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Encyclopedia > Mexican American
Mexican American
México-estadounidense
Romualdo Pacheco

Notable Mexican Americans:
Romualdo Pacheco, Octaviano Larrazolo, Ellen Ochoa, Eva Longoria, Carlos Santana, and General Richard Cavazos
Total population

Mexican Americans
28,339,354
9% of the U.S. population.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 435 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2118 × 2915 pixel, file size: 469 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) José Antonio Romualdo Pacheco, Jr. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 479 × 599 pixels Full resolution (3256 × 4072 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x1187, 366 KB) This is a copyrighted promotional photo with a known source. ... Image File history File links Img_1_big. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Romualdo Pacheco (October 31, 1831–January 23, 1899) was a Hispanic-American politician who, so far, has been the only Hispanic governor of California following its admission to the United States. ... Ellen Lauri Ochoa (born May 10, 1958) is a former astronaut and current director of flight crew operations for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ... For the baseball player with a similar name, see Evan Longoria. ... For the Costa Rican soccer player, see Carlos Santana (footballer); for the Mexican academic, see Carlos Santana Morales. ... Richard E. Cavazos (born January 31, 1929), a Korean War recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross as a first lieutenant, who advanced in rank to become the U.S. Armys first Hispanic and Mexican American four-star general. ...

Regions with significant populations
United States
California, Texas, Illinois, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Florida.
See also: List of Mexican American communities
Languages
American English, Spanish, Spanglish, and a minority of Indigenous Mexican Languages.
Religions
Christianity (predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestants), Aztec religion, Maya religion, Islam, [2], Judaism, Atheism, and other religions.
Related ethnic groups
Other Mexican people, Mestizo, Indigenous people of the Americas, Spanish people, Latin, Hispanic, Latino, and Chicano.

Mexican Americans are Americans of Mexican ancestry. They account for 9% of the country's population: about 28.3 million Americans listed their ancestry as Mexican as of 2006. They form the largest Hispanic or Latino group in the United States[1] and contain the largest group of White Hispanics.[3] Mexican Americans also trace their ancestry to many different European countries, especially Spain, which was its colonial ruler for over three centuries. This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... List of Mexican American communities (cities, regions and neighborhoods with large or majority populations of Mexican descent). ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... For the James L. Brooks motion picture, see Spanglish (film). ... Mexico has a surprising lingusitic diversity; apart from Spanish, the government recognizes 62 Indigenous Amerindian languages as national languages. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Aztec religion was a Mesoamerican religion combining elements of polytheism, shamanism and animism within a framework of astronomy and calendrics. ... The indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the ancient and modern Maya vary greatly over space and time, but certain common features can be discerned, all of which are consistent with other Mesoamerican religions. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Atheist redirects here. ... This article is about the country in North America. ... Mestizo is a Spanish term that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire and continues to be used today in Latin America to refer to people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the region of Latin America. ... ... Spaniard redirects here. ... The Latin peoples, also known as Romance peoples, are those European linguistic-cultural groups and their descendants all over the world that speak Romance languages. ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... For other uses, see Chicano (disambiguation). ... This article is about U.S. white Hispanic residents. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Most Mexican American settlement concentrations are in metropolitan and rural areas across the United States, with the highest concentrations found in the Southwest, Midwest and the Northwest. The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ...

Contents

Mexican American communities

The cities of Chicago, Tucson, Las Vegas, Nevada, Albuquerque, Las Cruces, San Jose, Phoenix, Houston, Sacramento, San Diego, Fresno, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Indianapolis, Dallas, El Paso, San Antonio, Fort Worth, Austin, Oklahoma City, Omaha, Denver, and Portland, Oregon are cities with large Mexican American communities. Mexican Americans form the largest ancestral group in El Paso, where the population is more than four fifths Mexican American, and Mexican.[citation needed] For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Nickname: The Old Pueblo Location in Pima County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Pima Mayor Bob Walkup (R) Area    - City 505. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... This article is about the largest city of New Mexico. ... The New Mexico Farm and Ranch Heritage Museum Las Cruces is a city in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, United States. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California Location of San Jose with the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Pueblo founded November 29, 1777 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Type charter city, mayor-council  - Mayor Chuck Reed  - Vice... Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country State County Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... Houston redirects here. ... Sacramento is a Spanish- and Portuguese-language word meaning sacrament; it is a common toponym in parts of the world where those tongues were or are spoken. ... Fresno redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Indianapolis skyline Indianapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Indiana. ... Dallas redirects here. ... This article needs cleanup. ... San Antonio redirects here. ... Fort Worth is the sixth-largest city in the state of Texas, located about 30 miles west of Dallas on the West Fork Trinity River and forming part of the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... Downtown Oklahoma City The State Capitol of Oklahoma From The South Motto: Nickname: Capital of the New Century Founded 1889 Incorporated County Oklahoma County Cleveland County Canadian County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor Mick Cornett Area  - Total  - Water 1,608. ... Omaha is the name of some places in the United States: *Omaha, Nebraska (the most familiar one) Omaha, Georgia Omaha, Illinois Omaha, Texas It is also the name of a Native American tribe, after which the city in Nebraska is named; see Omaha (tribe). ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Type Commission  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - City 376. ...


Cities and counties that are predominantly Mexican and Mexican American are: El Paso, Laredo, Texas, Santa Ana, California, Denver, Fresno, San Antonio, Los Angeles and Los Angeles County. While there is a significant Central American community within Los Angeles, and less so in Los Angeles County as a whole, Los Angeles is sometimes referred to as the world's largest Mexican city outside of Mexico. The combined proportion of Mexican Nationals, and Mexican Americans to all other Hispanic Nationalities in both Los Angeles, and Los Angeles County is more than 2.5 to 1. Therefore, Mexican Nationals, and Mexican Americans make people of Mexican descent the predominant ethnic background in both the city of Los Angeles (home to 2 million), and Los Angeles County (about 40 percent). Nickname: Location of Laredo in Texas Coordinates: , Country State County Webb Settled 1755 Government  - Type Mayor / City Manager  - Mayor Raul G. Salinas  - City Manager Carlos R. Villarreal Area  - City 84. ... Location of Santa Ana within Orange County, California. ...


Other cities in the Upper Midwest with thriving Mexican American communities are Detroit, Kansas City, Missouri, St. Louis, Milwaukee, Sioux City, Iowa, and Minneapolis-St. Paul. There are also isolated concentrations of Mexican Americans in mostly rural areas in the Northwest: Idaho, Oregon, Utah (esp. Salt Lake City), Washington and Wyoming; the Plains: Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas; and the Southeast: Florida, Louisiana and North Carolina. In recent years, many other cities in the USA have seen the Mexican American population increase dramatically. An example of this is Charlotte, NC. Charlotte has a large Mexican American neighborhood known as Eastland. Detroit redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... St. ... For other places with the same name, see Milwaukee (disambiguation). ... Sioux City (pronounced ) is a city located in northwest Iowa in the United States. ... A map of the Twin Cities metropolitan area. ... -1... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Charlotte (also known as candle stick) is a figure skating grace move - one of the spirals, where the skater is bended and glides on its one leg with the other one lifted to the air. ... On July 24, 1915, the Eastland, along with the Theodore Roosevelt and the Petoskey, were hired to take employees from Chicagos Western Electric Company to a picnic in Michigan City, Indiana. ...


Growing populations, that consist mostly of recently arrived immigrants from Mexico, are also present in other parts of the rural Southeastern United States, in states such as Georgia, Oklahoma, Maryland, Tennessee, Alabama and Arkansas. A growing population is also present in urban areas such as Washington, D.C., New York City perhaps home to 260,000 Mexicans (whether immigrants and American-born) and are the third largest Hispanic national group in the city[citation needed], Florida (esp. Miami and Tampa) and Philadelphia. The US Southeast is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, but the Census Bureau does not provide a standard definition of a Southeast region of the United States, and organizations that need to subdivide the US are free to define a Southeast region to fit their needs. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... Tampas skyline For alternate meanings, see Tampa (disambiguation) Tampa is a city located in Hillsborough County on the west coast of Florida. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ...


