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Encyclopedia > Metro

A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. The oldest rapid transit system in the world is the London Underground, which opened in 1863.[1] The First American system is the Boston Subway.[2] The two primary ways subway tunnels that are constructed are cut and cover and tunnel boring.[3] An urban area is a term used to define an area where there is an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... An example of a four-level stack interchange in the Netherlands. ... The London Underground is an all electric railway system that covers much of the conurbation of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a quasi-governmental organization formed in 1964 that controls the subway, bus, commuter rail, and ferry systems in the Boston, Massachusetts area. ... An underground pedestrian tunnel between buildings at MIT. Note the utility pipes running along the ceiling. ... A tunnel boring machine that was used at Yucca Mountain. ...


In England, such a system is called an "underground" while in most of North America and in Glasgow, Scotland it is a "subway". In most of the rest of the world it is called a "metro". Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... A train arrives at West Street station. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I...


162 cities have rapid transit systems, totalling more than 8000 km of track and 7000 stations.[4] 25 cities have new systems under construction.[citation needed]

Contents

Image File history File links Metro_Center_upper_level. ... Image File history File links Metro_Center_upper_level. ... The Washington Metro, or simply Metro, is the public transportation system of Washington, D.C., and neighboring suburban communities in Maryland and Virginia, both inside and outside the Capital Beltway. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1122 KB) Summary A platform on the Moscow Metro system. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1122 KB) Summary A platform on the Moscow Metro system. ... A current official map of the Moscow Metro. ...

Definition

Further information: Passenger rail terminology

Rapid transit is a rail based transportation system used within urban areas to transport people. To be considered a rapid transit system, it must meet certain criteria: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • an urban, electric mass transit railway system
  • totally independent from other traffic
  • with high service frequency [5]

Elevated versus submerged

Rapid transit can be elevated, on ground or underground. It is quite common for the city core network to be underground, while it varies from system to system what solution is used outside the city core.


The term subway (American English)[6] and underground (British English)[7] are often used to describe a rapid transit that operates solely or primarily underground. In some cities the word "subway" applies to the entire system, while in others only to those parts that are actually underground, but is commonly called "Metro". Rapid transit systems that are above street level may be called "elevated" systems in the US, often shortened to el (or sometimes L, as in Chicago 'L'). In the UK, elevated systems are generally classified as light railways such as the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) in east London - although not all British light railways are elevated. The L[1], variously, if perhaps incorrectly, styled L, El, EL, or L, is the rapid transit system that serves Chicago, Illinois in the United States. ... A Light rail system Historically, a railway built in Britain under the 1896 Light Railways Act This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tube Portal The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail public transport metro serving the redeveloped Docklands area of east London, England. ...


Uses and developments

Stratford station in London is shared by London Underground trains (left) and 'one' suburban rail services (right).
Stratford station in London is shared by London Underground trains (left) and 'one' suburban rail services (right).

Rapid transits are generaly used in metropolitain areas to transport large amounts of people at high frequency. The extent of the rapid transit system varies a lot from city to city, and there are multiple transport strategies that can take advantage of a rapid transit system. In larger metropolitan areas the underground system may extend only to the limits of the central city, or to its inner ring of suburbs with trains making relatively frequent station stops. The outer suburbs may then be reached by a separate commuter-, suburban- or regional rail network, where more widely spaced stations allow a higher speed. These trains are often more expensive, less frequent, and, in some cities, operate only during rush hour periods. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1250x894, 384 KB) Summary Homeward passengers during the evening peak hour scurry from a Central Line train (heading for Hainualt via Newbury Park) on platform 6 to catch the mainline train (calling at Ilford, Romford and then all stations to Shenfield... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1250x894, 384 KB) Summary Homeward passengers during the evening peak hour scurry from a Central Line train (heading for Hainualt via Newbury Park) on platform 6 to catch the mainline train (calling at Ilford, Romford and then all stations to Shenfield... Stratford station is a London Underground and National Rail station at Stratford. ... The London Underground is an all electric railway system that covers much of the conurbation of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... ‘one’ is the brand name of London Eastern Railway Ltd, which operates local, suburban and express services from London Liverpool Street in the City of London to East and North London, Essex, Hertfordshire, Cambridgeshire and East Anglia, otherwise known as the Greater Anglia network. ... Housing subdivision near Union, Kentucky, a suburb of Cincinnati, Ohio. ... A Connex commuter train stands by the platform in Melbourne, Australia Regional rail systems, or commuter rail systems, usually provide a rail service through a central business district area into suburbs or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. ... Rush hour at Tokyo Station, Yamanote Line A rush hour is a part of the day with busy traffic and hence traffic congestion on the roads and crowded public transport; normally the two periods in a day when people are travelling to or from work or school. ...


