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Encyclopedia > Metropolitan county
The six metropolitan counties shown within England
The six metropolitan counties shown within England

The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level subnational entity in current use in England. There are six metropolitan counties and they cover large urban areas. They were created in 1974 and are each divided into several metropolitan districts. Image File history File links MetCountiesEngland. ... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: England Travel guide to England from Wikitravel English language English law English (people) List of monarchs of England – Kings of England family tree List of English people Angeln (region in northern Germany, presumably the origin of the Angles for whom England is named) UK... A Metropolitan Borough (or Metropolitan District) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ...


The county councils were abolished in 1986 with most of their functions being devolved to the individual boroughs or taken over by joint-boards. In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ...

Contents


Counties and districts

The six metropolitan counties and their metropolitan districts (also known as boroughs) are:

Metropolitan county Metropolitan boroughs
Greater Manchester Manchester, Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan
Merseyside Liverpool, Knowsley, Sefton, St Helens, Wirral
South Yorkshire Sheffield, Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham
Tyne and Wear Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Tyneside, North Tyneside, Sunderland
West Midlands Birmingham, Coventry, Dudley, Sandwell, Solihull, Walsall, Wolverhampton
West Yorkshire Leeds, Bradford, Calderdale, Kirklees, Wakefield

The structure of Greater London is similar to the metropolitan counties and it is sometimes considered to be one. It was created earlier, in 1965, by the London Government Act 1963. Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in England established in 1974 which covers an area roughly encompassing the conurbation surrounding the City of Manchester. ... Manchester is a city in the North West of England. ... Bolton is a metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. ... Bury is a metropolitan borough in northern Greater Manchester. ... Oldham is a metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. ... Rochdale is a metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester in North West England. ... Salford is a metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester in North West England. ... Stockports Town Hall Stockport is a town in Greater Manchester, in North West England. ... Tameside is a metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester in North West England. ... Trafford is a metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. ... Wigan is a Metropolitan Borough in Greater Manchester, in North West England. ... Merseyside is a metropolitan county, located in the North West of England. ... Liverpools skyline, as seen from the River Mersey. ... Knowsley is a metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. ... Note: See Sefton, Australia for Sefton, Sydney, Australia. ... St Helens is a metropolitan borough in Merseyside, North West England. ... Wirral is a metropolitan borough in Merseyside, North West England, which occupies the northern part of the Wirral Peninsula, more commonly known as The Wirral. ... South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Barnsley is a metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. ... Doncaster is a metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. ... Rotherham is a metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire, England. ... Tyne and Wear is one of six metropolitan counties in England, comprising the estuary areas of the rivers Tyne and Wear. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... Gateshead is a metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear, in north-east England. ... South Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear in North East England. ... North Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in the North East of England, part of the Tyne and Wear urban area centred on Newcastle and formerly part of Northumberland. ... The City of Sunderland is a metropolitan borough in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear in North East England. ... The County of West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England, the United Kingdom, formed in 1974. ... The city from above Centenary Square. ... The Precinct in Coventry city centre. ... The Metropolitan borough of Dudley is a metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. ... Sandwell is a metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. ... Solihull is a metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. ... Walsall is a metropolitan borough of the county of West Midlands, England. ... Wolverhampton is an industrial, commercial and university city and metropolitan borough in the English West Midlands, traditionally part of the county of Staffordshire. ... West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England, corresponding roughly to the core of the West Riding of the traditional county of Yorkshire. ... The City of Leeds is a metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire in northern England, stretching from Otley in the north, on the border with North Yorkshire, to the border with the district of Wakefield in the south, and from Pudsey on the border with the district of the City of... The City of Bradistan Metropolitan District is a metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. ... Calderdale is a metropolitan district in West Yorkshire, England. ... ... This article discusses the metropolitan district and named the City of Wakefield. ... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The London Government Act 1963 was an Act of the UK parliament which led to the official recognition of the conurbation known as Greater London. ...