History of Mexican Americans

Main article: History of Mexican-Americans
Part of a series of articles on
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Groups
Argentine Americans
Bolivian Americans
Chilean Americans
Colombian Americans
Costa Rican Americans
Cuban Americans
Dominican Americans
Ecuadorian Americans
Guatemalan Americans
Honduran Americans
Mexican Americans
Nicaraguan Americans
Panamanian Americans
Paraguayan Americans
Peruvian Americans
Puerto Rican Americans
Salvadoran Americans
Spanish Americans
Uruguayan Americans
Venezuelan Americans
History
History of Hispanic and Latino Americans
History of Mexican-Americans
Religions
Christian Latinos · Santeria
Latino Jews · Latino Muslims
Political movements
Hispanic and Latino American politics
Chicano Movement
Organizations
NALEO
Congressional Hispanic Caucus
LULAC · NALFO · SHPE
National Council of La Raza
Association of Hispanic Arts · MEChA · UFW
National Society of Hispanic MBAs
Culture
Hispanic culture
Literature · Studies · Art · Music
Languages
English · Spanish in the United States
Spanish · Spanglish · Ladino language
Lists
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Puerto Rico-related topics
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Related topics
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Mexican American history is wide-ranging, spanning more than four hundred years and varying from region to region within the United States. In 1900, there were slightly more than 500,000 Latinos living in New Mexico, California and Texas. [4] Most were Mexican Americans who arrived in the Southwest in the mid 1800s while others were descendants of Mexican, Spanish, and other hispanicized European settlers who arrived in the Southwest during Spanish and Mexican colonial times. Approximately ten percent of the current Mexican American population can trace their lineage back to these early colonial settlers.[5] The history of Mexican-Americans is wide-ranging, spanning more than four hundred years and varying from region to region within the United States. ... Argentine Americans are raised and educated citizens of the United States although not all U.S born, from the southeast South American nation of Argentina. ... // Bolivia, the only landlocked country in the Western Hemisphere, is home to almost eight million people. ... Chilean Americans are a group of 68,849 people who emigrated from Chile and their descendants. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Cuban-American is an immigrant to the United States from Cuba. ... A Dominican American or Dominican-York [2] is an immigrant or descendant of immigrants from the Dominican Republic to the United States. ... An Ecuadorian American is someone who is of Ecuadorian descent or was born in Ecuador and achieved American citizenship. ... A Guatemalan American is an American of Guatemalan decent. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Languages Spanish, English Religions Roman Catholic, Protestantism Nicaraguan American (Spanish: Nicaragüense Americano) are Americans of Nicaraguan ancestry who were born in or have immigrated to the United States. ... A Peruvian American is an immigrant or descendant of immigrants from Peru that arrived in the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Puerto Rican. ... Languages Spanish, English Religions Roman Catholic, Protestantism Salvadoran Americans are residents of the United States of Salvadoran descent. ... ... Venezuelan Americans are raised and educated citizens of the United States although not all U.S born, from the South American nation of Venezuela. ... The history of Mexican-Americans is wide-ranging, spanning more than four hundred years and varying from region to region within the United States. ... Latinos and Hispanics are predominantly Christian in the United States. ... Lukumí or Regla de Ocha, most widely known as Santeria, is a set of related religious systems that fuse Catholic beliefs with traditional Yorùbá beliefs. ... Latino Jews are Latinos whose religion is Judaism. ... Latino Muslims are Latinos whose religion is Islam. ... The Chicano Movement, also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement, and El Movimiento, is the part of the American Civil Rights Movement that searched for social liberation and power for Mexican Americans. ... National Association of Latino Elected Officials aka NALEO External links http://www. ... // About the CHC The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC) is comprised of 21 Members of Congress of Hispanic descent. ... LULAC is an organization which strives for rights for Hispanic Americans. ... The National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations (NALFO) is an umbrella council for 23 Latino Greek Letter Organizations established in 1998. ... The SHPE Logo The Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers (SHPE) was founded in Los Angeles, California, in 1974 by a group of engineers employed by the city of Los Angeles. ... “NCLR” redirects here. ... There are three main components to AHA’s programming and services: Advocacy: Latino arts and culture is an essential and vibrant part of the nation’s identity. ... This article is about the term used in science fiction, anime, and manga. ... The United Farm Workers of America (UFW) is a labor union that evolved from unions founded in 1962 by César Chávez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. ... Latino/a Studies is an academic discipline which studies the experience of people of Hispanic ancestory in America. ... Latin music has long influenced American popular music, jazz, rhythm and blues, and even country music. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Spanish is the second most-common language in the United States after English. ... For the James L. Brooks motion picture, see Spanglish (film). ... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... The following is a partial list of United States cities, towns, and census-designated places in which a majority (over 50%) of the population is Hispanic or Latino, according to data from the 2000 Census. ... . ... Famous Hispanic Americans // Silvana Arias, actress Adrian Bellani, actor Jessica Alba, actress Nadine Velazquez, actress Desi Arnaz, actor Alexis Bledel, actress Benjamin Bratt, actor Julissa Bermudez, actress and VJ Lynda Carter, actress Ricardo Chavira, actor from Desperate Housewives Sammy Davis, Jr. ... Latino refers to people living in the US of Latin American nationality and their US-born descendants. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


As early as 1813 the Tejanos who colonized Texas in the Spanish Colonial Period established a government in Texas that looked forward to independence from Mexico. As revealed by the writings of colonial Tejano Texians such as Antonio Menchaca, the Texas Revolution was initially a colonial Tejano cause. By 1831, Anglo settlers outnumbered Tejanos ten to one in Texas.[6] The Mexican government became concerned by their increasing numbers and restricted the number of new Anglo settlers allowed to enter Texas. The Mexican government also banned slavery within the state, which angered slave owners.[7] The Anglos along with many of the Tejanos rebelled against the centralized authority of Mexico City and the Santa Anna regime, while others remained loyal to Mexico, and still others were neutral.[8][9] Tejano is also the name of Texans of Spanish origin. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Combatants Texas Mexico Commanders Stephen F. Austin Sam Houston Antonio López de Santa Anna Martin Perfecto de Cos Strength c. ... Look up anglo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón, also known simply as Santa Anna (21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876) was a Mexican patriot and dictator who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from...


Author John P. Schmal wrote of the effect Texas independence had on the Tejano community:[10]

"A native of San Antonio, Juan Seguín is probably the most famous Tejano to be involved in the War of Texas Independence. His story is complex because he joined the Anglo rebels and helped defeat the Mexican forces of Santa Anna. But later on, as Mayor of San Antonio, he and other Tejanos felt the hostile encroachments of the growing Anglo power against them. After receiving a series of death threats, Seguín relocated his family in Mexico, where he was coerced into military service and fought against the US in 1846-1848 Mexican-American War. Although the events of 1836 led to independence for the people of Texas, the Hispanic population of the state was very quickly disenfranchised to the extent that their political representation in the Texas State Legislature disappeared entirely for several decades." Juan Nepomuceno Seguín (IPA: ) (1806–1890) was a Tejano hero of the Texas Revolution. ...

Californios were Spanish speaking residents of modern day California who were either of Mexican or European descent and Native Americans who became integrated into the society before the California Gold Rush. Relations between Californios and Anglo settlers were relatively good until military officer John C. Fremont arrived in California with a force of 60 men on an exploratory expedition in 1846. Fremont made an agreement with Comandante Castro that he would only stay in the San Joaquin Valley for the winter, then move north to Oregon. However, Fremont remained in the Santa Clara Valley then headed towards Monterey. When Castro demanded that Fremont leave California, Fremont rode to Gavilan Peak, raised a US flag and vowed to fight to the last man to defend it. After three days of tension, Fremont retreated to Oregon without a shot being fired. With relations between Californios and Anglos quickly souring, Fremont rode back into California and encouraged a group of American settlers to seize a group of Castro's soldiers and their horses. Another group, seized the Presidio of Sonoma and captured Mariano Vallejo. William B. Ide was chosen Commander in Chief and on July 5th, he proclaimed the creation of the Bear Flag Republic. On July 9th, US forces reached Sonoma and lowered the Bear Flag Republic's flag then replaced it with a US flag. Californios organized an army to defend themselves from invading American forces after the Mexican army retreated from California. The Californios defeated an American force in Los Angeles on September 30, 1846, but were defeated after the Americans reinforced their forces in Southern California. The arrival of tens of thousands of people during the California Gold Rush meant the end of the Californio's ranching lifestyle. Many Anglo 49ers turned to farming and moved, often illegally, onto the land granted to Californios by the old Mexican government.[11] A Californio was a Spanish-speaking inhabitant of Alta California who lived there when it was a part of Mexico, before it was taken by the United States after the Mexican-American War. ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ... John C. Frémont John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813-July 13, 1890), birth name John Charles Fremon [Harvey, p. ... The Central Valley of California The San Joaquin Valley (English pronunciation in IPA: [sæn wɑˈkin]) refers to the area of the Central Valley of California that lies south of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in Stockton. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Santa Clara Valley is a valley just south of the San Francisco Bay in northern California in the United States. ... Monterrey is a city in Nuevo León, Mexico. ... This mission was established in 1836 by Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo (the Commanclate-General of the Northern Frontier of Alta California) as a part of Mexicos strategy to halt Russian incursions into the region. ... William Brown Ide (March 28, 1796 - December 1852) was a California pioneer and president of the short-lived California Republic. ... The first Bear Flag. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ...


