mexican Independence was re-ignited in December 1650 when an Irish adventurer by the name of William Lamport, escaped from the jails of the Inquisition in Mexico, and posted a "Proclamation of Independence from Spain" on the walls of the city. Lamport wanted Mexico to break with Spain, separate church and state and proclaim himself emperor of New Spain. His ambitious idealist movement was soon terminated by Spanish authorities and Lamport was re-captured and executed by burning. [2]. The Spanish conquest of Mexico was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. ... Hernán Cortés, the conquistador who brought the Aztec Empire under the sway of the Spanish crown, named two of his sons Martín Cortés (presumably after his own father). ... Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... For the volcano in Tlaxcala, see Matlalcueitl (volcano). ... Conquistador (Spanish: kōn-kÄ“-stŏ-dōr) (meaning Conqueror in the Spanish language) is the term used to refer to the soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas and Asia Pacific under Spanish colonial rule between the 15th and 17th centuries, starting with the 1492 settlement... William Lamport (1615-1659) was an Irish-born Catholic adventurer who according to at least one historian gained a nickname of El Zorro, the Fox, due to his exploits in Mexico. ... This article is about the Inquisition of the Roman Catholic Church. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ...


After the abortive Conspiracy of the Machetes (1799), the war of Independence led by the white criollo class became a reality, although most of the claims of the movement, like democracy, racial equality and land reform were never accomplished. Besides, the length of the war, the resulting division among Mexicans and the disruption of the economy weakened the new nation and eventually translated into the loss of more than half of its territory in the Mexican-American war and the numerous invasions faced by Mexico during the 19th century. Nevertheless, the War of Independence meant that Mexico became the first nation in the Spanish-speaking Americas to abolish slavery, the establishment of new economic bases (trade with other nations was forbidden during the Viceroyalty) and political freedom[3] The Conspiracy of the Machetes (Spanish: la conspiración de los machetes) was an unsuccessful rebellion against the Spanish in New Spain in 1799. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Slave redirects here. ...


The movement for independence was far from gaining unanimous support among Mexicans, who became divided between independentists, autonomists and royalists. The criollo middle class, supported alternatively by the poor, was the main actor of the movement for independence, but became increasingly alienated from it after the excesses of the insurgent armies, with the lower classes assuming a bigger role. In the end Iturbide, a former royalist criollo himself, would unite the aspirations for independence and social peace of the inhabitants of the new country. Independence didn't translate in big changes of the new society, where white criollos remained at the top of the social ladder, while indígenas and mestizos occupied the lower ranks.[4] Criollo is a Spanish term (feminine criolla, plural criollos/criollas) which may refer to: The Criollos, a caste in the Spanish colonial caste system. ... Iturbide is a Basque last name, original from the region of Navarra, a province located north of Spain, bordering with France. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço...

Contents

Miguel Hidalgo and the beginning of the independence movement

The head figure and chief instigator of the Mexican Independence movement was Miguel Hidalgo, the Creole parish priest of the small town of Dolores. Soon after becoming a priest, Hidalgo began to promote the idea of an uprising by the native and mixed-blood peasantry against wealthy Spanish land-owners and aristocrats. He even promoted fornication and other priests considered him a heretic, false priest. He realized the need for diversification of industrial activities in an area that had the mines of Guanajuato as its major business. At the same time, during his seven years at Dolores, Hidalgo promoted discussion groups at his house, where indígenas, mestizos, criollos, and peninsulares were all welcomed. The themes of these discussions were current events, to which Hidalgo added his own input of social and economic concerns. The independence movement was born out of these informal discussions and was directed against Spanish domination of political and economic life in New Spain. A painting of Miguel Hidalgo. ... Look up Creole, creole in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dolores Hidalgo (in full, Dolores Hidalgo Cuna de la Independencia Nacional) is a small city and its surrounding municipality in the north-central part of the Mexican state of Guanajuato. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Languages Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religions Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, African people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço... The term Creole and its cognates in other languages — such as crioulo, criollo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kriulo, kriol, krio, etc. ... In the colonial caste system of Spanish America, a peninsular was a citizen born in the metropolitan part of the Spanish Empire, modernly called just Spain, in Iberian Peninsula. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ...


Beginning of the War

A statue of Miguel Hidalgo.
A statue of Miguel Hidalgo.

