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Encyclopedia > Methylphenidate
Methylphenidate
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Methyl 2-phenyl-2-(2-piperidyl)acetate
Identifiers
CAS number 113-45-1
ATC code N06BA04
PubChem 4158
DrugBank APRD00657
Chemical data
Formula C14H19NO2 
Mol. mass 233.31 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 11–52%
Protein binding 30%
Metabolism Liver
Half life 2–4 hours
Excretion Urine
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C To meet Wikipedia quality standards and WikiProject Music guidelines, this article or section may require cleanup. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System containing Psychoanaleptics. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... A drugs efficacy may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... This article is about the urine of animals generally. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

Controlled (S8)(AU) Schedule III(CA) Class B(UK) Schedule II(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons, abbreviated SUSDP, is a document used in the regulation of drugs and poisons in Australia. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ... The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canadas federal drug control statute. ... Motto (Latin for From Sea to Sea) Anthem O Canada Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Ottawa Largest city Toronto Official languages English, French Government Parliamentary democracy and federal constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor General Michaëlle Jean  -  Prime Minister Stephen Harper Establishment  -  Act of Union February... The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs and drug-like substances, as listed under the Act, and to enable international co-operation against illegal drug trafficking. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Routes Oral, Transdermal
Indicated for:

Other uses:
In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... For other uses, see Narcolepsy (disambiguation). ...

Contraindications:
  • Use of tricyclic antidepressants (e.g. desipramine), as methylphenidate may dangerously increase their plasma concentrations, leading to potential toxic reactions (mainly, cardiovascular effects).
  • Use of MAO Inhibitors, such as phenelzine (Nardil) or tranylcypromine (Parnate), and certain other drugs.
  • methylphenidate should not be given to patients who suffer from the following conditions: Severe Arrhythmia, Hypertension or Liver damage.
  • Drug-seeking behaviour
  • Pronounced agitation or nervousness. Other side effects include drowsiness, and mood swings
Side effects:[1][2]

Atypical sensations: Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Anorectics, anorexigenics or appetite suppressants, are substances which reduce the desire to eat (anorectic, from the Greek an- = not and oreg- = extend, reach). Used on a short term basis clinically to treat obesity, some appetite suppressants are also available over the counter. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant, is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that increases the risk involved in using a particular drug, carrying out a medical procedure or engaging in a particular activity. ... Desipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine. ... A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sensation and perception psychology. ...


Cardiovascular: The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ...

Ear, nose, and throat: A cardiac arrhythmia, also called cardiac dysrhythmia, is a disturbance in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ...


Endocrinal: The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ...

  • Appetite loss

Eye: For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ...

  • Blurred vision

Gastrointestinal: For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and...

  • Nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain

Hematological: Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ...


Musculoskeletal: For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... Skeleton is also a winter sport: see skeleton (sport). ...

  • Muscle twitches

Neurological: Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ...

Psychological: This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... // Pre-syncope is a sensation of feeling faint. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ...

Respiratory: For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Anxiety is a complex combination of the feeling of fear, apprehension and worry often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ... Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ...

  • Increased respiration rate

Skin: For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ...


Urogenital and reproductive: A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ...


Miscellaneous:

  • Fever

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. It is also one of the primary drugs used to treat the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy and chronic fatigue syndrome. The drug is seeing early use to treat cancer-related fatigue.[3] Brand names of drugs that contain methylphenidate include Ritalin (Ritalina, Rilatine, Attenta, Methylin, Penid, Rubifen); and the sustained release tablets Concerta, Metadate CD, Ritalin LA, and Ritalin-SR. Focalin is a preparation containing only dextro-methylphenidate, rather than the usual racemic dextro- and levo-methylphenidate mixture of other formulations. A newer way of taking methylphenidate is by using a transdermal patch (under the brand name Daytrana), similar to those used for hormone replacement therapy, nicotine release and pain relief (fentanyl). A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or Hyperkinetic Disorder as officially known in the UK though ADHD is more commonly used, is generally considered to be a developmental disorder, largely neurological in nature, affecting about 5% of the worlds population. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... Somnolence (or drowsiness, or hypersomnia) is a state of near-sleep, a strong desire for sleep, or sleeping unusually long periods. ... For other uses, see Narcolepsy (disambiguation). ... Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is one of several names given to a poorly understood, highly debilitating disorder of uncertain cause/causes, which is thought to affect approximately 4 per 1,000 adults[1] in the United States and other countries, and a smaller fraction of children. ... Sustained-release (SR), extended-release (ER, XR, or XL), time-release or timed-release, controlled-release (CR), or continuous-release (CR or Contin) pills are tablets or capsules formulated to dissolve slowly and release a drug over time. ... Dexmethylphenidate (commercially known as Focalin) is a pharmaceutical drug used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ... In chemistry, a racemate is a mixture of equal amounts of left- and right-handed stereoisomers of a chiral molecule. ... A 21mg dose Nicoderm CQ patch applied to the right arm A transdermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a time released dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. ... Methylphenidate (MPH) is an amphetamine-like prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. ...