The United States first came into conflict with Mexico in the 1830s, as the westward spread of Anglo settlements and of slavery brought significant numbers of new settlers into the region known as Tejas (modern-day Texas), then part of Mexico. The Mexican-American War, followed by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848 and the Gadsden Purchase in 1853, extended U.S. control over a wide range of territory once held by Mexico, including the present day borders of Texas and the states of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange) The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was the treaty that ended the Mexican-American War. ... The Gadsden Purchase (shown with present-day state boundaries and cities) The Gadsden Purchase (known as Venta de La Mesilla in Mexico) is a 45,535 mi² (76,770 km²) region of what is today southern Arizona and New Mexico that was purchased by the United States from Mexico in...


Although the treaty promised that the landowners in this newly acquired territory would enjoy full enjoyment and protection of their property as if they were citizens of the United States, many former citizens of Mexico lost their land in lawsuits before state and federal courts or as a result of legislation passed after the treaty.[12] Even those statutes intended to protect the owners of property at the time of the extension of the United States' borders, such as the 1851 California Land Act, had the effect of dispossessing Californio owners ruined by the cost of maintaining litigation over land titles for years. Languages Spanish Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Mediterranean Amerindian Mestizo The Californios were Spanish-speaking inhabitants of Alta California, first a part of New Spain, later of Mexico. ...


While Mexican Americans were once concentrated in the states that formerly belonged to Mexico — principally, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Texas — they began creating communities in St. Louis, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and other steel producing regions when they obtained employment during World War I. More recently, Mexican immigrants have increasingly become a large part of the workforce in industries such as meat packing throughout the Midwest, in agriculture in the southeastern United States, and in the construction, landscaping, restaurant, hotel and other service industries throughout the country. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... St. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Detroit redirects here. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ...


Mexican American identity has also changed markedly throughout these years. Over the past hundred years Mexican Americans have campaigned for voting rights, stood against educational and employment discrimination and stood for economic and social advancement. At the same time many Mexican Americans have struggled with defining and maintaining their community's identity. In the 1960s and 1970s, some Latino and Hispanic student groups flirted with nationalism and differences over the proper name for members of the community — Chicano/Chicana, Latino/Latina, Mexican Americans, or Hispanics became tied up with deeper disagreements over whether to integrate into or remain separate from mainstream American society, as well as divisions between those Mexican Americans whose families had lived in the United States for two or more generations and more recent immigrants. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For other uses, see Chicano (disambiguation). ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. ...


Race and ethnicity

Admixture Graph, Bertoni et al 2003.
Admixture Graph, Bertoni et al 2003.

This article is part of the series
Chicanos and Mexican Americans A Chicano is a person of Mexican descent born in the United States. ...

Chicano · La Raza · Latino
Mexican American · Hispanic
Pre-Chicano Movement
Mexican-American History
Mexican-American War
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mutualista
San Elizario Salt War
Sleepy Lagoon trial · Zoot Suit Riots
Chicano Movement
Chicanismo · Aztlán
Plan Espiritual de Aztlán
Plan de Santa Bárbara
Land grant struggle
Chicano Blowouts · Chicano Moratorium
Farm worker rights campaign
Católicos por La Raza
Supreme Court cases

Hernandez v. Texas  ·   Plyler v. Doe
Mendez v. Westminster For other uses, see Chicano (disambiguation). ... This article is about Latin American cultural identity. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... The history of Mexican-Americans is wide-ranging, spanning more than four hundred years and varying from region to region within the United States. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... The Mexican Cession (red) and the Gadsden Purchase (orange). ... Mutualistas were community-based mutual aid societies created by Mexican immigrants in the late 19th century United States. ... (aka Salinero Revolt) // In 1874 Texas District Judge Charles Howard took possession of high quality salt deposits near the Guadalupe Mountains in West Texas. ... The Sleepy Lagoon murder was a 1942 Los Angeles, California criminal trial of 22 Latino young men; the convictions were reversed on appeal in 1944. ... Zoot Suit riots, June 1943 For the swing album by Cherry Poppin Daddies, see Zoot Suit Riot (album) The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots that erupted in Los Angeles, California during World War II, between sailors and soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican American youths, who... The Chicano Movement, also called the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, the Mexican-American Civil Rights Movement, and El Movimiento, is the part of the American Civil Rights Movement that searched for social liberation and power for Mexican Americans. ... Chicanismo is a cultural movement by Mexican Americans to recapture their Mexican, Native American culture, which began in the 1930s in the Southwest United States. ... For other uses, see Aztlán (disambiguation). ... The Plan Espiritual de Aztlán (Spanish: Spiritual Plan of Aztlán) is a manifesto advocating Chicano nationalism and self-determination for Mexican Americans. ... El Plan de Santa Barbara: A Chicano Plan for Higher Education was written by the Chicano Coordinating Council on Higher Education as a manifesto for the implementation of Chicano Studies educational programs throughout the state of California. ... Alianza Federal de Mercedes, led by Reies Tijerina, was a group based in New Mexico in the 1960s that fought for the land rights of Hispanic New Mexicans, primarily in northern New Mexico. ... The East Los Angeles Walkouts or Chicano Blowouts were a series of 1968 protests against unequal conditions in Los Angeles Unified School District high schools. ... The Chicano Moratorium, formally known as the National Chicano Moratorium Committee, was a movement of Chicano anti-war activists that built a broad-based but fragile coalition of Mexican-American groups to organize opposition to the Vietnam War. ... The United Farm Workers of America (UFW) is a labor union that evolved from unions founded in 1962 by César Chávez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. ... Catolicos Por La Raza is a political association organized by Ricardo Cruz in the later 1960s in Los Angeles, California. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Hernandez v. ... Plyler v. ... Mendez v. ...

Organizations
MEChA · UFW
Brown Berets
Comisión Femenil Mexicana Nacional
League of United Latin American Citizens
American GI Forum
Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund
Mexican American Political Association
National Council of La Raza
Language
Chicano Spanish words
Chicano Spanish · Chicano English
New Mexican Spanish
Spanish in the United States
Music
Chicano rap · Chicano rock
Tejano music
Culture
Estrada Courts murals
Cholo · Pachuco
Lowrider · Zoot suit
Teatro Campesino · Chicano Park
Tex-Mex cuisine
Dia de los muertos
Cinco de Mayo
Lists
U.S. communities with Hispanic majority
Notable Chicanos
Notable Hispanics

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Per the 2000 U.S. Census, a plurality of 47.3% of Mexican Americans are White, closely followed by Mexican Americans of "Some other race", with 45.5%.[3] Respondents of two or more races accounted for 5.1%, Blacks for 0.7%, and all other races for 1.4%. There are Mexican Americans of Asian descent, and some Mexican Americans are predominantly Amerindian, while partial Amerindian ancestry is common in the rest.[13] This article is about the term used in science fiction, anime, and manga. ... The United Farm Workers of America (UFW) is a labor union that evolved from unions founded in 1962 by César Chávez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. ... The Brown Berets were a Chicano nationalist activist group of young Mexican Americans during the Chicano Movement. ... The Comisión Femenil Mexicana Nacional (National Mexican Womens Commission, abbreviated as CFMN), is a Chicano organization geared towards the political and economic empowerment of Hispanic women, particularly Chicanas, in the United States. ... LULAC is an organization which strives for rights for Hispanic Americans. ... The American G.I. Forum (AGIF) is a Congressionally-chartered Mexican American veterans and civil rights organization. ... The Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund (MALDEF) is a national non-profit civil rights organization formed in 1968 to promote the rights of Latinos in the United States. ... Mexican American Political Association (MAPA) is an organization that promotes the interests of Mexican-Americans in the United States. ... “NCLR” redirects here. ... The following is a list of Chicano slang words and expressions, known as Caló, also spelled Calo and Kalo by modern Chicano youth. ... This article is about the Chicano idiom. ... Chicano English is a dialect of American English used by Chicanos (persons of Mexican descent in America). ... New Mexican Spanish is a variant or dialect of Spanish spoken in the United States, primarily in the northern part of the state of New Mexico and the southern part of the state of Colorado. ... Spanish is the second most-common language in the United States after English. ... Chicano rap is a subgenre of hip hop music, latin rap and gangsta rap that embodies aspects of West Coast and Southwest Mexican American (Chicano) culture and is typically performed by American rap singers and musicians of Mexican descent. ... Los Lobos Chicano rock or Latin rock is rock music performed by Mexican American groups or music with themes derived from Chicano culture. ... Tejano music (Spanish-Texan music) is the name given to various forms of folk and popular music originating among the Hispanic populations of Central and Southern Texas. ... Estrada Courts is a low-income housing project in the Boyle Heights area of East Los Angeles, California, located in the vicinity of 3200 and 3300 Olympic Boulevard, near Lorena Street. ... For the Choloa language, see Emberá languages. ... This article is about the Mexican American subculture. ... For other uses, see Lowrider (disambiguation). ... For alternate meanings, see Zoot Suit (disambiguation). ... Poster for Teatro Campesino performing at a strike benefit with Quicksilver Messenger Service July 1966 at the Fillmore Auditorium, San Francisco. ... Chicano Park is a 7. ... Tex-Mex is a term for a type of American food which is used primarily in Texas and the Southwestern United States to describe a regional cuisine which blends food products available in the United States and the culinary creations of Mexican-Americans that are influenced by the cuisines of... For other uses, see Day of the Dead (disambiguation). ... Cinco de Mayo (5th of May in English) is primarily a regional and not an obligatory federal holiday in Mexico. ... The following is a partial list of United States cities, towns, and census-designated places in which a majority (over 50%) of the population is Hispanic or Latino, according to data from the 2000 Census. ... César Chávez, activist Adela Dalto, singer, song writer and author Rodolfo Corky Gonzales, godfather of the Chicano Civil Rights Movement, 1928-2005 José Ángel Gutierrez Reies Lopez Tijerina Categories: People by race or ethnicity ... Famous Hispanic Americans // Silvana Arias, actress Adrian Bellani, actor Jessica Alba, actress Nadine Velazquez, actress Desi Arnaz, actor Alexis Bledel, actress Benjamin Bratt, actor Julissa Bermudez, actress and VJ Lynda Carter, actress Ricardo Chavira, actor from Desperate Housewives Sammy Davis, Jr. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Whites redirects here. ... Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the United States Census Bureau and the Federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB), is a self-identification data item in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... An Asian Latin American is a Latin American of Asian descent. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ...