The plans were disclosed to the central government, and the conspirators were alerted — famously, by Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez, la Corregidora, the wife of the Magistrate of Querétaro — that orders had been sent for their arrest. Pressed by this new development, on September 16, 1810, Hidalgo decided to strike out for independence, the independence forces marched on to Mexico City after having captured Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, and Valladolid. In all these cities the resisting Spaniards were massacred or exiled. On October 30, 1810, Hidalgo's army encountered resistance at Monte de las Cruces, and, despite a rebel victory, lost momentum and failed to take Mexico City. After a few more victories, the revolutionary forces moved north toward Texas. In March of the following year, the insurgents were ambushed and taken prisoner in Monclova (in the present-day state of Coahuila). Specifically, Hidalgo was captured in the state of Jalisco in the region known as "Los Altos." He was trialed by the Holy Office of the Inquisition and found guilty of treason. He was later condemned to death. On July 30, 1811, Hidalgo was executed by firing squad in Chihuahua. His body was mutilated, and his head was displayed in Guanajuato as a warning to rebels. [5]. Image File history File links Statue of Miguel Hidalgo. ... Image File history File links Statue of Miguel Hidalgo. ... Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez (September 8, 1768 – March 2, 1829) was a conspirator and supporter of the Mexican War of Independence. ... Latitude 20. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Ciudad en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Zacatecas is a city in Mexico, the capital of the state of Zacatecas. ... Nickname: Location of San Luis Potosí in central-north Mexico Country Mexico State San Luis Potosí Founded 3 November 1592 Government  - Mayor Jorge Lozano Armengol ( PAN) Area  - City 385 km²  (148. ... This article is about the city. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Monclova is a city in the northern Mexican state of Coahuila. ... Coahuila (formal name: Coahuila de Zaragoza) is one of Mexicos 31 component states. ... Location within Mexico Country Capital Municipalities 126 Largest City Guadalajara Government  - Governor Emilio González Márquez (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 18 PRI: 1  - Federal Senators Eva Contreras (PAN) Héctor Pérez (PAN) Ramiro Hernández (PRI) Area Ranked 6th  - State 79,085 km²  (30,534. ... This article is about the Inquisition of the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Chihuahua (disambiguation). ...


Following Hidalgo's death, the leadership of the insurgency was assumed by José María Morelos. Under his leadership the cities of Oaxaca and Acapulco were taken, in 1813 the Congress of Chilpancingo was convened, in November 6, the Congress signed the first official document of incependence, known as the Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America, and a lengthy siege at Cuautla was endured. However, in 1815 Morelos was captured by the royalists and executed in San Cristóbal Ecatepec on December 22. Portrait of José María Morelos, oil painting José María Teclo Morelos y Pavón (30 September 1765 - 22 December 1815) was one of the main early leaders of Mexicos struggle for independence from Spain. ... For current news on the Oaxaca Teachers Strike of 2006 see: 2006 Oaxaca protests Oaxaca is the name of both a state in Mexico and that states capital city. ... Acapulco (Officially: Acapulco de Juárez) is a city and major sea port in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 300 km (190 miles) southwest from Mexico City. ... The Congress of Chilpancingo (Spanish: Congreso de Chilpancingo) was a meeting held in the Mexican state of Guerrero from September until November in 1813. ... Cuautla is a city and its surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Morelos. ... San Cristóbal Ecatepec de Morelos is a city in the State of México and the seat of the municipio of Ecatepec de Morelos. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Guadalupe Victoria and Guerrilla War

From 1815 to 1821, most of the fighting by those seeking independence from Spain was done by isolated guerrilla bands. Out of these bands rose two men, Guadalupe Victoria in Puebla and Vicente Guerrero in Oaxaca, both of whom were able to command allegiance and respect from their followers. The Spanish viceroy, however, felt the situation was under control and issued a general pardon to every rebel who would lay down his arms. Another key player of independence was the Spanish liberal Javier Mina, exiled from Spain because of his opposition to Fernando VII's reactionary policies, who decided Mexico would be the best platform to fight against the king and gathered an army that provoked serious problems to the Viceroy government in 1816[6]. “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Guadalupe Victoria, born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix in the state of Durango, served as the first President of Mexico from 1824 to 1829. ... The Mexican state of Puebla is located in the center of the country, to the east of Mexico City. ... Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña (August 10, 1782 – February 14, 1831) was one of the leaders of Mexicos struggle for independence from Spain and an early President of Mexico. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The rebels faced stiff Royalist military resistance and the apathy of many of the most influential criollos. The violent excesses and populist zeal of Hidalgo's and Morelos's irregular armies had reinforced many criollos' fears of race and class warfare, ensuring their grudging acquiescence to conservative Spanish rule until a less bloody path to independence could be found. It was at this juncture that the machinations of a conservative military caudillo coinciding with a successful liberal rebellion in Spain made possible a radical realignment of the proindependence forces. Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... Caudillo is a Spanish (caudilho in Portuguese) word usually used to designate a political-military leader at the head of an authoritative power. ...


