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Encyclopedia > Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
n-methyl-1-phenyl-propan-2-amine
Identifiers
CAS number 537-46-2
ATC code N06BA03
PubChem 1206
Chemical data
Formula C10H15N 
Mol. mass 149.233 g/mol
SMILES search in eMolecules, PubChem
Synonyms Deoxyephedrine
Pervitin
Anadrex
Metamfetamine
Methylamphetamine
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 62.7% oral; 79% nasal; 90.3% smoked; 99% rectally; 100% IV
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 9-15 hours[1]
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(US) Levomethamphetamine (other names: l-desoxyephedrine, l-methamphetamine, levmetamfetamine ) is the l- stereoisomer of methamphetamine, a sympathomimetic vasoconstrictor which is the active ingredient used in some over-the-counter nasal decongestants. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 513 pixelsFull resolution (1716 × 1100 pixel, file size: 239 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Methamphetamine ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System containing Psychoanaleptics. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ... It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Legal status

Prohibited (S9)(AU) Schedule I(CA) Schedule II(US) Class A(NZ)
Schedule 5(SA)
Injectable:Class A, Oral: A(UK) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons, abbreviated SUSDP, is a document used in the regulation of drugs and poisons in Australia. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ... The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canadas federal drug control statute. ... Motto (Latin for From Sea to Sea) Anthem O Canada Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Ottawa Largest city Toronto Official languages English, French Government Parliamentary democracy and federal constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor General Michaëlle Jean  -  Prime Minister Stephen Harper Establishment  -  Act of Union February... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... This article is about the country on the southern tip of the African continent. ...

Routes Medical: Oral
Recreational: Oral, I.V., I.M., Insufflation, Inhalation, Suppository

Methamphetamine (methylamphetamine or desoxyephedrine), popularly shortened to meth and also nicknamed "ice", is a psychostimulant and sympathomimetic drug. The dextrorotatory isomer dextromethamphetamine can be prescribed to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, though unmethylated amphetamine is more commonly prescribed. Also, narcolepsy, and obesity can be treated by the aformentioned isomer under the brand name Desoxyn. It is considered a second line of treatment, used when amphetamine and methylphenidate cause the patient too many side effects. It is only recommended for short term use (~6 weeks) in obesity patients because it is thought that the anoretic effects of the drug are short lived and produce tolerance quickly, whereas the effects on CNS stimulation are much less susceptable to tolerance. It is also used illegally for weight loss and to maintain alertness, focus, motivation, and mental clarity for extended periods of time, and for recreational purposes. "Crystal meth" refers to the crystalline, smokeable form of the drug and is not used for the drug in pill or powdered form. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... Sympathomimetic drugs are substances that mimic the effects of the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Dextrorotation is the property of rotating plane polarized light to the right. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of chemical bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently (analogous to a chemical anagram). ... Dextromethamphetamine (dextro-N-α-dimethyl-phenethylamine is an N-methylated analog of dextroamphetamine. ... Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) previously known as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), is generally considered to be a developmental disorder, largely neurological in nature, affecting about 5% of the worlds population. ... For other uses, see Narcolepsy (disambiguation). ... Bulk pharmaceutical bottle of Desoxyn Desoxyn® CII is a brand pharmaceutical form of dextromethamphetamine hydrochloride (also known as desoxyephedrine, hence the name Desoxyn), indicated for treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD), narcolepsy, and exogenous obesity. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... “Vitamin R” redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... A smoking pipe is a device used for smoking combustible substances such as tobacco. ...