Before the United States' borders expanded westward in the 19th century, New World regions dominated by the Spanish Empire since the 16th century held to a complex system (casta) that classified persons by their fractional racial makeup and geographic origin.[14][15] Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... For other uses, see Race. ...


As the United States' borders expanded, the United States Census Bureau changed its racial classification methods for Mexican Americans under United States jurisdiction. The Bureau's classification system has evolved significantly from its inception: The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...

  • From 1790 to 1850, there was no distinct racial classification of Mexican Americans in the U.S. census. The only racial categories recognized by the Census Bureau were White and Black. The Census Bureau estimates that during this period the number of persons that could not be categorized as white or black did not exceed 0.25% of the total population based on 1860 census data.[16]
  • From 1850 through 1920 the Census Bureau expanded its racial categories to include all different races including Mestizos, Mulattos, Amerindians and Asians, but continued to classify Mexicans and Mexican Americans as White.[16]
  • The 1930 U.S. census form asked for "color or race." The 1930 census calculators received these instructions: “write ‘W’ for White; ’Mex’ for Mexican.”[17]
  • In the 1940 census, Mexican Americans were re-classified as White, due to widespread protests by the Mexican American community and the World War II-era Franklin Delano Roosevelt administration's policies of promoting national, "patriotic" unity by reorganizing racial categories to make all ethnic groups "white" and or "Americans" if not white. Instructions for enumerators were "Mexicans - Report 'White' (W) for Mexicans unless they are definitely of indigenous or other non-white race." During the same census, however, the bureau began to track the White population of Spanish mother tongue. This practice continued through the 1960 census.[16] The 1960 census also used the title "Spanish-surnamed American" in their reporting data of Mexican Americans, which included Cuban Americans, Puerto Ricans and others under the same category.
  • In 1970, Mexican Americans classified themselves as White. Hispanic individuals who classified themselves racially as Other were re-classified as White by the bureau. During this census, the bureau attempted to identify all Hispanics by use of the following criteria in sampled sets:[16]
  • Spanish speakers and persons belonging to a household where the head of household was a Spanish speaker
  • Persons with Spanish heritage by birth location or surname
  • Persons who self-identified Spanish origin or descent
  • From 1980 on, the Census Bureau has collected data on Hispanic origin on a 100-percent basis. The bureau has noted an increasing number of respondents who mark themselves as Hispanic origin but not of the White race.[16] This is perhaps due to an increase of non-white Latino immigrants into the country.

For certain purposes, respondents who wrote in "Chicano" or "Mexican" (or indeed, almost all Hispanic origin groups) in the "Some other race" category are automatically re-classified into the "White race" group.[18] The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Mestizo (Brazil Portuguese. ... Representation of Mulattos during the Latin American colonial period Mulatto (also Mulato) is a term of Spanish and/or Portuguese origin describing the first generation offspring of a Sub-Saharan African and a European. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... The term Asian can refer to something or someone from Asia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ...


Politics and debate of racial classification

Throughout U.S. history, Mexican Americans have been socially classified as "White", and "Amerindian" by United States people. Census criteria and legal constructions generally classify them as "White"; or "Indigenous".[19] Pre-Colonial America For details, see the main Pre-Colonial America article. ...


In times when Mexicans were uniformly allotted white status, they were permitted to intermarry with what today are termed "non-Hispanic whites",[20]. Mexican Americans could vote and hold elected office in places such as Texas, especially San Antonio. They ran the state politics and constituted most of the elite of New Mexico since colonial times. However, property requirements and English literacy requirements were imposed in Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas in order to prevent Mexican Americans from voting. Some eligible voters were intimidated with the threat of violence if they attempted to exercise their right to vote.[21] For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... San Antonio redirects here. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ...


They were also allowed to serve in all-white units during World War II. However, some Mexican American war veterans were discriminated against and even denied medical services by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs when they arrived home.[22] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a government-run military veteran benefit system with Cabinet-level status. ...


All Mexicans are legally considered "White" because of early treaty obligations to Spaniards and Mexicans for citizenship status at a time when white-ness was considered a prerequisite for U.S. citizenship.[23][24]


Although Mexican Americans were legally classified as "White", and "Amerindian", many organizations, businesses, and homeowners associations had official policies to exclude Mexican Americans.[25][26][27] [28]


Mexican Americans in most western states had anti-miscegenation laws until the 1960s if the individual was classified "White", the person couldn't legally marry African Americans, or Asian Americans. However, there's a documented trend of high intermarriage rates in the Mexican American community with Indian Americans from India or Pakistan, and Filipino Americans from the Philippines.[citation needed] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In 1998, Benjamin J. Cayetano became the first Filipino American (and second Asian American after Governor George R. Ariyoshi) to be elected state Governor of the United States. ...

See also: White Hispanic#Representation and debate
See also: White American
See also: Race (United States Census)

This article is about U.S. white Hispanic residents. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ...

Economic and social issues

Illegal immigration issues

See also: 2006 United States immigration reform protests and Illegal immigration to the United States

Illegal Mexican immigrants have long met a significant portion of the demand for cheap labor in the United States.[citation needed] Fear of deportation makes them highly vulnerable to exploitation by employers. Many employers, however, have developed a "don't ask, don't tell" attitude, indicating a greater comfort with or casual approach toward hiring illegal Mexican nationals. In May 2006, hundreds of thousands of illegal immigrants, Mexicans and other nationalities, walked out of their jobs across the country in protest to proposed changes in immigration laws (also in hopes for amnesty to become naturalized citizens like similar the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, which granted citizenship to Mexican nationals living and working illegally in the US). In 2006, millions of people were involved in protests over a proposed reform to U.S. immigration policy. ... Illegal immigration to the United States refers to the act of foreign nationals voluntarily resettling in the United States in violation of U.S. immigration and nationality law. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... In 2006, millions of people were involved in protests over a proposed reform to U.S. immigration policy. ... The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), also Simpson-Mazzoli Act (Pub. ...


In the United States, in states where Mexican Americans make up a large percentage of the population, such as California and Texas, illegal as well as legal immigrants from Mexico and Central America in addition to Mexican Americans combined often make up a large majority of workers in many blue-collar occupations: the majority of the employed men are restaurant workers, janitors, truck drivers, gardeners, construction laborers, material moving workers, or perform other types of manual or other blue collar labor (Source, U.S. Census Bureau, American community survey data.). Many women also work in low wage service and retail occupations. In many of these places with large Latino populations, many types of blue-collar workers are often assumed to be Mexican American or Mexican or other Latino immigrants (Although a large minority are actually not. -Source, U.S. Census Bureau, American community survey data.) because of their frequent dominance in those occupations and stereotyping. Occasionally, tensions have risen between Mexican immigrants and other ethnic groups because of increasing concerns over the availability of working-class jobs to Americans and immigrants from other ethnic groups. However, tensions have also risen among Hispanic American laborers who have been displaced because of both cheap Mexican labor and ethnic profiling, and African American workers claimed the Mexican laborers are advancing further than native-born blacks, which has caused some racial tensions between black and Mexicans in the Southwest US. Even legal immigrants to the United States, both from Mexico and elsewhere, have spoken out against illegal immigration. However, according to a survey conducted by the Pew Research Center in June 2007, 63% of Americans would support an immigration policy that would put illegal immigrants on a path to citizenship if they "pass background checks, pay fines and have jobs", while 30% would oppose such a plan. The survey also found that if this program was instead labeled "amnesty", 54% would support it, while 39% would oppose.[29] This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... A blue-collar worker is a working class employee who performs manual or technical labor, such as in a factory or in technical maintenance trades, in contrast to a white-collar worker, who does non-manual work generally at a desk. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Alan Greenspan, former Chairman of the Federal Reserve, has said that the growth of the working-age population is a large factor in keeping the economy growing and that immigration can be used to grow that population. According to Greenspan, by 2030, the growth of the US workforce will slow from 1 percent to 1/2 percent, while the percentage of the population over 65 years will rise from 13 percent to perhaps 20 percent.[30] Greenspan has also stated that the current immigration problem could be solved with a "stroke of the pen", referring to the 2007 immigration reform bill which would have strengthened border security, created a guest worker program, and put illegal immigrants currently residing in the US on a path to citizenship if they met certain conditions.[31] Squalltoonix (born March 6, 1926 in New York City) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ... The Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve is the head of the central bank of the United States and one of the more important decision-makers in American economic policies. ...


