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Encyclopedia > Metropolis (1927 movie)
Metropolis
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Metropolis

Metropolis is a science fiction film produced in Germany set in a futuristic urban dystopia. Released in 1927, it is a black and white silent film directed by Austrian Fritz Lang and was the most expensive silent film of that time, costing 7 million Mark (equivalent to around $200 million today) [1]. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 89 KB)Fritz Langs Metropolis. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 89 KB)Fritz Langs Metropolis. ... Poster for The Day the Earth Stood Still, an archetypal science fiction film Science fiction as a genre of film making has been an element of the cinema experience since the earliest days of the motion picture industry. ... A dystopia (alternatively, cacotopia, kakotopia or anti-utopia) is the antithesis of a utopian society. ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... Fritz Lang Friedrich Anton Christian Lang (December 5, 1890 - August 2, 1976) was an Austrian film director, screenwriter and occasional film producer, one of the best known emigrés from Germanys school of expressionism to work in Hollywood. ...


The screenplay was written in 1924 by Lang and his wife Thea von Harbou and novelized in 1926 by von Harbou. Thea von Harbou (December 27, 1888 – July 1, 1954) was a German actress and author. ...

Contents


Plot

Rotwang with his invention
Rotwang with his invention

Note : There are multiple versions of Metropolis. The original German version remained unseen for many decades. Of this version a quarter of the footage is believed to be permanently lost. The US version shortened and re-written by Channing Pollock is the most commonly known and discussed. Metropolis - Fritz Lang. ...


The film is set in the year 2026, in the extraordinary Gothic skyscrapers of a corporate city-state, the Metropolis of the title. Society has been divided into two rigid groups: one of planners or thinkers, who live high above the earth in luxury, and another of workers who live underground toiling to sustain the lives of the privileged. The city is run by Johhan 'Joh' Fredersen (Alfred Abel). Centuries: 20th century - 21st century - 22nd century Decades: 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s - 2020s - 2030s 2040s 2050s 2060s 2070s Years: 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 - 2026 - 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 Events The southern extension of BART to connect the East Bay with Silicon Valley in California is scheduled to... Gothic architecture characterizes any of the styles of European architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, in use throughout Europe during the high and late medieval period, from the 12th century onwards. ... Taipei 101, the worlds tallest skyscraper by roof height on high rise. ... A metropolitan area is a large population center consisting of a large city and its adjacent zone of influence, or of several neighboring cities or towns and adjoining areas, with one or more large cities serving as its hub or hubs. ...


The beautiful and evangelical figure Maria (Brigitte Helm) takes up the cause of the workers. She advises the desperate workers not to start a revolution, and instead wait for the arrival of "The Mediator", who, she says, will unite the two halves of society. The son of Fredersen, Freder (Gustav Fröhlich), becomes infatuated with Maria, and descends into the working underworld. In the underworld, he experiences first-hand the toiling lifestyle of the workers, and observes the casual attitude of their employers (he is disgusted after seeing an explosion at the "M-Machine", when the employers bring in new workers to keep the machine running before taking care of the men wounded or killed in the accident). Shocked at the working conditions, he joins her cause. Meanwhile his father Fredersen learns of the existence of The Robot built by the scientist Rotwang (Rudolf Klein-Rogge) (Rotwang wanted to give the Robot the appearance of Fredersen's dead wife Hel) and orders Rotwang to give the Robot Maria's appearance. By doing so he wants to spread disorder among the workers what would give him the pretext to carry out a retaliatory strike against the workers. Brigitte Helm (March 17, 1908 – June 11, 1996) was a German actress. ... A humanoid robot playing the trumpet In practical usage, a robot is a mechanical device which performs automated physical tasks, either according to direct human supervision, a pre-defined program or, a set of general guidelines using artificial intelligence techniques. ...