Contents

History

Methylphenidate was patented in 1954 by the Ciba pharmaceutical company (one of the predecessors of Novartis). This was thought to cure what was thought to be called the Mohr's disease. Beginning in the 1960s, it was used to treat children with ADHD, known at the time as hyperactivity or minimal brain dysfunction (MBD). Today methylphenidate is the medication most commonly prescribed to treat ADHD around the world. Production and prescription of methylphenidate rose significantly in the 1990s, especially in the United States, as the ADHD diagnosis came to be better understood and more generally accepted within the medical and mental health communities.[4] Ciba Specialty Chemicals is a chemical company based in and near Basel, Switzerland. ... Novartis headquarters in Basel Suffern, New York: the sole Novartis pharmaceutical production facility in the United States. ...


Most brand-name Ritalin is produced in the United States, although methylphenidate is also produced in Mexico, Argentina and Pakistan by respective contract pharmaceutical manufacturers and is most commonly marketed under the brand name "Ritalin" for Novartis. In the United States, various generic forms of methylphenidate are also produced by several pharmaceutical companies (such as Methylin, etc.), and Ritalin is also sold in the United Kingdom, Germany, and other European countries (although in much lower volumes than in the United States). These generic versions of methylphenidate tend to outsell brand-name "Ritalin" four-to-one. In Belgium the product is sold under the name "Rilatine" for Novartis. Novartis headquarters in Basel Suffern, New York: the sole Novartis pharmaceutical production facility in the United States. ...


Another medicine is Concerta, a once-daily extended release form of methylphenidate, which was approved in April 2000. Studies have demonstrated that long-acting methylphenidate preparations such as Concerta are just as effective, if not more effective, than IR (instant release) formulas.[5][6][7][8] Time-release medications are also harder to misuse.


In April 2006, the FDA approved a transdermal patch for the treatment of ADHD, called Daytrana. The once-daily patch administers methylphenidate in doses of 10, 15, 20, or 30mg.[9] The patch must be applied 30 minutes to an hour before the effect is desired, but upon removal the drug does not continue to have an effect, allowing the user to come off the drug sooner. In cases with children this was especially beneficial during the time when they needed to fall asleep. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Indications

Methylphenidate is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant,[10][11][12] reducing impulsive behavior, and facilitating concentration on work and other tasks. Adults who have ADHD often report that methylphenidate increases their ability to focus on tasks and organize their lives. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


Methylphenidate has been found to have a lower incidence of side effects than dextroamphetamine, a less commonly prescribed medication.[13] When prescribed at the correct dosage, methylphenidate is usually well tolerated by patients.[5] Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ...


A 2006 review assessing the safety of methylphenidate on the developing brain found that in animals with psychomotor impairments, structural and functional parameters of the dopamine system were improved with treatment.[14] This indicates that in subjects with ADHD, methylphenidate treatment may positively support brain development.


Pharmacology

Methylphenidate has binding affinity for both the dopamine transporter and norepinephrine transporter, with the D-isomer displaying a prominent affinity for the latter. Both the dextro- and levorotary isomers displayed receptor affinity for the serotonergic 5HT1A and 5HT2B subtypes, though direct binding to the serotonin transporter was not observed.[15] The dopamine transporter or DAT is a monoamine transporter that is specific for clearing the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft and into a glial cell or the presynaptic neuron. ... The norepinephrine transporter or NET is a monoamine transporter that transports the neurotransmitter norepinephrine from the synapse back to its vesicles for storage until later use. ... Serotonergic means related to, capable of producing, altering, or releasing serotonin, a neurotransmitter, and can refer to the following classes of chemicals: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor - A common class of serotonergic antidepressants Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant - Another class of serotonergic antidepressants serotonergic psychedelics - The serotonergic hallucinogenic drugs This is... The serotonin transporter is a monoamine transporter protein. ...


The isomeric profiles and relative usefulness of dextro- and levo-methylphenidate is analogous to what is found in amphetamine, where dextro-amphetamine is considered to have a more beneficial effect than levo-amphetamine.