It is common for rapid transit systems to be supplemented with other systems, either buses, trams and/or commuter trains. Because of the high density structure of the rapid transit, short haul trips are often more easilly performed with tram lines or busses. Many cities have chosen to operate a tram system in the city core with the metro expanding beyond it. A typical example of this is Oslo that features a city core transport with trams, the metro streching beyond the core to the city limits and commuter trains serving neighbouring boroughs. [8] Another common strategy is to use a bus feeding system to transport people to the transit stops and use the transits to carry them to the city centre or other bus routes. Using this system highly effectivates the suburban bus system, since they are not required to drive all the way to the city centre. Vancouver utilises this strategy efficently. [9] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A CLRV Streetcar in the City of Toronto. ... The T-bane is the metro system of Oslo, Norway, operated by Oslo T-banedrift, a subsidiary of the municipality transit authority Oslo Sporveier. ... The SkyTrain in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada is an Advanced Rapid Transit system operating fully automated trains on two lines, the Expo Line and the Millennium Line. ...

Rapid transit is a common application of elevated railways. Some systems such as the Vancouver SkyTrain are primarily above ground
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Rapid transit is a common application of elevated railways. Some systems such as the Vancouver SkyTrain are primarily above ground

Elevated railways were a popular way to build mass transit systems in cities around the turn of the twentieth century, but they have fallen out of favour; and many elevated lines were later demolished, being replaced by subways or buses. Elevated rail saw something of a resurgence in the late twentieth century, with the construction of a number of new lines such as the Docklands Light Railway in London [10] and the Bangkok Skytrain[11]; in the United States a few such lines have been built, including the Atlanta's MARTA [12], New York's AirTrain JFK[13] and the Las Vegas Monorail[14], but these are typically seen as more futuristic, and are not representative of the overall trends in U.S. transit development, predominantly because these cities are building brand new rapid transit systems. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1180 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rapid transit User:Buchanan-Hermit/photographs/vancouver Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1180 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rapid transit User:Buchanan-Hermit/photographs/vancouver Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... The SkyTrain in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada is an Advanced Rapid Transit system operating fully automated trains on two lines, the Expo Line and the Millennium Line. ... In the United States of America, transit describes local area common carrier passenger transportation configured to provide scheduled service on fixed routes on a non-reservation basis. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Tube Portal The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail public transport metro serving the redeveloped Docklands area of east London, England. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of the United Kingdom and the largest city of England (strangely, England has no constitutional existence within the United Kingdom, and therefore cannot be said to have a capital). ... Skytrain approaching Sala Daeng Station Skytrain leaving Asok Station Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) or Skytrain (Thai: รถไฟฟ้า, rot fai fa, meaning sky train) is the elevated metro system in Bangkok, Thailand, operated by Bangkok Mass Transit System Public Company Limited (BTSC) under a concession granted by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration... MARTA is the common name for Atlantas rapid transit system, consisting of a network of bus routes linked to a heavy rail rapid transit system. ... AirTrain JFK is a 13 km (8. ... A monorail train arrives at the Sahara Station. ... For the meaning in finance, see futures contract. ...


Integration with commuter trains

Beyond the extent of the metro, many cities choose to use commuter trains. Many of these regional railways were first built to operate in one direction from a city centre terminus, but some have been extended across the city centre, sometimes running in tunnels. They offer suburban passengers a choice of stations and also provide useful transportation in the city. A notable example is the Paris RER system, where (in co-operation with the city's transit authority) several pairs of existing suburban lines running in opposite directions from the city have been extended in tunnels to join and form new routes across the city. [15][this source's credibility needs verifying] They are provided with frequent service and, within the city, the same fares as the Métro are charged, providing an integrated network. In Tokyo and Osaka, Japanese private companies operate the world's most extensive suburban railways, each with their own fare system that integrates with the entire system. The Paris style system is often called S-Bahn (in German), Linea S or Treno Suburbano (Italian) and Cercanías (Spanish). In Europe these systems are or have often been operated by the state railway. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land... The RER (Réseau Express Régional, IPA , Regional Express Network) is an urban rail network in Paris and its agglomeration. ... Paris Art Nouveau Metro sign The Paris Métro is the metro (underground) system in Paris, France. ... Tokyo , literally Eastern capital)   is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, the home of the Japanese Imperial Family, and the de facto[1] capital of Japan. ... View on downtown Osaka from Umeda Sky Building Osaka )   is the capital of Osaka Prefecture and the third-largest city in Japan, with a population of 2. ... The S-Bahn is a suburban metro railway network in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. ... Cercanías are commuter train networks that cover major metropolitan areas in Spain. ...