The real Maria is imprisoned in Rotwang's house in Metropolis, whilst the robot Maria becomes an exotic dancer in the city's nightclubs, fomenting discord amongst the rich young men of Metropolis. The workers are encouraged by the robot Maria into a full-scale rebellion, and destroy the "Heart Machine", the power station of the city. However, the destruction of the machine leads to the city's reservoirs overfilling, which floods the workers' underground city and seemingly drowns their children, who were left behind in the riot. When the workers realise this, they attack out into the gridlocked and confused upper city, foreshadowing the "destruction of the enemy in the citadel" ending still seen in films. The crowd breaks into the city's entertainment district and capture the robot Maria, who they believe is responsible for drowning their children. They burn the robot at the stake, and when Freder sees this, he believes that it is the real Maria and despairs. However, Freder and the workers then realise that "Maria" is in fact a robot, and see the real Maria being chased by Rotwang along the battlements of the city's cathedral. Freder chases after Rotwang, resulting in a climatic scene in which Joh Fredersen watches in terror as his son struggles with Rotwang on the cathedral's roof. Rotwang falls to his death, and Maria and Freder return to the street, where Freder unites Joh and Grot, the workers' leader, fulfilling his role as the "Mediator". A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy (such as the Roman Catholic Church or the Anglican churches), which serves as the central church of a bishopric. ...


Themes

One of the most impressive scenes features the flooding of the underground worker's city

The film contains a scene where Maria retells the story of the Tower of Babel from the Biblical book of Genesis, but in a way that connects it to the situation she and her fellow workers face. The scene changes from Maria to creative men of antiquity deciding to build a monument to the greatness of humanity, high enough to reach the heavens. Since they cannot build their monument by themselves, they concentrate workers to build it for them. The camera focuses on armies of workers unwillingly led to the construction site of the monument. They work hard but cannot understand the dreams of the Tower's designers, and the designers don't concern themselves with the fate of their workers. As the film explains "The dreams of a few had turned to the curses of many". The workers revolt and in their fury destroy the monument. As the scene ends and the camera returns to Maria, only ruins remain of the Tower of Babel. This retelling is notable in keeping the theme of the lack of communication from the original story but placing it in the context of relations between social classes and omitting the presence of God. Metropolis 1927 This is a screenshot of a copyrighted website, video game graphic, computer program graphic, television broadcast, or film. ... The Tower of Babel by Pieter Brueghel the Elder According to the narrative in Genesis Chapter 11 of the Bible, the Tower of Babel was a tower built by a united humanity in order to reach the heavens. ... The holy Jewish scripture: The Torah. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... Social class describes the relationships between people in hierarchical societies or cultures. ... The term God (capitalized in English language as a proper noun) is often used to refer vaguely to a Supreme Being. ...


The entire film is dominated by technology, with Lang using a mixture of both 1920s and futuristic devices. Much of the technology portrayed in the film is unexplained and appears bizarre - such as the enormous "M-Machine" and the "Heart Machine". Whilst the Heart Machine is implied to be the electrical power station of the city, the purpose of the M-Machine is never revealed, despite it playing a significant part in the film. While Freder is in the subterranean factories, he swaps places with an exhausted worker and takes over his seemingly pointless task - moving the dials of a gigantic clock-like device in accordance with flashing light bulbs. However, other machines featured in the film anticipate future inventions - Joh Fredersen's office has a television-like device which allows him to contact his overseers in the factories, and built into his desk is an electronic console which allows him to remotely open doors, etc. Also in his office is an automated electronic ticker-tape, with a weary and frustrated clerk constantly writing down the latest stock market prices. In the city itself, we see a mixture of futuristic monorails and airships combined with 1920s-style cars and aeroplanes. The Walt Disney World Monorail A monorail is a metro or railroad with a track consisting of a single rail (actually a beam), as opposed to the traditional track with two parallel rails. ... Akron in flight, 2 November 1931 An airship is a buoyant (lighter_than_air) aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... Cars is: The plural of the car Cars, the seventh Pixar movie, scheduled for release in 2006, and the final Disney/Pixar movie. ... This article refers to the tool of travel. ...