History

Creation

The idea for creating administrative areas based upon the large conurbations outside London, was first mooted by the Redcliffe-Maud Report in the late 1960s. The report proposed the creation of three large "metropolitan areas" based upon the conurbations surrounding Manchester, Liverpool and Birmingham. A conurbation is an urban area comprising a number of cities or towns which, through population growth and expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area. ... Part of the London skyline viewed from the South Bank London is the most populous city in the European Union, with an estimated population on 1 January 2005 of 7. ... Local government in England as proposed by the report. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Manchester is a city in the North West of England. ... Liverpools skyline, as seen from the River Mersey. ... The city from above Centenary Square. ...


The proposals of the report were radically altered when Edward Heath's Conservative government came to power in 1970. The metropolitan areas were re-named metropolitan counties, and three new areas were added (Tyne and Wear, West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire). In their final form, the counties were also far smaller than in the original proposals. The Right Honourable Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG , MBE (July 9, 1916 – July 17, 2005), soldier and politician, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... The Conservative Party is the largest political party on the right-of-centre in the United Kingdom. ... Tyne and Wear is one of six metropolitan counties in England, comprising the estuary areas of the rivers Tyne and Wear. ... West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England, corresponding roughly to the core of the West Riding of the traditional county of Yorkshire. ... South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. ...


The metropolitan counties were established by the Local Government Act 1972, the county councils were first elected in 1973, and were formally established in April 1974. The Local Government Act 1972 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom, that reformed local government in England and Wales, on April 1, 1974. ... Look up April in Wiktionary, the free dictionary April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ...


Structure

The metropolitan counties were first created with a two-tier structure of local government. Local government functions were divided between the metropolitan district councils as lower tier authorities and metropolitan county councils (MCCs) as the upper tier. A metropolitan borough (or metropolitan district) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ...


The structure differed from the shire counties in the allocation of powers between the county and district councils. The metropolitan districts had more powers than non-metropolitan districts in shire counties, in that they were responsible for services such as education, and social services. In the shire counties these were the responsibility of the county councils. A shire county or non-metropolitan county in England, is an administrative county which is not a metropolitan county. ... Non-metropolitan districts (usually just called Districts) are local government sub-divisions of English Counties. ...


The metropolitan county councils (MCCs) were intended to be strategic authorities that ran regional services such as main roads, public transport, emergency services, civil protection, waste disposal and strategic town and country planning. The MCCs functioned between 1974 and 1986. The last elections to the councils were held in May 1981. Town and Country Planning is the system by which the British government seeks to maintain a balance between economic development and environmental quality in England. ... This article is about the month of May. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Abolition of the county councils

Just a decade after they were established: the MCCs, and Ken Livingstone's Greater London Council had several high profile clashes with the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher. In 1983 the government published a White Paper entitled Streamlining the cities which proposed the abolition of the MCCs, together with the abolition of the Greater London Council (GLC), the government enacted the report in the Local Government Act 1985. And the MCCs and the GLC were abolished in 1986. Ken Livingstone Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born June 17, 1945), is a British local government leader. ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... The Right Honourable Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925), is a British politician. ... A white paper can be an authoritative report on a major issue, as by a team of experts; a government report outlining policy; or a short treatise whose purpose is to educate industry customers. ... Streamlining the cities: Government proposals for reorganising local government in Greater London and the Metropolitan counties was a government white paper issued in 1983, by the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher which lead to the abolition of the Greater London Council (GLC) and the metropolitan county councils (MCCs). ... Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... The Local Government Act 1985 was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom. ...


The government claimed that this was an efficiency measure. Although it is widely believed that they were abolished for political reasons, because all of the county councils were controlled by the Labour Party. The Labour Party is the principal centre-left political party in the United Kingdom (see British politics). ...


Most of the functions of the MCCs passed either to the metropolitan borough councils, or to joint-boards. Some assets were given to residuary bodies for disposal. A Metropolitan Borough (or Metropolitan District) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ...


The status today

The metropolitan counties are sometimes referred to as "former metropolitan counties", although this description is not entirely correct; although the county councils were abolished, the metropolitan counties still exist legally, and are also ceremonial counties (or geographic counties), they are also used in government statistics. The Ceremonial counties of England are areas of England that are appointed a Lord-Lieutenant, and are defined by the government with reference to the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England. ...