A modern EMU rapid transit commuter train operating on the Transperth system in Perth, Western Australia
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A modern EMU rapid transit commuter train operating on the Transperth system in Perth, Western Australia

In some cases the rapid transit system runs to the suburbs and effectively functions as a regional rail service as well. Examples are the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) [16] and Washington Metrorail systems, though both are supplemented with other commuter train services. Where there are separate systems, the rapid transit system is typically a self-contained service with its own dedicated tracks and stations and technologically incompatible with other railways. Suburban rail services, on the other hand, often share tracks and stations with long-distance trains (historically they were usually operated by the same company, which also owned the rails and ran freight, although this has become less common) and are subject to the same standards and regulations. There are exceptions; some London Underground lines share tracks with suburban rail services. In some cases, underground railway lines have been extended by taking over existing regional rail lines, notably parts of the Central and Northern Lines in London. The Athens Metro's Blue Line shares tracks with suburban rail services in order to connect the metro to Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, but does not stop at the suburban rail stations because the platforms of the stations are a lot lower than the train's floor.[17] In Hong Kong and São Paulo, Brazil, metro-like frequent service is provided by electrifying existing railway lines, while continuing to share the tracks with the much less frequent intercity and freight trains. The KCR West Rail in Hong Kong is designed to accommodate intercity and freight traffic in future, whilst at present provides only metro-like service.[18] The Tyne and Wear Metro in the North East of England is another metro service which shares some of its tracks with suburban rail services. The extension of the system to Sunderland sees the metro sharing tracks with Northern train services between Sunderland and Pelaw.[19] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 752 KB) Summary Photo taken (15th July 2005) and supplied by Nachoman-au. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x681, 752 KB) Summary Photo taken (15th July 2005) and supplied by Nachoman-au. ... A multiple unit is a passenger train whose carriages have their own motors, either diesel (DMUs) or electric (EMUs), and do not need to be hauled by a locomotive. ... Transperth controls the public transport (by contracting other companies) in Perth, Western Australia. ... Perth is the capital of the Australian state of Western Australia. ... Nickname: The City by the Bay; Fog City Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom Area    - City 122 km²  (47 sq mi)  - Land 121. ... A westbound BART train in downtown San Francisco (wide-angle photo). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The Washington Metro, or simply Metro, is the public transportation system of Washington, D.C., and neighboring suburban communities in Maryland and Virginia, both inside and outside the Capital Beltway. ... The London Underground is an all electric railway system that covers much of the conurbation of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... Exhibition of archaeological finds that came to light during the construction of the project displayed at Metro station Syntagma, Athens. ... The E. Venizelos Athens International Airport The Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, which began operation in March 2001, serves the city of Athens in Greece. ... Motto: Non ducor, duco (Latin: I am not led, I lead) Administrative division of the city Country Brazil Region Southeast State São Paulo Mayor Gilberto Kassab (PFL) Area    - City 1,522. ... Opening Date 20 December 2003 Stations 9 Number of trains 23 Service Area Tuen Mun, Yuen Long, Tsuen Wan, Sham Shui Po The West Rail is one of the three lines of the KCRC network in Hong Kong. ... The Tyne and Wear Metro is a light rail metro system based around Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland, in the Tyne and Wear county of north-east England. ...


Similarities to light rail

Main article: Light rail

There has always been some crossover between rapid transit and "lighter" streetcar/tram systems. For example, some lines of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company in New York City were elevated in built-up areas and ran at street level, often along streets, in less crowded areas. In many German cities, such as Hanover, the opposite applies, with trams descending into tunnels to cross the city centre. This article is about light rail systems in general. ... A CLRV Streetcar in the City of Toronto. ... The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT) was a transportation holding company formed in 1896 to acquire and consolidate transit facilities in Kings County, now Brooklyn, New York. ... Nickname: Big Apple; City that never Sleeps; Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Manhattan Queens Brooklyn Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Station Kröpcke The Hanover Stadtbahn is a Stadtbahn light rail system in the city of Hanover, Germany. ... A CLRV Streetcar in the City of Toronto. ...