Discrimination and stereotypes

See also: Hispanophobia
See also: Racial segregation

Throughout U.S. history, Mexican Americans have and continue to endure various types of negative stereotypes which have long circulated in media and popular culture.[32][33]Mexican Americans have also faced discrimination based on ethnicity, race, culture, and use of the Spanish language.[34] Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ...


Mexican Americans have found themselves targeted by hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan[35] It is estimated that at least 597 Mexicans and Mexican Americans were lynched between 1848 and 1928 in the Southwest. Mexican Americans were lynched at a rate of 27.4 per 100,000 of population between 1880 and 1930. This statistic is second only to that of the African American community during that period, which suffered an average of 37.1 per 100,000 of population. Between 1848 to 1879, Mexicans were lynched at an unprecedented rate of 473 per 100,000 of population. More problematic still is the fact that, despite the recent flourishing of academic literature on lynching, scholars also persistently overlook anti-Mexican violence. [36] A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates hate, hostility, or violence towards members of a race, ethnicity, religion, gender or other designated sector of society, or that supports and publishes assertions and argumentation characteristic of hate groups without necessarily explicitly advocating such hate or violence that... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...


Since the majority of illegal immigrants in the U.S. have traditionally been from Latin America, the Mexican American community has been the subject of widespread immigration raids. During The Great Depression, the United States government sponsored a Mexican Repatriation program which was intended to encourage people to voluntarily move to Mexico, but thousands were deported against their will. More than 500,000 individuals were deported, approximately 60 percent of which were actually United States citizens.[37][38] In the post-war McCarthy era, the Justice Department launched Operation Wetback.[39] The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ... The Mexican Repatriation was a largely forced migration mainly taking place between 1931 and 1934, when over 500,000 Mexicans and Mexican Americans, more than one third of the United States Mexican population, were deported or voluntarily repatriated to Mexico. ... McCarthyism, named after Joseph McCarthy, was a period of intense anticommunism, also (popularly) known as the (second) Red Scare, which occurred in the United States from 1948 to about 1956 (or later), when the government of the United States was actively engaged in suppression of the Communist Party USA, its... Operation Wetback was a 1954 project of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) to remove about 1. ...


In the 1940s, imagery in newspapers and crime novels portrayed Mexican American Zoot suiters as disloyal foreigners or murderers attacking White-Anglo police officers and servicemen. Anti-zoot suiter sentiment sparked a series of attacks on young Mexican American males in Los Angeles which became known as the Zoot Suit Riots. The worst of the rioting occurred on June 9, during which 5,000 servicemen and civilians gathered in downtown Los Angeles and attacked Mexican-American zoot suiters and non-zoot suiters alike. The rioting eventually spread to the predominantly African American neighborhood of Watts. For alternate meanings, see Zoot Suit (disambiguation). ... Zoot Suit riots, June 1943 For the swing album by Cherry Poppin Daddies, see Zoot Suit Riot (album) The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots that erupted in Los Angeles, California during World War II, between sailors and soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican American youths, who... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Watts is a residential district in southern Los Angeles, California. ...


During World War II, more than 300,000 Mexican Americans served in the US armed forces.[40] Mexican Americans were generally integrated into regular military units, however, many Mexican American war veterans were discriminated against and even denied medical services by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs when they arrived home.[41] In 1948, war veteran Dr Hector P. Garcia founded the American GI Forum to address the concerns of Mexican American veterans who were being discriminated against. The AGIF's first campaign was on the behalf of Felix Longoria, a Mexican American private who was killed in the Philippines while in the line of duty. Upon the return of his body to his hometown of Three Rivers, Texas, he was denied funeral services because of his race. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a government-run military veteran benefit system with Cabinet-level status. ... A poster for an early AGIF meeting depicting Dr. Hector P. García Héctor Pérez García (January 17, 1914—July 1996) was a Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G.I. Forum. ... The American G.I. Forum (AGIF) is a Congressionally-chartered Mexican American veterans and civil rights organization. ... Felix Longoria was a Hispanic private in the United States Army. ... Three Rivers is a city in Live Oak County, Texas, United States. ...


Mexican American school children, especially those of mestizo and mulatto descent, were subject to racial segregation in the public school system. They were forced to attend "Mexican schools" throughout the Southwestern United States.[42]. In 1947, the Mendez v. Westminster ruling declared that segregating children of "Mexican and Latin descent" in Orange County and the state of California was unconstitutional. This ruling helped lay the foundation for the landmark Brown v Board of Education case which ended racial segregation in the public school system.[43] Mendez v. ... -1... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Holding Racial segregation in public education violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment; separate facilities are “inherently unequal. ...


Mexican Americans were not selected as jurors in court cases which involved a Mexican American defendant in many counties in the Southwestern United States.[44] In 1954, Pete Hernandez, an agricultural worker, was indicted of murder by an all-Anglo jury in Jackson County, Texas. Hernandez believed that the jury could not be impartial unless members of other races were allowed on the jury-selecting committees, seeing that a Mexican American had not been on a jury for more than 25 years in that particular county. Hernandez and his lawyers decided to take the case to the Supreme Court. The Hernandez v. Texas Supreme Court ruling declared that Mexican Americans and other racial groups in the United States were entitled to equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.[45] Jackson County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... Hernandez v. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The United States Constitution The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


In many areas across the Southwest, Mexican Americans lived in separate residential areas, due to laws and real estate company policies.[46] This group of laws and policies, known as redlining, lasted until the 1950s, and fall under the concept of official segregation.[47][48] In many other instances, it was more of a general social understanding among Anglos that Mexicans should be excluded. For instance, signs with the phrase "No Dogs or Mexicans" were posted in small businesses and public pools throughout the Southwest well into the 60's.[49] For the automotive term, see redline. ...


In modern times, organizations such as neo-Nazis, white supremacist groups, American nationalist and nativist groups have been known and continue to intimidate, harass and advocate the use of violence towards Mexican Americans and other ethnic Latinos in the population.[50][51][52] Other organizations seeking to apprehend immigrants that have crossed into the United States illegally have also been accused of discrimination. It has recently been reported that members of Neo-Nazi organizations have indeed participated in demonstrations by the Minuteman Project and other anti-illegal-immigration organizations.[53][54][55]In 2006, it was revealed that Laine Lawless, former Minuteman Project member and founder of Border Guardians (believed to be a nativist anti-immigration organization), sent emails to leaders of the National Socialist Movement (a neo nazi organization) in which she encouraged violence against "illegal immigrants" and Spanish speaking individuals.[56] The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The term Nativism is used in both politics and psychology in two fundamentally different ways. ... Intimidation is the act of making others do what one wants through fear. ... Harassment refers to a wide spectrum of offensive behavior. ... For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ... Latino refers to people living in the US of Latin American nationality and their US-born descendants. ... The Minuteman Project Civil Defense Corps was started in April 2005 by a group of American citizens to deter illegal crossings of the United States–Mexico border. ... David Copelands membership card for the National Socialist Movement The National Socialist Movement (NSM) is a British neo-Nazi group, best known in the UK for its association with David Copeland, the London nailbomber, who was a member, and local unit leader for his area. ...


In 2006, Time magazine reported that the number of hate groups in the United States increased by 33 percent since 2000, primarily due to anti-illegal immigrant and anti-Mexican sentiment.[57] TIME redirects here. ...


According to FBI statistics, the number of anti-Latino hate crimes increased by 35 percent since 2003. In California, the state with the largest Mexican American population, the number of hate crimes committed against Latinos has almost doubled.[58][59] The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


Social status and assimilation

Barrow (2005) finds increases in average personal and household incomes for Mexican Americans in the 21st century. U.S. born Mexican Americans earn more and are represented more in the middle- and upper-class segments more than recently arriving Mexican immigrants. It should be noted, however, that Mexican Americans are not well represented in the professions. Most of the immigrants from Mexico come from the lower classes with lineage of family employed in lower skilled jobs. Thus, the kind of Mexican that arrives in the United States doesn't have a history of being involved in professions. Recently, some professionals from Mexico have been migrating, but to make the transition from one country to another it involves a lot of re-training and re-adjusting to conform to US standards--i.e. professional licensing is required.[citation needed] According to James P. Smith of the Research and Development Corporation, the children and grandchildren of Latino immigrants come very close to closing educational and income gaps with native whites. Immigrant Latino men make about half of what native whites do, while second generation US-born Latinos make about 78 percent of the salaries of their native white counterparts.[60] The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces. ...