Methamphetamine enters the brain and triggers a cascading release of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin. To a lesser extent Methamphetamine acts as a dopaminergic and adrenergic reuptake inhibitor and in high concentrations as a monamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). Since it stimulates the mesolimbic reward pathway, causing euphoria and excitement, it is prone to abuse and addiction. Users may become obsessed or perform repetitive tasks such as cleaning, hand-washing, or assembling and disassembling objects. Withdrawal is characterized by excessive sleeping, eating and depression-like symptoms, often accompanied by anxiety and drug-craving.[2] Users of methamphetamine often take one or more benzodiazepines as a means of "coming down". For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Technical advancements in recent years have allowed progress toward the understanding of the brain and how drugs can be made to affect it. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Epinephrine Norepinephrine The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the catecholamines. ... Reuptake, or re-uptake, is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by the neurotransmitter transporter of a pre-synaptic neuron after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ... The mesolimbic pathway is one of the neural pathways in the brain that link the ventral tegmentum in the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens in the limbic system. ... Also see Alcoholism and Drug addiction. ... Punding is human activity characterized by compulsive fascination with and performance of repetitive, mechanical tasks, such as assembling and disassembling, collecting, or sorting household objects. ... In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... Alprazolam 2mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , or benzos for short) are a class of psychoactive drugs considered as minor tranquilizers with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are brought on by slowing down the central nervous system. ...

Contents

History

Methamphetamine was first synthesized from ephedrine in Japan in 1893 by chemist Nagayoshi Nagai.[3] In 1919, crystallized methamphetamine was synthesized by Akira Ogata via reduction of ephedrine using red phosphorus and iodine. The related compound amphetamine was first synthesized in Germany in 1887 by Lazăr Edeleanu. Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nagayoshi Nagai (August 8, 1844 - February 10, 1929) was a notable Japanese chemist, best known for his study of ephedrine. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Akira Ogata (Ogata Akira, ç·’æ–¹ ç« , 1887-1978) was a Japanese chemist and the inventor of methamphetamine in 1919. ... Reduction or reducing has several meanings: In mathematics, reduction is the process of manipulating a series of equations or matrices into a desired simpler format. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... For the record label, see Iodine Recordings. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Lazar Edeleanu (1861-1941) was a famous Romanian chemist. ...


World War II

One of the earliest uses of methamphetamine was during World War II when the German military dispensed it under the trade name Pervitin. [4] It was widely distributed across rank and division, from elite forces to tank crews and aircraft personnel. Chocolates dosed with methamphetamine were known as Fliegerschokolade ("flyer's chocolate") when given to pilots, or Panzerschokolade ("tanker's chocolate") when given to tank crews. From 1942 until his death in 1945, Adolf Hitler was given daily intravenous injections of methamphetamine by his personal physician, Theodor Morell,[5] as a treatment for depression and fatigue. It is possible that it was used to treat Hitler's speculated Parkinson's disease, or that his Parkinson-like symptoms which developed from 1940 onwards were related to abuse of methamphetamine.[6] Hitler redirects here. ... Theodor (Theo) Gilbert Morell (July 22, 1886 – May 26, 1948) was German dictator Adolf Hitlers personal physician. ...


After World War II, a large supply of amphetamine, formerly stockpiled by the Japanese military, became available in Japan under the street name shabu (also Philopon (pronounced ヒロポン, or Hiropon), its tradename there.[7]) The Japanese Ministry of Health banned it in 1951; and its prohibition is thought to have added to the growing yakuza-activities related to illicit drug production.[8] Today, methamphetamine is still associated with the Japanese underworld, but its usage is discouraged by strong social taboos. For other uses, see Yakuza (disambiguation). ...


Post war use

In the 1950s there was a rise in the legal prescription of methamphetamine to the American public. According to the 1951 edition of Pharmacology and Therapeutics by Arthur Grollman, it was to be prescribed for "narcolepsy, post-encephalitic Parkinsonism, alcoholism, ... in certain depressive states... and in the treatment of obesity." the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... For other uses, see Narcolepsy (disambiguation). ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Parkinsonism (also known as Parkinsons syndrome, atypical Parkinsons, or secondary Parkinsons) is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ...


In the 1960s significant use began of clandestinely manufactured methamphetamine and methamphetamine created in users' own homes for personal use. The recreational use of methamphetamine peaked in the 1980s. The December 2, 1989 edition of The Economist described San Diego, California as the "methamphetamine capital of North America."[citation needed] The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... “San Diego” redirects here. ...


In 2000, The Economist again described San Diego, California as the methamphetamine capital of North America, and South Gate, California as the second capital city. The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... “San Diego” redirects here. ... Location of South Gate in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1923-01-20 [2] Government  - Mayor Bill De Witt [1] Area  - City  7. ...