In the other direction, interurban streetcars provided rapid transit-style transit from cities to suburbs and other cities, running mainly on separate rights-of-way track (sometimes sharing tracks with intercity rail), but using streetcar equipment. Most interurbans have been abandoned, but some (like the Norristown High Speed Line near Philadelphia) have been reconstructed to rapid transit specifications. An interurban streetcar line or interurban, also called a radial railway in Canada, is a streetcar line running between urban areas. ... A right-of-way (plural: rights-of-way) is an easement or strip of land granted to a railroad company upon which to build a railroad. ... Inter-city rail services are train services which cover larger distances than commuter trains. ... a historic postcard showing electric trolley-powered streetcars in Richmond, Virginia, where Frank J. Sprague successfully demonstrated his new system on the hills in 1888 A streetcar is a railway vehicle designed to carry passengers on tracks, usually laid in city streets. ... The Norristown High Speed Line (NHSL), operated by the Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority as Route 100 of the Suburban Transit Division, is a hybrid between light rail and rapid transit operating between Norristown Transportation Center and 69th Street Terminal, running entirely on its own right of way, inherited from the... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the City That Loves You Back, the Quaker City, The Birthplace of America Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D...


Additionally, many streetcar/tram systems include underground and (less commonly) elevated sections, in which everything about the system except the right-of-way is built to streetcar standards. Notably, the first subway in the United States, Boston's Green Line, opened in 1897 to take streetcars off downtown streets, though it did carry elevated trains from 1901 until the Washington Street Tunnel opened. Likewise, San Francisco's Market Street Subway carries Muni Metro light rail on the upper tracks and Bay Area Rapid Transit metro trains on the lower level. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Two trains at Park Street. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Orange Line is one of the four subway lines of the MBTA. It extends from Forest Hills in Jamaica Plain, Boston in the south to Oak Grove in Malden, Massachusetts in the north. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Market Street Subway is a subway tunnel in San Francisco, California, United States. ... Muni Metro is a mass transit system operated in the City and County of San Francisco by the San Francisco Municipal Railway, managed by the Municipal Transportation Agency. ... A westbound BART train in downtown San Francisco (wide-angle photo). ...


The coming of modern light rail in the 1970s brought new crossovers. New systems were built and old streetcar/tram systems were upgraded with higher capacity and speeds, but retaining some aspects of streetcars and trams. Some systems known as light rail, such as the Docklands Light Railway in London, Manchester Metrolink and New York City's AirTrain JFK, are rapid transit systems but commonly described as light rail. Indeed, in a many Asian countries, light rail is usually used to refer to some sort of rapid transit system but not used to refer to street cars or trams. Other light-rail systems may use high platforms but otherwise run as streetcars. A few systems similar to interurban streetcars have come back, such as New Jersey's River Line, which operates over freight rails for most of its trip, and along streets on one end. The KCR Light Rail, which runs as streetcars, operates with high platforms, with some of its sections elevated or street level right-of-way, and some at ground-level by away from streets. This article is about light rail systems in general. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Tube Portal The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail public transport metro serving the redeveloped Docklands area of east London, England. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of the United Kingdom and the largest city of England (strangely, England has no constitutional existence within the United Kingdom, and therefore cannot be said to have a capital). ... Manchester is a major city within Greater Manchester in North West England, historically notable for being the worlds first industrialised city, and its subsequent central role in the Industrial Revolution. ... A Metrolink tram in Manchester city centre. ... Nickname: Big Apple; City that never Sleeps; Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Manhattan Queens Brooklyn Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... AirTrain JFK is a 13 km (8. ... An interurban streetcar line or interurban, also called a radial railway in Canada, is a streetcar line running between urban areas. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... River Line system map The River Line (styled River LINE by NJ Transit) is a light rail system in New Jersey, United States that connects the cities of Camden and Trenton, New Jerseys capital. ... Opening Date 25 September 1988 Routes 9 Number of trains 1191 Service Area Tuen Mun, Yuen Long The KCR Light Rail is one of the four systems of the KCR network in Hong Kong. ...