Huntington (2005) argues that the sheer number, concentration, linguistic homogeneity, and other characteristics of Latin American immigrants will erode the dominance of English as a nationally unifying language, weaken the country's dominant cultural values, and promote ethnic allegiances over a primary identification as an American. Testing these hypotheses with data from the U.S. Census and national and Los Angeles opinion surveys, Citrin et al. (2007) show that Hispanics (in general but not Mexicans specifically) acquire English and lose Spanish rapidly beginning with the second generation, and appear to be no more or less religious or committed to the work ethic than native-born non-Mexican American whites.


South et al. (2005) examine Hispanic spatial assimilation and inter-neighborhood geographic mobility. Their longitudinal analysis of seven hundred Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban immigrants followed from 1990 to 1995 finds broad support for hypotheses derived from the classical account of assimilation into American society. High income, English-language use, and embeddedness in American social contexts increased Latin American immigrants' geographic mobility into multi-ethnic neighborhoods. US citizenship and years spent in the United States were positively associated with geographic mobility into different neighborhoods, and coethnic contact was inversely associated with this form of mobility, but these associations operated largely through other predictors. Prior experiences of ethnic discrimination increased and residence in public housing decreased the likelihood that Latino immigrants would move from their original neighborhoods, while residing in metropolitan areas with large Latino populations led to geographic moves into "less Anglo" census tracts.[61]


However, Mexican and Hispanic communities are said[weasel words] to be more culturally separate than ever by an increase of "enclavism" in the late 20th century, a new form of self-segregation among non-Anglo groups, esp. in urban centers and older suburbs at the same time.[citation needed] It's been said[weasel words] that Anglo and Mexican American communities throughout the history of the Southwestern states were like "separate worlds" as the U.S. and Mexico are separate countries, especially before the 1960s since residential segregation and discrimination became illegal.


Segregation Issues

It is evident that the segregation of Mexican Americans from Anglos and also other minorities within the United States is increasing. In 2000, over nine million Latinos lived in areas considered highly segregated[62].


Although there are Hispanic populations found all over the United States, a large portion of Spanish speakers are located in the U.S. Southwest


Segregated Neighborhoods


Neighborhoods with a high percentage of individuals who claim Latino ancestry are commonly referred to as “barrios” or “colonias.” When translated from Spanish to English, barrio signifies “district” or “quarter” while colonia is the corresponding Mexican Spanish word.


A barrio has been defined as “a place where Latino immigrants can find cultural and linguistical comfort and refuge from the new and sometimes inhospitable majority Anglo culture[63]." In other words, the barrio is a sort of escape for Spanish speakers who may not be fully adjusted and comfortable with the United States. In the barrio, they can speak their native language, allowing one to communicate, find a job, and seek help without the pressure of speaking a second language. It is a place where Latino culture thrives. It is a source of comfort to a recent immigrant, as it would offer him or her a place to work and live, without the knowledge of the English language.


However, some argue that the barrio also represents the inequality faced by many Mexican Americans in the United States[64]. Because barrios offer a lower quality of education, provide poorer jobs than other neighborhoods, and generally receive less government attention than predominately while neighborhoods, the are considered to be representative of the structures that have been created to maintain the social and economic distance between White Americans and minorities.


Housing Market Practices


Hispanics encounter discrimination when attempting to rent or purchase apartments, condominiums, and houses. The real estate market uses a variety of tactics to ensure that Mexican Americans will remain segregated to the barrio. It is not uncommon for minorities, such as Mexican Americans, to face discrimination when it comes to the housing market.


However, studies have shown that the segregation among Mexican Americans and other Spanish speakers seems to be declining. One study found that Mexican American applicants were offered the same housing terms and conditions as Anglo Americans. They were asked to provide the same information (regarding employment, income, credit checks, etc) and asked to meet the same general qualifications of their Anglo peers[65].


However, in this same study, it was found that Hispanics were more likely to be asked to pay a security deposit or application fee[66]. While White applicants were not asked to pay an extra sum either before moving into a unit or before having their application reviewed, Hispanic applicants were asked to provide this sum. This could have been a tactic to discourage Hispanic applicants from pursing the unit.


This strongly contrasted with the experience of African American applicants, who were treated unfairly in almost all areas of the renting.


One interesting aspect of this study is that the Mexican American applicants were more likely to be placed onto a waiting list than the Anglo Americans applicants[67]. It has been suggested that real estate agents may utilize this tactic in order to discourage Hispanic applicants from further pursuit of the certain unit, or possibly, this tactic could also signify a willingness on the part of the real estate agent to allow the applicants to rent or own the unit in the event that is should become available.


Real estate agents may use a variety of tactics to “steer” Mexican Americans away from Anglo neighborhoods. Agents have used the steering tactic by making more positive comments about certain advertised units to White Americans than to Mexican Americans. On this same note, more negative comments may be made to Mexican Americans about the quality the public school found closest to the unit advertised or the neighborhood surrounding the unit[68]. This would create a greater interest in Anglo Americans, while “steering” Mexican Americans away from these predominately white neighborhoods.


Latino Segregation versus Black Segregation


Historically, Blacks have faced much harsher treatment concerning segregation than their Hispanic peers. When comparing the segregation of Mexican Americans and the separation of Black Americans from Anglo society, there are two important facts that one must understand.


Firstly, “Latino segregation is less severe and fundamentally different than Black residential segregation[69].” Studies have shown that the separation of Latinos from Anglo society is due to factors such as lower socioeconomic status and immigration while the segregation of Black Americans is due to larger issues, such as racial discrimination or even hatred. While the segregation of Latinos can be explained by the fact that they are largely confined to blue-collar occupations and are therefore unable to accumulate enough wealth enabling a home outside of the barrio, Blacks face segregation regardless of socioeconomic status. The segregation of Mexican Americans is less severe and can be seen as a intermediary phenomenon that will slowly become less and less apparent. While Hispanics may find themselves less segregated as they move up the socioeconomic ladder, Blacks will continue to be spatially separated from Whites regardless of their socioeconomic status.


Secondly, the segregation for Black and Caribbean Latinos is much more severe than it is for others of Spanish-speaking heritage[70]. In other words, the darker ones skin, the most likely his or her chances of being confined to the barrio. An Hispanic with lighter colored skin would have an easier job finding residence within a white neighborhood than others with darker skin. Thus, it may be concluded that the largest factor for the segregation of Latinos who migrate into the United States is race.


However, it is also important to note that Latino segregation patterns are moving closer to those of African Americans. The amount of Latinos confined to the barrio is increasing while the severity of Black segregation is decreasing[71].


Segregated Schools


Simply by living in segregated neighborhoods, Mexican Americans have been confined to schools that differ greatly from schools attended by predominately white students. Schools located in or near the barrio often provide a lower quality of education than schools attended by Anglo children.


Historically, Mexican American children have been forced, regardless of proximity to predominately white schools, to register at “Mexican schools”, where classroom conditions were poor, the school year was shorter, and the quality of education was substandard. Unlike their African American peers, who were at least partially desegregated during the Civil Rights era, this situation was permanent and remained a problem for much longer[72]


Various reasons for the inferiority of Mexican American education has been listed by James A. Ferg-Cadima including: inadequate resources, poor equipment, unfit building construction, shortened school year (see below), failure to prevent drop out, limited access to high school, a watered down curriculum, poor instruction, disproportionate suspension, expulsion, harassment and non-enforced attendance rules.


Throughout the 1920’s and 1930’s, both the Mexican American and African American school years were shortened. In 1923, the Texas Education Survey Commission found that the school year for these minorities was1.6 months shorter than their Anglo peers [73]. This may be connected to the fact that minority labor was needed during this time. As the agricultural field required the cheap labor provided by exploited minorities, it has been suggested that the minority school year was shortened to allow for these students to work instead of receive the extra 1.6 months of education.


Others have interpreted the shortened school year as a “means of social control[74].” In other words, policies were implemented to ensure that Mexican Americans would become maintain the unskilled labor force required for a health economy. A lesser education would serve to confine Mexican Americans to the bottom rung of the social ladder. By limiting the number of days that Mexican Americans could attend school and allotting time for these same students to work, in mainly agricultural and seasonal jobs, the prospects for higher education and upward mobility are slim.


There is a definite connection between the quality of education received by one group of people and their respective occupational statuses. As Latinos graduate from high school and attend college in much lower numbers than other ethnic groups, they are restricted to white-collar and service occupations. Many people have pushed for the need for increased education to shrink the gap between by increasing enrollment of Latinos in every level of advancement, from the attainment of a high school degree all the way to a graduate degree[75].