Mode of action

The means by which methylphenidate helps people with ADHD are not well understood. Some researchers have theorized that ADHD is caused by a dopamine imbalance in the brains of those affected. Methylphenidate is a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, which means that it increases the level of the dopamine neurotransmitter in the brain by partially blocking the transporters that remove it from the synapses.[16] An alternate explanation which has been explored is that the methylphenidate affects the action of serotonin in the brain.[17] For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Illustration of the major elements in a prototypical synapse. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ...


Side effects

Reported side effects include psychosis (abnormal thinking or hallucinations), difficulty sleeping, mood swings, mood changes, stomach aches, diarrhea, headaches, lack of hunger (leading to weight loss) and dry mouth, in some cases also including death.[18] An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ...

  • Less common side effects include palpitations, high blood pressure and pulse changes.

A palpitation is an abnormal, rapid beating of the heart, brought on by overexertion, disease or drugs. ...

Known or suspected risks to health

Researchers have also looked into the role of methylphenidate in affecting stature, with some studies finding slight decreases in height acceleration.[19] Other studies indicate height may normalize by adolescence.[20][21] In a 2005 study, only "minimal effects on growth in height and weight were observed" after 2 years of treatment. "No clinically significant effects on vital signs or laboratory test parameters were observed."[22]


A 2003 study tested the effects of d-methylphenidate (Focalin), l-methylphenidate, and d, l-methylphenidate (Ritalin) on mice to search for any carcinogenic effects. The researchers found that all three compounds were non-genotoxic and non-clastogenic; d-MPH, d, l-MPH, and l-MPH did not cause mutations or chromosomal aberrations. They concluded that none of the compounds present a carcinogenic risk to humans.[23] Dexmethylphenidate (commercially known as Focalin) is a pharmaceutical drug used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ...


In February 2005, a team of researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center led by R.A. El-Zein announced that a study of 12 children indicated that methylphenidate may be carcinogenic. In the study, 12 children were given standard therapeutic doses of methylphenidate. At the conclusion of the 3-month study, all 12 children displayed significant treatment-induced chromosomal aberrations. The researchers indicated that their study was relatively small and their results needed to be reproduced in a bigger population for a definitive conclusion about the genotoxicity of methylphenidate to be drawn.[24] M. D. Anderson Cancer Center is a cancer research facility in the United States. ...


In response to the El-Zein study published in 2005, a team of six scientists from the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy and the Department of Toxicology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany began a more in-depth study. They sought to respond to the challenge noted above to attempt to replicate the results of El-Zein et al. in a larger study. Their paper was completed in 2006 and published in 2007 in Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP), the peer-reviewed journal of the United States' National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. This study used a larger cohort and a longer period of follow-up and included a small group of long-term users, but otherwise used what researchers believed to be an identical methodology to that used by El-Zein et al. (They note that El-Zein et al. published a short study report and did not publish detailed descriptions of methodology.) After follow-ups at six months, the researchers found no evidence that methylphenidate might cause cancer, stating "the concern regarding a potential increase in the risk of developing cancer later in life after long-term MPH treatment is not supported".[25] [ recorded in this] The University of Würzburg is a university in Würzburg, Germany, founded in 1402. ... Environmental Health Perspectives is a peer-reviewed journal of the United States National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. ... The National Institutes of Health is an institution of the United States government which focuses on medical research. ...


The effects of long-term methylphenidate treatment on the developing brains of children with ADHD is the subject of study and debate.[26][27] Although the safety profile of short-term methylphenidate therapy in clinical trials has been well established, repeated use of psychostimulants such as methylphenidate is less clear.


In the United States, methylphenidate is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance, the designation used for substances that have a recognized medical value but present a high potential for abuse because of their addictive potential. Internationally, methylphenidate is a Schedule II drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[28] Methylphenidate has been used illegally by students for whom the drug has not been prescribed, to assist with coursework and examinations.[29] The use of ADHD medication in children under the age of 6 has not been studied.Severe hallucination may occur. ADHD symptoms include hyperactivity and difficulty holding still and following directions; these are also characteristics of a typical child under the age of 6. For this reason it may be more difficult to diagnose young children, and caution should be used with this age group.[30] The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ...