Importance and functions

The volume of passengers a metro train can carry is often quite high, and a metro system is often viewed as the backbone of a large city's public transportation system. In many cities passengers beginning their journeys on a streetcar/tram, bus, or suburban rail system must finish their journey into the city center on the metro, as their first mode of transport will terminate at a metro station to avoid congesting the city center above ground. Budapest is a perfect example where the two more modern metro lines connect with buses and trams and also with two circular streetcar/tram routes (one closer to and one further from the city center) that allow travel between suburbs and also into the centre of the city by changing onto the metro. The backbone is a synonym for the spine of a vertebrate organism. ... Mode of transport is a general term for the different kinds of transportation of people or cargo: Car Truck Ship Aircraft ... The Budapest Metro is the fastest means of public transport in Budapest. ...


In some cities, the urban rail system is so comprehensive and efficient that the majority of city residents use it as their primary means of transport. London, Moscow, New York City, Madrid, Paris, Seoul, Tokyo and Osaka are such examples; these cities have the most extensive and convenient metro systems in the world. With 15 lines, the Tokyo subway is the largest rapid transit network in the world, transporting 7 million passengers daily.[20] The majority of suburban residents in addition to city dwellers do not own automobiles and depend on rail as the primary means of travel[citation needed]. Osaka, Japan is similar to Tokyo's system except about half as big, but still has a ridership exceeding that of New York City. In Europe, London (in 1st place) and Madrid (second) have the biggest metro systems. The London Underground is an all electric railway system that covers much of the conurbation of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... A current official map of the Moscow Metro. ... The New York City Subway system is a rapid transit system operated by the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority as MTA New York City Transit. ... The Madrid Metro is the large metro subway system serving Madrid, the capital of Spain. ... Line 5s crossing of the Seine on the Austerlitz viaduct. ... System Map (click to enlarge) The Seoul Metropolitan Subway is one of the most heavily used subway systems in the world, with over 4 million trips per day on the systems nine lines. ... Tokyo , literally Eastern capital)   is the seat of the Japanese government and the Imperial Palace, the home of the Japanese Imperial Family, and the de facto[1] capital of Japan. ... The Osaka Municipal Subway (大阪市営地下鉄, ÅŒsaka-shiei-chikatetsu) is the metro network in the city of Osaka, Japan. ... A rapid transit, underground, subway, tube, elevated, or metro(politan) system is a railway — usually in an urban area — with a high capacity and frequency of service, and grade separation from other traffic. ... Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line subway train departing Hiroo Station Saikyo Line at Shinjuku Station Tokyo subway map (not entire rapid transit system), 13 lines with transfer stations Tokyo subways are by no means the entire rail system, for that please see separate article Transportation in Greater Tokyo. ... View on downtown Osaka from Umeda Sky Building Osaka )   is the capital of Osaka Prefecture and the third-largest city in Japan, with a population of 2. ...

The metro in Warsaw - Wierzbno station.
The metro in Warsaw - Wierzbno station.

Due to a general low population density and a different urban plan, many cities in the United States have very low rates of transit usage. About one in every three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in just one city: New York[21] (see Transportation in New York City). Older cities such as Chicago, Washington, D.C., Boston, and Philadelphia follow New York, while the rest of the cities in the United States have only partial or poorly-used systems, especially in sunbelt cities such as Phoenix, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Dallas, Las Vegas or Houston.[22] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 376 KB) Description: Warsaw Metro, station Wierzbo by kinlaw [1] from http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 376 KB) Description: Warsaw Metro, station Wierzbo by kinlaw [1] from http://www. ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Wierzbno Station Wierzbno is one of the Warsaw Metro stations. ... A cycle rickshaw at rest in Manhattan. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Categories: Stub | Belt regions of the United States ... Nickname: Valley of the Sun Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area    - City 1,230. ... The Los Angeles County Metro Rail is the current mass transit rail system operating in Los Angeles. ... MARTA is the common name for Atlantas rapid transit system, consisting of a network of bus routes linked to a heavy rail rapid transit system. ... A DART Bus operating in downtown Dallas The Dallas Area Rapid Transit authority (or DART) is the transit agency in Dallas, Texas that operates buses, subways, light rail, commuter rail, and HOV lanes in Dallas and 12 of its suburbs. ... A monorail train arrives at the Sahara Station. ... METRORail is the light rail service in Houston, Texas, United States that started on January 1, 2004. ...