In an effort to legitimize this segregation, various public officials have cited “language handicaps” as the reason for the necessity of separate schools[76]. Classifying Mexican Americans according to the language they speak has allowed school districts to legitimize the segregation of Mexican American students from their white peers. As these children grow up speaking their native language, they are limited to schools in which Spanish is the language of instruction.


Immigration and Segregation


When an immigrant enters the United States, it is likely that he or she will seek shelter and occupation within an “immigration hub.”


Immigration hubs are popular destinations for Latino immigrants. They are increasing in size and continue to be highly segregated. The largest immigration hubs include Los Angeles, New York, and Chicago. The highly segregated areas of these cities have historically served the purpose of allowing immigrants to become comfortable in the United States, accumulate wealth, and eventually leave[77]. The historical view of immigration hubs sees these cities as temporary starting points for immigrants. They are not expected to live their entire lives within the United States inside segregated areas. Rather, they are expected to accumulate enough wealth to start a life within the larger society.


This model of immigration and residential segregation, explained above, is the model which has historically been accurate in describing the experiences of Latino immigrant. However, the patterns of immigration seen today no longer follows this model. This old model is termed the standard spatial assimilation model. More contemporary models are the polarization model and the diffusion model.


The spatial assimilation model posits that as immigrants would live within this country’s borders, they would simultaneously become more comfortable in their new surroundings, their socioeconomic status would rise, and their ability to speak English would increase. The combination of these changes would allow for the immigrant to move out of the barrio and into the dominant society. This type of assimilation reflects the experiences of immigrants of the early twentieth century[78]. Recent, more contemporary, models of residential segregation are the polarization model and the diffusion model are described below.


Polarization model suggests that the immigration of non-Black minorities into the United States further separates Blacks and Whites, as though the new immigrants are a buffer between them. This creates a hierarchy in which Blacks are at the bottom, Whites are at the top, and other groups fill the middle[79]. In other words, the polarization model posits that Hispanics are less segregated than their African American peers because Anglo society would rather live closer to Hispanics than Blacks. Applying this model to the experiences of Mexican Americans forces one to see Mexican Americans as more accepted than Black minorities, yet still not treated as equally as Whites. They are allowed to move into neighborhoods closer to Anglos, even if this only occurs to keep a larger distance between Whites and Blacks.


The diffusion model has also been suggested as a way of describing the immigrant’s experience within the United States. This model is rooted in the belief that as time passes, more and more immigrants enter the country. This model suggests that as the United States becomes more populated with a more diverse set of peoples, stereotypes and discriminatory practices will decrease, as awareness and acceptness increase. The diffusion model predicts that new immigrants will break down old patterns of discrimination and prejudice, as one becomes more and more comfortable with the more diverse neighborhoods that are created through the influx of immigrants[80]. Applying this model to the experiences of Mexican Americans forces one to see Mexican American immigrants as positive additions to the “American melting pot,” in which as more additions are made to the pot, the more equal and accepting society will become.


Overcrowding


The issue of overcrowding is closely related to the issue of segregation and immigration. As immigrants enter the country, they are likely to settle in areas where their friends, family, or simply other who share their culture, have settled. It is not uncommon for many members of families, extended families, or friends, to live in what is considered "overcrowded" conditions.


A large aspect of the segregation of Latinos within the United States is overcrowding. Rates of overcrowding among Latinos, especially in American suburbs, are high. The U.S. Census Bureau considers a residence to be overcrowded if there is more than one person per room[81].


There are various explanations for overcrowding. One widely held belief about overcrowding is based on a stereotype of living in close proximity simply to cultural preference. To expand on that point, it is widely believed that immigrant Latino families live in dense households because of their desire to remain in close proximity with extended family. However, this view does not paint the entire picture. Some families may live under one roof by choice and it is possible that Latinos may have different cultural standards than other population groups, thus allowing them to be more comfortable living with extended family underneath the same roof. However, one cannot reduce all problems of Latino overcrowding to cultural preference, as this offers an incomplete understanding of the issue at hand[82].


Latinos may live in overcrowded conditions out of economic necessity and simply because they choose to live differently than others. Lack of affordable housing and a poor selection of well-paying occupations may combine to create the necessity of many living close together[83]. Because one certain family may find very few opportunities for sufficient housing or find themselves without adequate funds for a house of their own, they may be forced to live in crowded conditions.


References

  • Barrow, Lisa and Rouse, Cecilia Elena. "Do Returns to Schooling Differ by Race and Ethnicity?" American Economic Review 2005 95(2): 83-87. Issn: 0002-8282 Fulltext: in Ingenta and Ebsco
  • Jack Citrin, Amy Lerman, Michael Murakami and Kathryn Pearson, "Testing Huntington: Is Hispanic Immigration a Threat to American Identity?" Perspectives on Politics, Volume 5, Issue 01, February 2007, pp 31-48
  • De La Garza, Rodolfo O., Martha Menchaca, Louis DeSipio. Barrio Ballots: Latino Politics in the 1990 Elections (1994)
  • De la Garza, Rodolfo O. Awash in the Mainstream: Latino Politics in the 1996 Elections (1999) * De la Garza, Rodolfo O., and Louis Desipio. Ethnic Ironies: Latino Politics in the 1992 Elections (1996)
  • De la Garza, Rodolfo O. Et al. Latino Voices: Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban Perspectives on American Politics (1992)
  • Arnoldo De León, Mexican Americans in Texas: A Brief History, 2nd ed. (1999)
  • Erlinda Gonzales-Berry, David R. Maciel, editors, The Contested Homeland: A Chicano History of New Mexico 2000, ISBN 0-8263-2199-
  • Nancie L. González; The Spanish-Americans of New Mexico: A Heritage of Pride (1969)
  • Hero, Rodney E. Latinos and the U.S. Political System: Two-Tiered Pluralism. (1992)
  • Garcia, F. Chris. Latinos and the Political System. (1988)
  • Samuel P. Huntington. Who Are We: The Challenges to America's National Identity (2005)
  • Kenski, Kate and Tisinger, Russell. "Hispanic Voters in the 2000 and 2004 Presidential General Elections." Presidential Studies Quarterly 2006 36(2): 189-202. Issn: 0360-4918 Fulltext: in Swetswise and Ingenta
  • David Montejano, Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986 (1987)
  • Pachon, Harry and Louis Desipio. New Americans by Choice: Political Perspectives of Latino Immigrants. (1994)
  • Rosales, Francisco A., Chicano!: The history of the Mexican American civil rights movement. (1997). ISBN 1-55885-201-8
  • Smith, Robert Courtney. Mexican New York: Transnational Lives of New Immigrants (2005), links with old village, based on interviews
  • South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle; and Chavez, Erick. "Geographic Mobility and Spatial Assimilation among U.S. Latino Immigrants." International Migration Review 2005 39(3): 577-607. Issn: 0197-9183
  • Suárez-Orozco, Marcelo M. And Mariela M. Páez. Latinos: Remaking America. (2002)
  • Villarreal, Roberto E., and Norma G. Hernandez. Latinos and Political Coalitions: Political Empowerment for the 1990s (1991)

Further reading

  • Martha Menchaca (2002). Recovering History, Constructing Race: The Indian, Black, and White Roots of Mexican Americans. University of Texas Press, 19–21. ISBN 0292752547. 
  • William A. Nericcio (2007). "Tex(t)-Mex: Seductive Hallucination of the 'Mexican' in America"; utpress book; book galleryblog
  • John R. Chavez (1984). "The Lost Land: A Chicano Image of the American Southwest", New Mexico University Publications.