Risk of death

On March 22, 2006 the FDA Pediatric Advisory Committee decided that medications using Methylphenidate ingredients do not need black box warnings about their risks, noting that "for normal children, these drugs do not appear to pose an obvious cardiovascular risk."[31] Previously, 19 possible cases had been reported of Cardiac arrest linked to children taking methylphenidate[32]and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee to the FDA recommend a "black-box" warning in 2006 for stimulant drugs used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.[33] The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Black_Box_Warning. ...


Delivery

Ritalin 10mg Pill (Ciba/Novartis)
Ritalin 10mg Pill (Ciba/Novartis)

Ritalin: 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg tablets;
Ritalin SR: 20 mg tablets;
Ritalin LA: 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, and 40 mg capsules;
Attenta: 1mg tablets;
Methylin: 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg tablets;
Methylin ER: 10 mg and 20 mg tablets;
Metadate ER: 10 mg and 20 mg tablets;
Metadate CD: 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, and 60 mg capsules;
Concerta: 18 mg, 27 mg, 36 mg, 54 mg, and 72 mg tablets;[34] (goes off patent in 2018)[35]
Equasym: 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg tablets;
Rubifen: 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg tablets;
Daytrana: 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, and 30 mg patches Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 667 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1148 × 1032 pixel, file size: 905 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 667 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1148 × 1032 pixel, file size: 905 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Methylphenidate (MPH) is an amphetamine-like prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adults. ...


Criticism

Main article: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: controversies
A Japanese Bottle Of Ritalin
A Japanese Bottle Of Ritalin

Methylphenidate is frequently used in the treatment for ADHD, and as such criticism of the drug is typically related to the controversy about ADHD. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 3. ...


Generally criticism of methylphenidate revolves around the alleged or established side effects. Concerns about illicit use of the drug (when crushed and snorted, the effects of methylphenidate are somewhat similar to cocaine)[36] and the ethics of giving psychotropics drugs to children to reduce ADHD symptoms.[37] Others wonder if the medication is a gateway drug to substance abuse although this contention has been discredited. [38] [39] Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ...


According to an article in the Los Angeles Times, "the uproar over Ritalin was triggered almost single-handedly by the Scientology movement."[40] The Citizens Commission on Human Rights conducted a major campaign against Ritalin in the 1980s and lobbied Congress for an investigation of Ritalin.[40] This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... The Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR; also sometimes known as the Citizens Committee on Human Rights) is an advocacy group established in 1969 by the Church of Scientology and libertarian psychiatrist Thomas Szasz. ...


See also

Dexmethylphenidate (commercially known as Focalin) is a pharmaceutical drug used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. ... Ethylphenidate is a stimulant drug. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or Hyperkinetic Disorder as officially known in the UK though ADHD is more commonly used, is generally considered to be a developmental disorder, largely neurological in nature, affecting about 5% of the worlds population. ... PET scans show which parts of the brain are being used at a particular moment. ... Pemoline is a medication for Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ...