The interior of a Toronto subway car.
The interior of a Toronto subway car.

In the Western Hemisphere, Mexico City also has a large system. In Canada, only Toronto and Montréal have extensive metro networks serving their urban centers; Vancouver's SkyTrain also provides high-grade service, but at present acts primarily as a connection between Vancouver and the surrounding area. Image File history File links TTC_subway_Interior. ... Image File history File links TTC_subway_Interior. ... This article is about the subway system in Toronto. ... The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... A distinctive orange train on surface track near Metro General Anaya on Line 2 The Mexico City Metro (formally: Sistema de Transporte Colectivo Metro or STC Metro) provides metro service to the central and northern area of the Mexican Federal District and surrounding municipalities in the State of México. ... This article is about the subway system in Toronto. ... Place-Saint-Henri station The Montreal Metro is the main form of public transportation within the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Vancouver (pronounced: ) is a city in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. ... The platform at Metrotown Station in Burnaby is one of the busiest in the SkyTrain system. ...


Alternate uses

Most underground systems are for public transportation, but a few cities have built freight or postal lines. One example was the Post Office Railway, which transported mail underground between sorting offices in London from 1927 until it was abandoned in 2003.[23] Similarly, until the 1970s the London Underground's Circle Line (originally the Metropolitan Railway) transported goods as well as running passenger trains. Another example was the Chicago Tunnel Company, which had a dense grid of tunnels under downtown Chicago.[24] During the Cold War an important secondary function of some underground systems was to provide shelter in case of a nuclear attack. A British pillar box. ... The Post Office Railway, also known as Mail Rail, is a narrow gauge driverless private underground railway in London built by the Post Office to move mail between sorting offices. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of the United Kingdom and the largest city of England (strangely, England has no constitutional existence within the United Kingdom, and therefore cannot be said to have a capital). ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The London Underground is an all electric railway system that covers much of the conurbation of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... Pre-1910 photograph of the Chicago Freight Subway The Chicago Freight Subway was a unique freight tunnel network under the downtown of the city of Chicago. ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, The City of Big Shoulders The 312 Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook Incorporated March 4, 1837 Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area... For other uses, please see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Stations

Main article: Metro station

Urban rail systems have often been used to showcase economic, social, and technological achievements of a nation, especially in the Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries. With their marble walls, polished granite floors and splendid mosaics, the metro systems of Moscow and St. Petersburg are widely regarded as some of the most beautiful in the world. Modern metro stations in Russia are usually still built with the same emphasis on appearance. In the former Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe metro stations were seen as a way to get art out to the public, instead of containing it for the rich. This is also part of the reason of the use of more classical art and architecture instead of the more modern, streamlined style used in the West. A lot of metros built in the USSR and Eastern European countries use quite expensive materials in the construction of the stations.[25] Exterior open entrance to a metro station (Tribunal station in Madrid) A metro station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, often known by names such as metro and subway. It is often underground or elevated. ... A current official map of the Moscow Metro. ... Official map The Saint Petersburg Metro (Russian: ) is an underground rapid transit system in Saint Petersburg, Russia. ...


But the art also has a practical purpose, in addition to the pure esthetical. Beautified metro systems show higher passenger numbers than other, more plain systems. A lot of cities, faced with congestion problems, are investing large amounts of money in public transport to decrease car use, and are faced with problems encouraging increased use of rapid transits without large capital investment or operating costs. By using relatively small amounts on grand architecture, art, cleanliness, accessibility, lighting and a feeling of safety, metros can get larger amounts of travellers; usually the extra investments in aesthetics are profitable for the metros.[26] An example of this is in Los Angeles where 0.5% of investments were used on art while in Stockholm the authorities publish a guide to the art in the stations.[27] Traffic jams are common in heavily populated areas. ... Karl Benzs Velo model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race An automobile (or motor car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... Invest redirects here. ... The Parthenon on top of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece Architecture (from Latin, architectura and ultimately from Greek, αρχιτεκτων, a master builder, from αρχι- chief, leader and τεκτων, builder, carpenter) is the art and science of designing buildings and structures. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Cleanliness is the absence of dirt, including dust, stains and bad smells. ... JEWISH. HAHAHA... YOURE A JEW For Wikipedias accessibility policy, see Wikipedia:Accessibility. ... Lighting refers to either artificial light sources such as lamps or to natural illumination of interiors from daylight. ... Warning signs, such as this one, can improve safety awareness. ... The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... The Los Angeles County Metro Rail is the current mass transit rail system operating in Los Angeles. ... Stockholm Metro, Hötorget Station Rådhuset Station on the blue line Kungsträdgården Station on the blue line T-Centralen, blue line. ... A guide book is a book for tourists or travelers that provides details about a geographic location, tourist destination, or itinerary. ...