The ultimate expression of technology in the entire film is the female robot built by Rotwang, referred to as the "Maschinenmensch" or "Machine Human" although it is often translated as "Machine Man" in the US version. In the original German version Rotwang's creation is a reconstruction of his dead lover, a woman called Hel (a reference to Hel (goddess)). Both Rotwang and Joh Fredersen were in love with her. She chose Fredersen and became Freder's mother, though she died in childbirth. Rotwang, insanely jealous and angry about her death, creates the Maschinenmensch Hel. In the US version, The Machine Man is merely a fully functioning automaton which can be programmed to perform a variety of human tasks, whilst its appearance can be synthesised to resemble any human being. However, the Machine Man is sentient, and has its own agenda different to that of its creators. It performs the required task of fomenting revolution, but then becomes an exotic dancer, turning the young men of Metropolis against one another for its own entertainment. This anticipates the themes of many late-twentieth century films, in which seemingly unsentient machines gain consciousness and turn against the intentions of their creators. A humanoid robot playing the trumpet In practical usage, a robot is a mechanical device which performs automated physical tasks, either according to direct human supervision, a pre-defined program or, a set of general guidelines using artificial intelligence techniques. ... Hel is the goddess of the underworlds, Helheim and Niflheim, in Norse mythology. ... A drummer automaton An automaton (plural: automata) is a self-operating machine. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


Part of Fritz Lang's inspiration for the movie came during a trip to Manhattan, New York. He is quoted on the DVD of the Murnau Foundation version as saying "I saw the buildings like a vertical curtain, opalescent, and very light. Filling the back of the stage, hanging from a sinister sky, in order to dazzle, to diffuse, to hypnotize." Fritz Lang Friedrich Anton Christian Lang (December 5, 1890 - August 2, 1976) was an Austrian film director, screenwriter and occasional film producer, one of the best known emigrés from Germanys school of expressionism to work in Hollywood. ... Manhattan is an island bordering the lower Hudson River. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ...


Visual effects

The film features special effects and set design that still impress modern audiences with their visual impact — glorious expressionist design and geometric forms. The effects expert, Eugen Schüfftan, created innovative visual displays widely acclaimed in following years. Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... Expressionism in filmmaking developed in Germany (especially Berlin) during the 1920s. ...


Among the effects used are miniatures of the city, a camera on a swing, and most notably, the so-called Schüfftan process, later also used by Alfred Hitchcock. In the field of special effects a miniature effect is a special effect generated by the use of scale models. ... The Schüfftan process, named after its inventor Eugen Schüfftan (1893–1977), is a movie special effect widely used in the first half of the 20th century. ... Alfred Hitchcock Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, KCB, (13 August 1899 – 29 April 1980) was a British film director closely associated with the thriller genre. ...


The Maschinenmensch, actually played by Brigitte Helm was created by Walter Schultze-Mittendorf. A chance discovery of a sample of "plastic wood" a kneadable substance made of wood allowed him to sculpt the costume like a suit of armour over a plaster cast of the actress. Spraypainted a mix of silver and bronze it helped create some of the most memorable moments on film. Helm suffered greatly during the filming of these scenes, wearing this rigid and uncomfortable costume, cutting and bruising her. But Fritz Lang insisted on her playing the part, even if nobody would know it was her. Brigitte Helm (March 17, 1908 – June 11, 1996) was a German actress. ...


"Disassembly" and restoration

DVD cover for the 2002 restored version
DVD cover for the 2002 restored version

On January 10, 1927 the film premiered in Berlin, with moderate success. In the United States, the movie was shown in a version edited by the American playwright Channing Pollock, who almost completely obscured the original plot, considered too controversial by the American distributors, and is considerably shortened. In Germany, a version similar to Pollock's was shown on August 5. Only copies of these versions—mostly considered as badly-edited—remain today. Download high resolution version (840x1107, 152 KB)DVD cover scan from the movie Metropolis, personal scan, claiming fair use (does not detract from original work, scanned from legal copy, image is of sufficiently low resolution). ... Download high resolution version (840x1107, 152 KB)DVD cover scan from the movie Metropolis, personal scan, claiming fair use (does not detract from original work, scanned from legal copy, image is of sufficiently low resolution). ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...   Berlin? (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,426,000 inhabitants (as of January 2005); down from 4. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ...