References

  1. ^ Methylphenidate - Oral (Ritalin) side effects, medical uses and drug interactions. Retrieved on 2007-11-02.
  2. ^ Ritalin (methylphenidate) Side Effects and Abuse. Retrieved on 2007-11-02.
  3. ^ "An Old Drug May Give Cancer Patients a Lift", ACS News Center, American Cancer Society, 2002-01-24. Retrieved on 2008-02-24. 
  4. ^ News from DEA, Congressional Testimony, 05/16/00. Retrieved on 2007-11-02.
  5. ^ a b Steele, M., et al. (2006). "A randomized, controlled effectiveness trial of OROS-methylphenidate compared to usual care with immediate-release methylphenidate in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity DisorderPDF (293 KiB)". Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Winter;13(1):e50-62.
  6. ^ Pelham, W.E., et al. (2001). "Once-a-day Concerta methylphenidate versus three-times-daily methylphenidate in laboratory and natural settings". Pediatrics. 2001 Jun;107(6):E105.
  7. ^ Keating, G.M., McClellan, K., Jarvis, B. (2001). "Methylphenidate (OROS formulation)". CNS Drugs. 2001;15(6):495-500; discussion 501-3.
  8. ^ Hoare, P., et al. (2005). "12-month efficacy and safety of OROS® methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder switched from MPHPDF". Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005 Sep;14(6):305-9.
  9. ^ Peck, P. (2006, 7 April). FDA Approves Daytrana Transdermal Patch for ADHD. MedPage today. Retrieved April 7, 2006, from http://www.medpagetoday.com/ProductAlert/Prescriptions/tb/3027.
  10. ^ Fone KC; Nutt DJ. (Feb 2005). "Stimulants: use and abuse in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.". Current opinion in pharmacology. 5 (1): 87-93. PMID 15661631.
  11. ^ Sharma RP; Javaid JI, Pandey GN, Easton M, Davis JM. (Apr 1990). "Pharmacological effects of methylphenidate on plasma homovanillic acid and growth hormone.". Psychiatry research. 32 (1): 9-17. PMID 2190251.
  12. ^ Shults T; Kownacki AA, Woods WE, Valentine R, Dougherty J, Tobin T. (May 1981). "Pharmacokinetics and behavioral effects of methylphenidate in Thoroughbred horses.". American journal of veterinary research. 42 (5): 722-6. PMID 7258793.
  13. ^ Barbaresi, W.J., et al. (2006). "Long-Term Stimulant Medication Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Population-Based Study". J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2006 Feb;27(1):1-10.
  14. ^ Grund T., et al. "Influence of methylphenidate on brain development - an update of recent animal experiments", Behav Brain Funct. 2006 Jan 10;2:2.
  15. ^ Markowitz JS "et al." (2006). "A Comprehensive In Vitro Screening of d-, l-, and dl-threo-Methylphenidate: An Exploratory Study". "J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol". 2006 Dec;16(6):687-98.
  16. ^ Volkow N., et al. (1998). "Dopamine Transporter Occupancies in the Human Brain Induced by Therapeutic Doses of Oral Methylphenidate". Am J Psychiatry 155:1325-1331, October 1998.
  17. ^ Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Caron, Marc G. (March 2001). "Genetics of Childhood Disorders: XXIV. ADHD, Part 8: Hyperdopaminergic Mice as an Animal Model of ADHD". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 40 (3): 380-382. Retrieved on 2006-11-11.
  18. ^ http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Virtue4.html
  19. ^ Rao J.K., Julius J.R., Breen T.J., Blethen S.L. (1996). "Response to growth hormone in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of methylphenidate and pemoline therapy". Pediatrics. 1998 Aug;102 (2 Pt 3):497-500.
  20. ^ Spencer, T.J., et al. (1996)."Growth deficits in ADHD children revisited: evidence for disorder-associated growth delays?". J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1996 Nov;35(11):1460-9.
  21. ^ Klein R.G. & Mannuzza S. (1988). "Hyperactive boys almost grown up. III. Methylphenidate effects on ultimate height". Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988 Dec;45(12):1131-4.
  22. ^ Wilens, T., et al. (2005). ADHD treatment with once-daily OROS methylphenidate: final results from a long-term open-label study". J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;44(10):1015-23.
  23. ^ Teo, S.K., et al. (2003). "D-Methylphenidate is non-genotoxic in vitro and in vivo assays". Mutat Res. 2003 May 9;537(1):67-79.
  24. ^ El-Zein R.A., et al. (2005). "Cytogenetic effects in children treated with methylphenidate". Cancer Lett. 2005 Dec 18;230(2):284-91.
  25. ^ (June 2007) "Does Methylphenidate Cause a Cytogenetic Effect in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?". Environmental Health Perspectives 115 (6): 936–940.
  26. ^ (February 2003) "ADHD & Women's Health - Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder National Women's Health Report". Retrieved on 2007-11-03. “Although methylphenidate is perhaps one of the best-studied drugs available, with thousands of studies attesting to its longterm safety over the past 50 years, that hasn't stopped critics from raising alarms about the drug's long-term use on children's developing brains, particularly given research that finds the numbers of children taking the drug skyrocketing in recent years.”
  27. ^ "Nonpharmacological Interventions for Preschoolers With ADHD: The Case for Specialized Parent Training" (pdf). Infants & Young Children 19 (2): 142–153. “While most recent studies suggest that methylphenidate is relatively well-tolerated by young children, some suggest that side effects might be more marked in preschoolers than in school-aged children (Firestone, Musten, Pisterman, Mercer, & Bennett, 1998). Furthermore, some researchers have argued that there is the potential for negative long-term effects on the developing brains of young children chronically medicated (Moll, Rothenberger, Ruther, & Huther, 2002).”
  28. ^ Green List: Annex to the annual statistical report on psychotropic substances (form P)PDF (1.63 MiB) 23rd edition. August 2003. International Narcotics Board, Vienna International Centre. Accessed 02 March 2006
  29. ^ Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. "More students abusing hyperactivity drugs".
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  39. ^ Russell A. Barkley, PhD,et al. (2003). "Does the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Stimulants Contribute to Drug Use/Abuse? A 13-Year Prospective Study". PEDIATRICS. 2003 Vol. 111 No. 1: pp. 97-109
  40. ^ a b Sappell, Joel; Welkos, Robert W.. "Suits, Protests Fuel a Campaign Against Psychiatry", Los Angeles Times, 1990-06-29, p. A48:1. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.  Backup copy link here

