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Encyclopedia > Metropolitan government

In the United States the term metropolitan government is most frequently used to describe a system of municipal government in which most or all of the functions of a government of a county are combined with those of its principal city. This plan is used to reduce redundant offices, laws and regulations, and sometimes to consolidate municipal enterprise operations such as utilities. It also tends to minimize jurisdictional disputes and make possible more comprehensive planning and zoning. Cities which have taken this step include Nashville, Tennessee, Miami, Florida, Lexington, Kentucky, Jacksonville, Florida, Louisville, Kentucky, and several others. This system is often informally referred to as "metro". See consolidated city-county. Originally, a county was the land under the jurisdiction of a count (in Great Britain, an earl, though the original earldoms covered larger areas) by reason of that office. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ... In general, zoning is the division of an area into sub-areas, called zones. ... Downtown Nashville at dusk, viewed from the Gateway Bridge Nashville is the capital of the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The Miami skyline, as it is seen from the northeast on Biscayne Bay. ... City nickname: Horse Capital of the World Location in the state of Kentucky County Fayette Mayor Teresa Isaac Area  - Land  - Water 285. ... The Jacksonville skyline and the Acosta Bridge. ... The official logo of Louisville Metro Louisville (usually pronounced ; see Pronunciation below) is Kentuckys largest city and the 16th largest city of the United States. ... In United States local government, a consolidated city-county is a city and county that have a merged government, and is considered both a city and a county under the laws of the State. ...


It could be argued that a truly "metropolitan" form of government would actually involve the entire metropolitan area of a major city, not just the county in which the major city is primarily located. While this would seem to be true, this is rare in practice, largely because U.S. counties and their politicians are traditionally very jealous guardians of their powers and very wary about developments that would tend to weaken or eliminate them. While there are many successful regional transit, utility, and planning agencies, there is very little in the U.S. of what might be called metropolitan government in its purest sense. Perhaps the arrangement closest to this is the one in Portland, Oregon where there is in fact a Metro agency created by and responsible to the voters of a multi-county area. That this practice should spread to other areas would seem to be common sense, but political realities tend to prevent it in most instances. The creation of such a body requires a very major commitment of time and effort by many private citizens and business leaders as well as politicians, and an electorate fairly concerned about municipal issues. Most voters in the U.S. are not deeply involved in politics, particularly at the local level, and discussions of most local issues will not generate much involvement in most areas until the citizens are being directly effected by a particular issue, at which point it may well be too late to do anything to change it. General discussions about how to improve local government rarely occur, and are widely ignored when they do. Until and unless this situation changes, there will be very few examples of true "metropolitan government" in the U.S. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Another issue will tend to make true metropolitan government more difficult to achieve, or at least temper its success. Many large metropolitan areas cross state borders, making cooperation more difficult because the United States Constitution requires Congressional approval of any agreement between states (Article I, Section 10). This in fact has somewhat tempered the success of Portland's Metro agency; it operates only on the Oregon side of the Columbia River (admittedly, the side with the large majority of the region's population) and not on the Washington side. Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... State nickname: Beaver State Other U.S. States Capital Salem Largest city Portland Governor Ted Kulongoski Official languages None Area 255,026 km² (9th)  - Land 248,849 km²  - Water 6,177 km² (2. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... State nickname: The Evergreen State Other U.S. States Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Governor Christine Gregoire Official languages None Area 184,824 km² (18th)  - Land 172,587 km²  - Water 12,237 km² (6. ...


Often, the aversion to another level of government leads municipalities to form coalitions — essentially governmental organizations which are not empowered with any lawmaking or law enforcement powers. This is the case in the Atlanta metropolitan area, where the Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) studies and makes recommendations on the impact of all major construction and development projects on the region, but generally cannot stop them. The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority (GRTA) is a true government agency of the state of Georgia, and does control some state transportation monies to the cities and counties, but otherwise has very little authority beyond this small power of the purse. A Coalition is an alliance between entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ... Law (a loanword from Old Norse lag), in politics and jurisprudence, is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate, proscribe or permit specified relationships among people and organizations, provide methods for ensuring the impartial treatment of such people, and provide punishments for those who do not follow... For the band, see The Police. ... According to the 2000 census, the 28-county Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area has a population of 4,247,981 making it the eleventh largest metropolitan area in the United States. ... Impact - the (possibly destructive) effect of transfer of energy from one object striking another resulting in a near-instant change of relative velocity. ... Construction on the North Bytown Bridge in Ottawa, Canada. ... Development has meaning in several contexts: Biological development of embryos in the context of developmental biology Child development or post-natal human development (pediatrics, etc) Personal development (New Age self improvement) Economic development in economics and international relations Human development - to improve the health, education and range of choices of... A region can be any area that has some unifying feature. ... The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority or GRTA (pronounced like the name Greta) is a government agency in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... An agency is a department of a local or national government responsible for the oversight and administration of a specific function, such as a customs agency or a space agency. ... State nickname: Peach State / Empire of the South Other U.S. States Capital Atlanta Largest city Atlanta Governor Sonny Perdue Official languages English Area 154,077 km² (24th)  - Land 150,132 km²  - Water 3,945 km² (2. ... Moneys is an agreement within a community, to use something as a medium of exchange, which acts as an intermediary market good. ... The power of the purse is the ability of a government or other organisation to manipulate the actions of another group by withholding funding. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Metropolitan Government (587 words)
Metro Toronto served as the model for the regional governments of Ottawa-Carleton (1969), Hamilton-Wentworth (1974) and the metropolitan corporation of Greater Winnipeg (1961-71); however, in Winnipeg the metro council was directly elected and its responsibilities fewer.
Metropolitan governments always seem to be the subject of some sort of ROYAL COMMISSION.
For example, metropolitan governments would sell water wholesale to municipalities, which were responsible for local deliveries; build freeways, although municipalities controlled local roads and parking; issue area-wide plans, but leave municipalities the power to issue building permits and make the water and sewage connections.
Rockefeller Commission on Population and the American Future - Chapter 6 Government (4932 words)
Government represents not only a universally and vitally important segment of our national life that is affected by population change; it also constitutes the channel through which a national concern with population must act to affect the causes and cope with the consequences of population growth and change.
And, it may be difficult to persuade elected officials in districts or states that would lose population relative to other areas, that the national interest demands a planned reduction in the population of their constituency—and a consequent reduction in the number of representatives, political influence, and federal funds tied to population size criteria.
The fragmentation of metropolitan areas into many municipalities, each with power to zone its own land, and each relying on its property tax base for general revenues, effectively prevents the organization or coordination of local zoning changes to implement a strategy for population distribution or development on a metropolitan-wide basis.
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