Several restored versions (all of them missing footage) were released in the 1980s and 1990s, running for around 90 minutes. 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... // Events and trends The 1990s are generally classified as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but keeping the same mind-set. ...


In 1984, a new restoration and edit of the film was compiled by Giorgio Moroder, a music producer who specialized in pop-rock soundtracks for motion pictures. Moroder’s version of the film introduced a new modern rock-and-roll soundtrack for the film, as well as playing at 24 frames per second and integrating the captions into the film itself as subtitles. His version of the film is only 80 minutes in length. The “Moroder version” of Metropolis sparked heated debate among film buffs and fans, with outspoken critics and supporters of the film falling into equal camps. In the 1990s, the Club Foot Orchestra scored, performed, and recorded a new soundtrack for this version of the film. 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Giorgio Moroder Giorgio Moroder (born April 26, 1940 in Ortisei, (Urtijëi in Ladin, St. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Film soundtrack. ... Production of teletext subtitles A subtitle can refer to one of two things: textual versions of a film or television programs dialogue that appear onscreen, or an explanatory or alternate title, in addition to the main title of a work. ...


Enno Patalas made an exhaustive attempt to restore the movie in 1986. This restoration was by that time the most accurate, thanks to the script and the musical score that had been discovered. The basis of Patalas' work was a copy in the Museum of Modern Art's collection. German film historian, collector, and restorer. ... General Electric GE90-115B fanblade, on display at MOMA. The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City. ...


The F.W. Murnau Foundation released a 118-minute, digitally restored version in 2002. It included title cards describing the action in the missing sequences and, again, the original music score. (It is believed that the original film was over 210 minutes.) F W Murnau Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau (December 28, 1888 – March 11, 1931) was one of the most influential directors of the silent film era. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Most silent films, including Metropolis, were shot at speeds of between 16 and 20 frames per second, but the digitally restored version with soundtrack plays at the standard sound speed of 24 frames per second (25 on PAL and SECAM videos and DVDs), which often makes the action look unnaturally fast. The reason for the decision to show the film at this speed is not clear. In the 1970s the BBC prepared a version with electronic sound that ran at 18 frames per second and consequently had much more realistic-looking movement. For other meanings of PAL see PAL (disambiguation). ... SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for sequential colour with memory) is an analog color television system first used in France. ... This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) was formed in 1927 by means of a royal charter. ...


Political significance

Metropolis's theme is connected with both Fascism and Socialism - the most powerful political ideologies of that time in Europe. The idea of the film is that the workers are oppressed, and their leader is Maria. In order to destroy the workers, Freder sends a robot who, disguised as Maria, leads the workers to destroy the dam and flood their homes. Some interpret this as an Anti-Communist message, claiming that the Communists, by calling the workers to revolt are leading them to destruction. Maria repeatedly claims that what the workers need is a Mediator. Some interpret this as a reference to Corporate Statism the fascist concept where the ruling party acts as a mediator between the workers and the capitalists. Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ...


There is a rumour that Metropolis was one of the favorite films of Adolf Hitler and he tried to get Fritz Lang to make propaganda films for him. Allegedly Hitler's interpretation of the film saw the oppressors, specifically Fredersen, as being Jewish. This rumour has its roots in a passage in Siegfried Kracauer's book From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was the Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and chancellor) of Germany from 1933 to his death. ... Fritz Lang Friedrich Anton Christian Lang (December 5, 1890 - August 2, 1976) was an Austrian film director, screenwriter and occasional film producer, one of the best known emigrés from Germanys school of expressionism to work in Hollywood. ... Siegfried Kracauer (February 8, 1889, Frankfurt am Main, Germany - November 26, 1966, New York) was a journalist, sociologist, and film critic. ...

Joseph Goebbels, the head of the Nazi party's Ministry of Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda organization became interested in Metropolis, too. According to Lang, "… he told me that, many years before, he and the Führer had seen my picture Metropolis in a small town, and Hitler had said at that time that he wanted me to make Nazi pictures" (Kracauer 164).

Most of Metropolis was filmed at UFA studios at Babelsberg and was enormously expensive. Some sources put the total cost at four times the original budget. The official costs accumulated to 7 million mark (about 200 million dollars now). These cost overruns were a contributing factor in UFA's financial instability through the late 1920s and its subsequent appropriation by Nazi interests. View of Ufa 100 years ago. ...