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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In pharmacology, a psychoanaleptic is a medication which produces an arousing effect upon the patient. ... A psychostimulant is a substance that enhances locomotor behavior. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... Nootropics, popularly referred to as smart drugs, smart nutrients, cognitive enhancers and brain enhancers, are substances which claim to boost human cognitive abilities (the functions and capacities of the brain). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System containing Psychoanaleptics. ... Sympathomimetics are a class of drugs whose properties mimic those of a stimulated sympathetic nervous system. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Amphetaminil is a cental nervous system stimulant. ... Atomoxetine is the first non-stimulant drug approved for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ... Fencamfamine (Glucoenergan, Reactivan) is a stimulant which was developed in the 1960s as an appetite supressant, but was later withdrawn for this application due to problems with dependence and abuse. ... Fenozolone is a centrally acting sympathomimetic. ... Fenethylline (Captagon) is a synthetic stimulant drug. ... Mesocarb (Sidnocarb, Sydnocarb) is a stimulant drug which was developed in the USSR in the 1970s. ... Pemoline is a medication for Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ... Pipradrol (Meretran) is a mild CNS stimulant which is no longer widely used in most countries due to concerns about its abuse potential, although this is less of a problem than with other stimulants that still are in current use such as methylphenidate. ... Prolintane is a central nervous system simulant. ... Xanthines are a group of alkaloids that are commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in treating the symptoms of asthma. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Propentofylline is a xanthine derivative and phosphodiesterase inhibitor with purported neuroprotective effects. ... Racetams are a class of nootropic drugs that share a pyrrolidine nucleus. ... Aniracetam (Draganon®, Sarpul®, Ampamet®) is a nootropic drug of the racetam family. ... Carphedon was developed in Russia and is claimed to increase physical stamina along with improved tolerance to cold, its also used for amnesia treatment. ... Oxiracetam (2-(4-hydroxy-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide) is a nootropic. ... Piracetam (brand name: Nootropil®, Myocalm®), is a nootropic, (though it is only called so by off-label users, see As a nootropic below). ... Pramiracetam (amacetam, CI 879) is a nootropic derived from piracetam, but is more potent (lower dosage is used). ... Ampakines are a new class of modified benzamide compounds known to enhance attention span and alertness. ... CX516 is an ampakine compound that works as an AMPA modulator and is being devolped by a collaboration of Cortex and Shire and Servier. ... Adrafinil chemical structure Adrafinil is a mild central nervous system stimulant drug used to relieve excessive sleepiness and inattention in elderly patients. ... Modafinil is a eugeroic drug generally prescribed to treat narcolepsy, made by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon Inc. ... Acetyl-L-carnitine or ALCAR, is an acetylated form of L-carnitine. ... Citicoline (INN, also known as cytidine diphosphate choline and cytidine 5-diphosphocholine) is a psychostimulant/nootropic. ... Cyprodenate (Actebral) is a stimulant drug. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dimethylethanolamine is a nitrogen organic compound. ... Dimebon (Dimebolin) is an antihistamine drug which has been used clinically in Russia since 1983. ... Fipexide is a piperazine derivative drug invented in Italy in 1983. ... Linopirdine is a psychostimulant/nootropic. ... Categories: Medicine stubs | Nootropics ... Nizofenone is a psychostimulant/nootropic. ... Pirisudanol (or pyrisuccideanol) is a psychostimulant/nootropic. ... Nootropics are drugs that are used to enhance mental performance in healthy individuals. ... Sulbutiamine (brand name: Arcalion®) is a precursor to thiamine (i. ... Vinpocetine (brand names: Cavinton, Intelectol; chemical name: ethyl apovincaminate) is a semisynthetic derivative of vincamine, which is extracted from the periwinkle plant. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Methylphenidate: Encyclopedia of Cancer (584 words)
In addition, methylphenidate may improve the mood of a cancer patient suffering from feelings of depression, often raises a patient's energy level, and may improve his or her appetite.
Methylphenidate should not be given to patients with extreme anxiety, tension, agitation, severe depression, instability, or a history of alcohol or drug abuse.
Methylphenidate is not typically ordered for women during their childbearing years, unless the doctor determines that the benefits outweigh the risks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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