In what was supposed to be the final government campaign against the insurgents, in December 1820, Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca sent a force led by a royalist criollo officer, Agustín de Iturbide, to defeat Guerrero's army in Oaxaca. Iturbide, a native of Valladolid, had gained renown for the zeal with which he persecuted Hidalgo's and Morelos's rebels during the early independence struggle. A favorite of the Mexican church hierarchy, Iturbide was the personification of conservative criollo values, devoutly religious, and committed to the defense of property rights and social privileges; however, he was also disgruntled at his lack of promotion and wealth. Juan Ruiz de Apodaca (Cádiz, 1754 – Madrid, 1835) was a colonial official in the last days of Spains American empire. ... Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (September 27, 1783 – July 19, 1824) was Emperor of Mexico from 1822 to 1823. ... Catedral de Santo Domingo The Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca or simply Oaxaca   is one of the 31 states of Mexico, located in the southern part of Mexico, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. ...


Ferdinand VII of Spain

Iturbide's assignment to the Oaxaca expedition coincided with a successful military coup d'état in Spain against the new monarchy of Ferdinand VII. The coup leaders, who had been assembled as an expeditionary force to suppress the American independence movements, compelled a reluctant Ferdinand to sign the liberal Spanish constitution of 1812. When news of the liberal charter reached Mexico, Iturbide saw in it both a threat to the status quo and an opportunity for the criollos to gain control of Mexico. Ironically, independence was finally achieved when conservative forces in the colonies chose to rise up against a temporarily liberal regime in the mother country. After an initial clash with Guerrero's forces, Iturbide switched allegiances and invited the rebel leader to meet and discuss principles of a renewed independence struggle. // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ...


While stationed in the town of Iguala, Iturbide proclaimed three principles, or "guarantees", for Mexico's independence from Spain: Mexico would be an independent monarchy governed by a transplanted King Ferdinand or some other conservative European prince, criollos and peninsulares would henceforth enjoy equal rights and privileges, and the Roman Catholic Church would retain its privileges and religious monopoly. The plan was so broadly based that it pleased both patriots and loyalists. The goal of independence and the protection of Roman Catholicism brought together all factions. The historic city of Iguala is located 102 km (63 mi) from Chilpancingo in the State of Guerrero via federal highway 95 in Mexico. ...


Iturbide's army was joined by rebel forces from all over Mexico. When the rebels' victory became certain, the viceroy resigned. On August 24, 1821, representatives of the Spanish crown and Iturbide signed the Treaty of Córdoba, which recognized Mexican independence under the terms of the Plan of Iguala. Iturbide, a former royalist who had become the paladin for Mexican independence, included a special clause in the treaty that left open the possibility for a criollo monarch to be appointed by a Mexican congress if no suitable member of the European royalty would accept the Mexican crown. The Treaty of Córdoba gave Mexico independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence. ...


References

  1. ^ John Chasteen, Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America, 2001
  2. ^ Crewe, Ryan Dominic. 'Lamport, William (Guillén Lombardo) (1610-1659)' in Irish Migration Studies in Latin America 5:1 (March 2007), pp. 74-76.
  3. ^ "Mexico: Biography of Power"by Enrique Krauze,Harper Collins, 1997..
  4. ^ http://www.mexconnect.com/MEX/austin/grito0996.html Grito de Dolores
  5. ^ http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/history/jtuck/jthidalgo.html
  6. ^ http://www.mexconnect.com/mex_/history/jtuck/jtjaviermina.html

See also

The Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the arrival in the Western Hemisphere of Christopher Columbus (Cristóbal Colón) in 1492. ...

External links


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Mexican War - MSN Encarta (992 words)
Mexican War, conflict between the United States and Mexico, lasting from 1846 to 1848.
Many Mexicans, meanwhile, deeply resented their loss to the “Colossus of the North,” viewing the conflict as an unnecessary war that had been thrust upon Mexico by a land-hungry United States.
The two major issues behind the war were the inability of the Mexican government to establish political and economic control over its vast northern frontier, including the Mexican state of Tejas y Coahuila, and the westward movement and dynamic expansionism of the United States during the 19th century.
Mexican War of Independence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1164 words)
The Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821) was Mexico's struggle for independence from Spanish colonial rule.
The head figure and chief instigator of the Mexican Independence movement was Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, the parish priest of the small town of Dolores.
After ten years of civil war and the death of two of its founders, by early 1820 the independence movement was stalemated and close to collapse.
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