Influence

This film has influenced many science fiction movies to the present day, including Blade Runner, Dark City, the Star Wars series, and The Matrix. The "Tower of Babel" structure is a key element in several films; in turn, Metropolis's tower appears to derive from Hans Poelzig's stocky, polygonal, modernistic water tower built in Posen in 1911. But the earliest films to be influenced were Just Imagine of 1930, which also featured a city with much air transport among and between skyscrapers connected by bridges, and Vultan's city in the first Flash Gordon serial of 1936, which had a sweatshop controlled by an operator who moved the needle of a huge dial while standing up. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Blade Runner is a science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott and released in 1982, depicting a dark, dystopic vision of Los Angeles in November 2019. ... Dark City is a 1998 movie written and directed by Alex Proyas. ... For the film originally released under the name Star Wars, see Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. ... The Matrix is a film first released in the USA on March 31, 1999, written and directed by the Wachowski brothers (Andy and Larry). ... Hans Poelzig (April 30, 1869 Berlin - June 14, 1936 Berlin) was a German architect active in the Weimar years. ... Posen (Polish: Poznań): is the German name of the city of Poznań, Poland. ... 1911 is a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... Just Imagine was a humorous movie musical presented by Fox Films in 1930 directed by David Butler, to console the audience distressed by the Great Depression. ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Flash Gordon is a science fiction comic strip originally drawn by Alex Raymond, first published on January 7, 1934. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Rotwang, the film's mad scientist, has lost his right hand and has replaced it with a black prosthesis. In the film Dr. Strangelove, directed by Stanley Kubrick and first released on January 29, 1964, the German mad scientist Dr. Strangelove wears a black glove on his right hand, a hand which he cannot consciously control. This is considered to be a tribute to the earlier film. They LAUGHED at my theories at the institute! Fools! Ill destroy them all! Caucasian, male, aging, crooked teeth, messy hair, lab coat, spectacles/goggles, dramatic posing — one popular stereotype of mad scientist. ... The hand (med. ... A United States soldier demonstrates Foosball with two prosthetic limbs In medicine, a prosthesis is an artificial extension that replaces a missing part of the body. ... For the hit 1987 single by Depeche Mode, see the album Music for the Masses Film poster for Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is a 1964 satirical film directed by Stanley Kubrick. ... Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... They LAUGHED at my theories at the institute! Fools! Ill destroy them all! Caucasian, male, aging, crooked teeth, messy hair, lab coat, spectacles/goggles, dramatic posing — one popular stereotype of mad scientist. ...


A similar theme shows up in George Lucas' famous Star Wars films, in which the heroes, Anakin Skywalker and his son Luke Skywalker, lose their right hands in combat and each has it replaced with a prosthesis, wearing a black glove over the robotic hand. Luke later discovers that his father also has a robotic right hand, and the lack of the right hand is an important symbolism in the films. This was influenced as well by Jungian mythological archetypes, via George Lucas' friend, the psychologist, Joseph Campbell. C-3PO's appearance is that of a male (or perhaps genderless) version of Rotwang's robot. For the film originally released under the name Star Wars, see Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. ... Anakin Skywalker is believed by many, notably Qui-Gon Jinn and Obi-Wan Kenobi, to be the prophesied Chosen One, destined to bring balance to the Force by destroying the Sith, according to Jedi Master Mace Windu in The Phantom Menace. ... Luke Skywalker (born 19 BBY) is a fictional character of the Star Wars universe, a Jedi Knight, who plays a major role in the series of films. ... Joseph Campbell (New York City, March 26, 1904 - Honolulu, October 30, 1987) was an American professor, writer, and orator best known for his work in the fields of (comparative) mythology and comparative religion. ... C-3PO (pronounced See-Threepio, called 3PO for short) is a character from the fictional Star Wars universe. ...