Some local services are still run on a metropolitan county-wide basis, administered by joint-boards, these include emergency services, (policing and fire) public transport (by joint Passenger Transport Executives), waste disposal and civil defence. These joint-boards are made up of councillors appointed by the boroughs. The United Kingdom is made up of four parts - England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ... Emergency services are services that deal with emergencies and other aspects of Public Safety. ... Skytrain Bangkok. ... In the United Kingdom, Passenger Transport Executives (PTEs) are local government bodies which are responsible for public transport within large urban areas. ... Waste management is literally the process of managing waste materials (normally those produced as a result of human activities). ... The old American Civil Defense logo, used today federally only as a historical reminder on FEMAs seal, the triangle emphasises the 3-step Civil Defense philosophy used before the foundation of FEMA and Comprehensive Emergency Management. ...


In the 1990s many of the so-called 'artificial' counties which were created in 1974 such as Avon, Cleveland and Humberside were abolished completely due to their unpopularity. However the metropolitan counties were judged to be a success and were retained in their post-1986 form. The 1990s refers to the years 1990 to 1999; the last decade of the 20th Century, but in an economical sense The Nineties is often considered to span from the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 to the September 11 attacks in 2001. ... Northavon Bristol Kingswood Woodspring Wansdyke Bath The County of Avon was a short-lived administrative county in the west of England, named after the River Avon which ran through it. ... Status: Non-metropolitan county Admin. ... Humberside as an administrative county between 1974 and 1996. ...


The abolition of the GLC was extremely controversial, but the MCCs less so. In 1997 Tony Blair's new Labour government legislated to restore a successor body to the GLC: the Greater London Authority. Despite some talk of doing so, no bodies have been established to replace the MCCs. The Blair government instead pursued the idea of elected Regional Assemblies, although this idea now looks dead. The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. ... The Greater London Authority (GLA) administers the 1579 sq. ... Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ...


One possible alternative floated subsequent to the rejection of regional assemblies is that of the City region, an idea which is currently under exploration by the government and several think tanks. For instance, an ODPM strategy paper in 2005 proposed that new directly elected mayors could instead hold office across several urban councils, in effect a city region. The term city region has been in use since about 1950 by urbanists, economists and urban planners to mean not just the administrative area of a recognisable city or conurbation but also its hinterland that will often be far bigger. ...


Since the 1995, the cities of Birmingham, Bristol, Leeds, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham and Sheffield have assembled together in the Core Cities Group. This organisation accords no distinct legal status on these councils over any other city council in England but appears to be organically moving towards some kind of recognition of their role as regional capitals outside of London. The city from above Centenary Square. ... Bristol is a unitary authority with city and ceremonial county status in South West England. ... Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of the City of Leeds in West Yorkshire in the north of England. ... Liverpools skyline, as seen from the River Mersey. ... Manchester is a city in the North West of England. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... Nottingham is a city and county town of Nottinghamshire, in the East Midlands of England. ... Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in the north of England. ... The Core Cities Group is an association of Englands eight major provincial cities which have come together to promote their common interests as regional capitals outside of London. ...


See also


This is a list of articles relating to local government in the United Kingdom and does not include specific entities or authorities: 1990s UK local government reform Administrative county Administrative counties of England Administrative counties of Scotland Ceremonial counties of England Civil parish Community County County borough County corporate County...

Structure of subnational entities in England 1974 - 1990s
County level: Metropolitan county Non-metropolitan county Greater London
District level: Metropolitan district Non-metropolitan district London borough
Parish level: (Civil parish) (Civil parish) n/a


A shire county or non-metropolitan county in England, is an administrative county which is not a metropolitan county. ... Greater London is the top level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... A Metropolitan Borough (or Metropolitan District) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ... Non-metropolitan districts (usually just called Districts) are local government sub-divisions of English Counties. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains 32 London Boroughs, of which 12 (plus the City of London) make up Inner London and 20 Outer London. ... In England a civil parish (usually just parish) is the smallest unit of local government. ... In England a civil parish (usually just parish) is the smallest unit of local government. ...

Current structure of subnational entities in England (2006)
Region level: Region Region Region Region
County level: Metropolitan county Shire county Unitary authority Greater London
District level: Metropolitan district Shire district n/a London borough
Parish level: (Civil parish) (Civil parish) (Civil parish) n/a

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