Notes

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  2. ^ Latina Muslim converts gather for Eid al-Fitr
  3. ^ a b Tafoya, Sonya (2004-12-06). Shades of Belonging (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved on 2008-06-03.
  4. ^ Latinos and the Changing Face of America - Population Reference Bureau
  5. ^ Mexican Americans - MSN Encarta
  6. ^ American Experience | Remember the Alamo | Timeline | PBS
  7. ^ (DV) Felux: Remember the Alamo?
  8. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=ENPUSvf4Z3EC&pg=PA41&dq=%22tejano+community%27s%22+%22texas+independence%22&sig=sgeYJ9hGcg2Fg2WPZc4AoeTREZE#PPA21,M1
  9. ^ http://bexargenealogy.com/Tejanos.html
  10. ^ The Hispanic Experience - Tejanos in the Texas Revolution
  11. ^ American Experience | The Gold Rush | People & Events | PBS
  12. ^ World Book Encyclopedia | Atlas | Homework Help
  13. ^ Bertoni et al, Admixture in Hispanics: Distribution of Ancestral Population Contributions in the United States, Human Biology - Volume 75, Number 1, February 2003, pp. 1-11
  14. ^ Racial Classifications in Latin America. Retrieved on 2006-12-25.
  15. ^ A History of Mexican Americans in California: Introduction.
  16. ^ a b c d e Gibson, Campbell (09 2002). Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States. Working Paper Series No. 56. Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  17. ^ US Population in the 1930 Census by Race (2002). Retrieved on 2006-12-07.
  18. ^ Surveillance Epidemology and End Results. Race and Nationality Descriptions from the 2000 US Census and Bureau of Vital Statistics. 2007. May 21, 2007.
  19. ^ Gross, Ariela J.. Texas Mexicans and the Politics of Whiteness. Law and History Review.
  20. ^ De Genova, Nicholas (2006). Racial Transformations: Latinos And Asians. Duke University Press, 96. ISBN 0822337169. 
  21. ^ History of Voting Rights in America » Cobb-LaMarche 2004 - Ballot Recount
  22. ^ press3b
  23. ^ Haney-Lopez, Ian F. (1996). "3 Prerequisite cases", White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race, 61. 
  24. ^ Haney-Lopez, Ian F. (1996). "Appendix "A"", White by Law: The Legal Construction of Race. 
  25. ^ RACE - History - Post-War Economic Boom and Racial Discrimination
  26. ^ JS Online: Filmmaker explores practice of redlining in documentary
  27. ^ press3b
  28. ^ Pulido, Laura. Black, Brown, Yellow, and Left: Radical Activism in Los Angeles. University of California Press, 53. ISBN 0520245202. 
  29. ^ Summary of Findings: Mixed Views on Immigration Bill
  30. ^ FRB: Testimony, Greenspan-Aging population-February 27, 2003
  31. ^ Immigration curbs hurting U.S., Greenspan says - USATODAY.com
  32. ^ Flores Niemann Yolanda, et al. ‘’Black-Brown Relations and Stereotypes’’ (2003); Charles Ramírez Berg, ’’Latino Images in Film: Stereotypes, Subversion, & Resistance’’ (2002); Chad Richardson, ‘’Batos, Bolillos, Pochos, and Pelados: Class & Culture on the South Texas Border’’ (1999)
  33. ^ Life on the Texas-Mexico Border: Myth and reality as represented in Mainstream and Independent Western Cinema
  34. ^ Steven H. Wilson | Brown over "Other White": Mexican Americans' Legal Arguments and Litigation Strategy in School Desegregation Lawsuits | Law and History Review, 21.1 | The History Cooperative
  35. ^ Journal of San Diego History
  36. ^ The lynching of persons of Mexican origin or descent in
  37. ^ 1930s Mexican Deportation: Educator brings attention to historic period and its affect on her family
  38. ^ Counseling Kevin: The Economy
  39. ^ Counseling Kevin: The Economy
  40. ^ World Book Encyclopedia | Atlas | Homework Help
  41. ^ press3b
  42. ^ Moore, J. W., & Cuéllar, A. B. (1970) Mexican Americans. Ethnic groups in American life series. Englewood, Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. pp. 78-79. ISBN 0135794900
  43. ^ LatinoLA - Latino Hollywood - On Screen and Behind the Scenes
  44. ^ TSHA Online - Texas State Historical Association
  45. ^ hhttp://www.oyez.org/cases/1950-1959/1953/1953_406/
  46. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=CzarnBhJiZUC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=history+residential+discrimination+%22mexican+americans%22&source=web&ots=E5sWzrye-1&sig=ASrRu7iGdrLIFEc6cNirTozixiU#PPA53,M1
  47. ^ RACE - History - Post-War Economic Boom and Racial Discrimination
  48. ^ JS Online: Filmmaker explores practice of redlining in documentary
  49. ^ press3b
  50. ^ Neo-Nazi Immigration Demo: More Fed Provocateuring?
  51. ^ 4 Are Held in Attack on Mexican Immigrants - New York Times
  52. ^ SAN DIEGO: Vigilante thugs sentenced
    in beating of elderly Mexican workers
  53. ^ http://www.adl.org/learn/extremism_in_the_news/White_Supremacy/arizona_vigilantes_40705.htm
  54. ^ SPLCenter.org: Immigration protesters joined by neo-Nazis in California
  55. ^ SPLCenter.org: Open Season
  56. ^ SPLCenter.org: Going Lawless
  57. ^ How Immigration is Rousing the Zealots - TIME
  58. ^ Democracy Now! | FBI Statistics Show Anti-Latino Hate Crimes on the Rise
  59. ^ http://ccsre.stanford.edu/reports/exec_summary5.pdf
  60. ^ Assimilation of immigrants is not a problem in the U.S. | Deseret News (Salt Lake City) | Find Articles at BNET.com
  61. ^ South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle; and Chavez, Erick. "Geographic Mobility and Spatial Assimilation among U.S. Latino Immigrants." International Migration Review 2005 39(3): 577-607. Issn: 0197-9183
  62. ^ Martin, Michael E. Residential Segregation Patterns of Latinos in the United States, 1990-2000. New York: Routledge, 2007.
  63. ^ Martin, Michael E. Residential Segregation Patterns of Latinos in the United States, 1990-2000. New York: Routledge, 2007.
  64. ^ Martin, Michael E. Residential Segregation Patterns of Latinos in the United States, 1990-2000. New York: Routledge, 2007.
  65. ^ James, Franklin J., and Eileen A. Tynan. Minorities in the Sunbelt. New Jersey: The State University of New Jersey, 1984.
  66. ^ James, Franklin J., and Eileen A. Tynan. Minorities in the Sunbelt. New Jersey: The State University of New Jersey, 1984.
  67. ^ James, Franklin J., and Eileen A. Tynan. Minorities in the Sunbelt. New Jersey: The State University of New Jersey, 1984.
  68. ^ James, Franklin J., and Eileen A. Tynan. Minorities in the Sunbelt. New Jersey: The State University of New Jersey, 1984.
  69. ^ Martin, Michael E. Residential Segregation Patterns of Latinos in the United States, 1990-2000. New York: Routledge, 2007.
  70. ^ Martin, Michael E. Residential Segregation Patterns of Latinos in the United States, 1990-2000. New York: Routledge, 2007.
  71. ^ Martin, Michael E. Residential Segregation Patterns of Latinos in the United States, 1990-2000. New York: Routledge, 2007.
  72. ^ Ferg-Cadima, James A. Black, White and Brown:. Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund. 28 Apr. 2008 <http://www.maldef.org/publications/pdf/LatinoDesegregationPaper2004.pdf>.
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  75. ^ Myers, Dowell, Julie Park, and Noel Hacegaba. Reversing the Shrinking Middle and Polarization of California's Labor Force. Center for Urban Education and Population Research Laboratory. <http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/CUE/documents/MyersShrinkingMiddlePaper.CUE.pdf>.
  76. ^ Ferg-Cadima, James A. Black, White and Brown:. Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund. 28 Apr. 2008 <http://www.maldef.org/publications/pdf/LatinoDesegregationPaper2004.pdf>.
  77. ^ White, Michael J., Catherine Bueker, and Jennifer E. Glick. The Impact of Immigration on Residential Segregation Revisted. <http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Sociology/faculty/mwhite/documents/impact_of_immigration_on_residential_segregation_revisited.pdf>.
  78. ^ Martin, Michael E. Residential Segregation Patterns of Latinos in the United States, 1990-2000. New York: Routledge, 2007.
  79. ^ White, Michael J., Catherine Bueker, and Jennifer E. Glick. The Impact of Immigration on Residential Segregation Revisted. <http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Sociology/faculty/mwhite/documents/impact_of_immigration_on_residential_segregation_revisited.pdf>.
  80. ^ White, Michael J., Catherine Bueker, and Jennifer E. Glick. The Impact of Immigration on Residential Segregation Revisted. <http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Sociology/faculty/mwhite/documents/impact_of_immigration_on_residential_segregation_revisited.pdf>.
  81. ^ Roth, Benjamin J. The Latino Community in Suburban Chicago: an Anaylsis of Overcrowding. Latinos United. <http://www.latinopolicyforum.org/drupal55/files/Overcrowding_Report.pdf>.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

See also

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mexican American - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2585 words)
The ethnonym Mexican American is the usual term of self description for people with strong ties to both the United States of America and Mexico.
Mexican Americans account for 64% of the Hispanic or Latino population of the United States.
The proximity of the two countries, a continuous influx of new arrivals, concentration in predominantly Mexican barrios and colonias and Spanish-language media enable Mexican immigrants to maintain ties with relatives in Mexico and the Spanish language to a degree not possible for previous immigrant groups with their respective countries of origin and native tongues.
Mexican–American War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4813 words)
Americans were already in California, coming by way of the California Trail, and American ships had been exchanging goods for hides and tallow along the coast of California.
Taylor ignored Mexican demands to withdraw to the Nueces and began constructing a make-shift fort (later known as Fort Brown) on the banks of the Rio Grande opposite the Mexican town of Matamoros.
In 1846, the Mexican territory of California was thinly populated, with small and scattered settlements of both Spanish-speaking Californios and Hispanos and English-speaking immigrants, and both were outnumbered by the Native American populations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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