Yet another example of the missing right hand archetype is Philip K. Dick's masterpiece, The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch, considered by many to be his best book. An important element of the story is that Palmer Eldritch, the antagonist, possesses a robotic right arm, as well as artificial eyes, and a deformed jaw. Philip K. Dick Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982), often known by his initials PKD, or by the pen name Richard Phillips, was an American science fiction writer and novelist who changed the genre profoundly. ... The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch is a typically complex novel by the science fiction writer Philip K. Dick. ...


Many of the scenes involving Rotwang seem to echo (or prophesy, it is not entirely clear) the many film adaptations of Mary Shelley's science-ficton novel Frankenstein, particularly the part where the Machine-Man is created. Mary Shelley Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley née Godwin (August 30, 1797 – February 1, 1851) was an English novelist who is perhaps equally famous as the wife of Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley and as the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... The Frankenstein Monster Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus is a novel by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. ...


The ending of the film likewise is a piece of much imitated classic cinema. The climactic struggle between Rotwang and Freder over the life of Maria is strikingly similar to the many early film adaptations of Victor Hugo's novel Hunchback of Notre Dame, as well as the climatic scene in Tim Burton's Batman. Victor Hugo Victor-Marie Hugo (February 26, 1802 – May 22, 1885) was a French author, the most important of the Romantic authors in the French language. ... The Hunchback of Notre Dame (in French, Notre-Dame de Paris) was a novel first published in 1831 by the French literary giant Victor Hugo. ... Tim Burton Tim Burton (born August 25, 1958 in Burbank, California) is an eccentric film director known for his off-beat and quirky style. ... Batman DVD cover, 1997 release version Batman was released in U.S. theaters on June 23, 1989 by Warner Bros. ...


A musical theater adaption was staged in London in 1989. See Metropolis (musical). Another musical adaptation was created in Italy in 2004 called "Metropolis Il Musical". Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... St. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Metropolis was a musical based on the 1927 movie of the same name that was staged at the Piccadilly Theatre in London in 1989. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


An anime adaptation of Osamu Tezuka's manga Metropolis was released in the U.S. in 2002. See Metropolis (2001 movie). The anime series Big O seems to draw inspiration from Metropolis as well. A scene from Cowboy Bebop (1998) Anime (アニメ) is Japanese animation, sometimes referred to in the Western world by the portmanteau Japanimation. ... Osamu Tezuka and his creations commemorated on two stamps Dr. Osamu Tezuka (手塚 治虫 Tezuka Osamu, November 3, 1928 - February 9, 1989) was a Japanese manga artist and animator born in Ōsaka. ... Rurouni Kenshin manga, volume 1 (English version) Manga (漫画) is the Japanese word for comics; outside of Japan, it usually refers specifically to Japanese comics. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Metropolis, also known as Osamu Tezukas Metropolis is a manga by Osamu Tezuka and an anime movie based off of the manga. ... The Big O (THE ビッグオー) is the title of an anime television series, which also has a manga adaptation. ...


Thomas Pynchon's novel Gravity's Rainbow contains several references to Fritz Lang's film, mostly voiced through the German rocket scientists and engineers who comprise a large part of its cast. Thomas Pynchon pictured in his high school yearbook. ... Gravitys Rainbow book cover. ...


The film has inspired or been included in several music videos, including Madonna's "Express Yourself" and Queen's "Radio Ga Ga". This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... The Queen logo, designed by Freddie Mercury Queen is a British rock band which was popular during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s; even to this day they remain loved by millions. ... Radio Ga Ga is the title of a song by Queen, written by drummer Roger Taylor. ...


Jeff Mills released an album named Metropolis inspired by the film in 2001.


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Robot - Free Encyclopedia (1944 words)
Frankenstein (1818), sometimes called the first science fiction novel, has become synonymous with this theme.
When Capek's play RUR introduced the concept of an assembly line run by Robots who try to build still more Robots, the theme took on economic and philosophical overtones, further disseminated by the classic movie Metropolis (1927), and the popular Blade Runner (1982) and The Terminator (1984).
Serious speculation on this theme has continued to the present day, see for example the articles clanking replicators and carbon chauvinism, and the essay Why the future doesn't need us, by Bill Joy (cover story of Wired, April 2000).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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