Technology

This station of the Paris Métro Line 14 has automatic platform-edge doors.
This station of the Paris Métro Line 14 has automatic platform-edge doors.

Most rapid transit trains are electric multiple units. Power is commonly delivered by a third rail, or in systems without much length in tunnel, by overhead wires, for example the Tyne and Wear Metro in North East England. Most run on conventional steel railway tracks, although some use rubber tires. Crew sizes have decreased throughout history, with some modern systems now running completely unstaffed trains. The technology of rapid transit has changed over the years: // Train size and motive power Some urban rail lines are built to the full size of main-line railways; others use smaller tunnels, restricting the size and sometimes the shape of the trains (in the London Underground the informal term... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Line 5s crossing of the Seine on the Austerlitz viaduct. ... Platform screen doors at St Lazare on the Paris Metro Platform screen doors are doors for screening the platform and trains at train or subway stations. ... Rotating magnetic field as a sum of magnetic vectors from 3 phase coils. ... A multiple unit is a passenger train whose carriages have their own motors, either diesel (DMUs) or electric (EMUs), and do not need to be hauled by a locomotive. ... Third rail at the West Falls Church Metro stop in the Washington, D.C. area, electrified to 750 volts. ... The Tyne and Wear Metro is a light rail metro system based around Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland, in the Tyne and Wear county of north-east England. ... Bogie from an MP 89 Paris Métro rolling stock An MP 73 Paris Métro rolling stock Rubber tracks between Pont de Neuilly and Esplanade de la Défense Rubber-tyred metro is a form of rail transport, but using some road technology: the vehicles have wheels with rubber...


The method of tunnel construction used varies from place to place, depending on the situation. Cut-and-cover tunnels are constructed by digging up city streets, which are then rebuilt over the tunnel. Alternatively, tunnel-boring machines can be used to dig deep-bore tunnels.[3] An underground pedestrian tunnel between buildings at MIT. Note the utility pipes running along the ceiling. ... A tunnel boring machine that was used at Yucca Mountain. ...


History

The first underground railway in the world is the London Underground.[28] London's system was proposed by Charles Pearson, as part of a city improvement plan, after the Thames Tunnel opened. After ten years of discussion, British Parliament authorized the construction of an underground railroad. Construction began in 1860 and was complete in 1863. The first trains that ran were steam locomotives[29] An engraving from the Illustrated London News showing the initial construction stages of Londons Metropolitan Railway at Kings Cross in 1862 The history of rapid transit is generally considered to begin with the opening in 1863 of the Metropolitan Railway, now part of the London Underground. ... The London Underground is an all electric railway system that covers much of the conurbation of Greater London and some neighbouring areas. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Scheme of steam locomotive. ...


The first system in the United States began with the planning of the Boston Subway, adopted by the Boston Transit Commission. Ground broke on March 28, 1895, with the cost of $5 million.[30] The first section was open in 1897.[31] The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a quasi-governmental organization formed in 1964 that controls the subway, bus, commuter rail, and ferry systems in the Boston, Massachusetts area. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


See also

Stockholm Metro, Rådhuset Station
Stockholm Metro, Rådhuset Station
New York City Subway, solar-powered Coney Island Station.
New York City Subway, solar-powered Coney Island Station.

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1531 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Stockholm Metro ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1531 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Stockholm Metro ... Stockholm Metro, Hötorget Station RÃ¥dhuset Station on the blue line KungsträdgÃ¥rden Station on the blue line T-Centralen, blue line. ... RÃ¥dhuset Station on the blue line RÃ¥dhuset metro station. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 554 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rapid transit Coney Island-Stillwell Avenue (New York City Subway) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 554 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rapid transit Coney Island-Stillwell Avenue (New York City Subway) Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... The New York City Subway system is a rapid transit system operated by the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority as MTA New York City Transit. ... Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... All-four is an urban transport scheme first annunciated by the Brooklyn_Manhattan Transit Corporation (BMT—New York City) in the 1930s in which different transportation technologies are chosen and implemented in an integrated system. ... Where most trains have a driver’s cab, ART Mark II trains give passengers a large picture window through which they can see where the train is going. ... The O-Bahn Busway in Adelaide, South Australia is the longest, fastest and most heavily patronised guided busway. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... This is an alphabetical list of cities worldwide that have a rapid transit system, or a light-rail system with some elements of rapid transit. ... A metrophile is a person whos hobby is the study of metro (subway, underground) systems. ... Exterior open entrance to a metro station (Tribunal station in Madrid) A metro station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, often known by names such as metro and subway. It is often underground or elevated. ... The KL Monorail in Kuala Lumpur, a colourful straddle-beam monorail Gyroscopically Balanced Monorail (1907) by Brennan and Scherl The term monorail or industrial monorail is also used to describe any number of systems in which a chair or carrier is suspended from, or rides on, an overhead rail structure... Skytrain Bangkok. ... A rubber-tyred train of the Paris Métro. ... The S-Bahn is a suburban metro railway network in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. ... Third rail at the West Falls Church Metro stop in the Washington, D.C. area, electrified to 750 volts. ... A CLRV Streetcar in the City of Toronto. ... Transit fares are fees charged for travel on publicly chartered or operated transportation systems, including subways, trolleys and buses (as these are known in northeastern parts of the United States). ... U-Bahn is the German abbreviation for Untergrund-Bahn (literally, underground railway), referring to a means of urban rapid transit, internationally known as subway, underground or metro. ... Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail systems serving urban or older suburban areas. ...

References

  1. ^ "London, England, United Kingdom". National Geographic. Retrieved on 2006-10-13.
  2. ^ Famous Firsts in Massachusetts. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved on 2006-11-13.
  3. ^ a b "Subway". World Book. ISBN 0716601044.
  4. ^ World Metro List. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  5. ^ FAQ. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  6. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0618082301.
  7. ^ Definition of "Underground". Chambers Reference Online. Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
  8. ^ Lokaltog, T-banen, Trikken. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  9. ^ Setp_sys_Route_Map.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  10. ^ Docklands Light Railway - About DLR. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  11. ^ Bangkok Mass Transit System Company Limited - BTS SkyTrain. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  12. ^ MARTA - About MARTA. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  13. ^ AirTrain History. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  14. ^ Las Vegas Monorail - History. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  15. ^ UrbanRail.Net > Métro de PARIS. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  16. ^ [Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District] (2003). BART Strategic Plan.
  17. ^ Olympic Games 2004: five major projects for Athens. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  18. ^ Hong Kong West Rail Heavy Rail Line, China. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  19. ^ Tyne & Wear Metro. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  20. ^ Tokyo transportation fact sheet (PDF). Web Japan. Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  21. ^ MTA - Transportation Network. Retrieved on 2006-12-02.
  22. ^ [Public Transport Assosiation] (18). Heavy Rail Transit Ridership Report. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  23. ^ Rail Mail Home. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  24. ^ The Chicago Tunnel Company Railroad Home Page. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  25. ^ Metro Arts and Architechture. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  26. ^ [Public Transport Assisiation]. 10 Ways to Enhance Your Community: Unleash the Power of Public Transportation. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  27. ^ Metro Arts and Architechture. Retrieved on 2006-12-04.
  28. ^ History - Introduction. Transport for London. Retrieved on 2006-02-12.
  29. ^ "Subway". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved on 2006-12-02.
  30. ^ Cudahy, Brian. Cash, Tokens and Transfers: A History of Urban Mass Transit in North America. ISBN 0823212785.
  31. ^ D'Eramo, Marco. The Pig and the Skyscraper: Chicago: a History of Our Future. ISBN 1859844987.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day of the year (339th on leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Rapid transit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5305 words)
Budapest is a perfect example where the two more modern metro lines connect with buses and trams and also with two circular tram routes (one closer to and one further from the city centre) that allow travel between suburbs and also into the centre of the city by changing onto the metro.
Greenbelt station, the terminus of the Green line on the Washington Metro, is a typical example of the entrance concourse of a metro station.
The Moscow metro was built during the reign of Stalin, and is one of the most elaborately decorated undergrounds of the world, with its stations often being called underground palaces.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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