Legal restriction in the United States

In 1983 laws were passed in the United States prohibiting possession of precursors and equipment for methamphetamine production; this was followed a month later by a bill passed in Canada enacting similar laws. In 1986 the U.S. government passed the Federal Controlled Substance Analogue Enforcement Act in an attempt to curb the growing use of designer drugs. Despite this, or perhaps in part because of this, usage of methamphetamine expanded throughout rural United States, especially through the Midwest and South. Designer drug is a term to used to describe psychoactive drugs which are created (or marketed, if they had already existed) to get around existing drug laws by modifying their molecular structures to varying degrees. ...


Since 1989 five federal laws and dozens of state laws have been imposed in an attempt to curb the production of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine is easily “cooked up” in home laboratories using pseudoephedrine or ephedrine, the active ingredients in over-the-counter drugs such as Sudafed and Contac. However, preventative legal strategies of the past 17 years have steadily increased restrictions to the distribution of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine-containing products. Sudafed is a brand name and registered trademark for a family of over-the-counter (OTC) decongestants based on pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and manufactured by Pfizer Inc. ... Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ...


As a result of the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005, a subsection of the PATRIOT Act, there are restrictions on the amount of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine one may purchase in a specified time period, and further requirements that these products must be stored in order to prevent theft.[9] The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 (CMEA) was signed into United States law on March 9, 2006 to regulate, among other things, retail over-the-counter sales of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine products. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Pharmacology

Methamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant which affects neurochemical mechanisms responsible for regulating heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, appetite, attention, mood and responses associated with alertness or alarm conditions. The acute effects of the drug closely resemble the physiological and psychological effects of an epinephrine-provoked fight-or-flight response, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, vasoconstriction (constriction of the arterial walls), bronchodilation, and hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar). Users experience an increase in focus, increased mental alertness, and the elimination of fatigue, as well as a decrease in appetite. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... “Adrenaline” redirects here. ... The fight-or-flight response, also called the acute stress response, was first described by Walter Cannon in 1929. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ... Hyperglycemia or High Blood Sugar is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. ...


Users must also take caution and avoid being showered by cold water, riding high-speed roller coasters, consuming caffeinated drinks, or exercising and weight lifting, as these actions can trigger hypertension, nervousness, extreme rapid heartbeat, dilated heartbeat, or sudden death. For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ...


The methyl group is responsible for the potentiation of effects as compared to the related compound amphetamine, rendering the substance on the one hand more lipid soluble and easing transport across the blood brain barrier, and on the other hand more stable against enzymatic degradation by MAO. Methamphetamine causes the norepinephrine, dopamine and, serotonin(5HT) transporters to reverse their direction of flow. This inversion leads to a release of these transmitters from the vesicles to the cytoplasm and from the cytoplasm to the synapse (releasing monoamines in rats with ratios of about NE:DA = 1:2, NE:5HT= 1:60), causing increased stimulation of post-synaptic receptors. Methamphetamine also indirectly prevents the reuptake of these neurotransmitters, causing them to remain in the synaptic cleft for a prolonged period (inhibiting monoamine reuptake in rats with ratios of about: NE:DA = 1:2.35, NE:5HT = 1:44.5[10]). Methyl group In chemistry, a methyl group is a hydrophobic alkyl functional group derived from methane (CH4). ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... The blood-brain barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels in the central nervous system, and the central nervous system itself. ... Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ...


Recent research published in the Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics (2007)[2], indicates that methamphetamine binds to a group of receptors called TAAR. TAAR is a newly discovered receptor system which seems to be affected by a range of amphetamine-like substances called trace amines. Trace amine-associated receptors, abbreviated TAAR and previously abbreviated TAR and TA, are a class of G protein-coupled receptors identified in 2001. ... Chemical structure of serotonin Chemical structure of phenethylamine Trace amines are endogenous compounds structurally related to classical biogenic amines, such as catecholamines, serotonin and histamine. ...


Illicit production

Methamphetamine crystals
Methamphetamine crystals

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1816x1396, 152 KB) Méthamphétamine pure Source : DEA (http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1816x1396, 152 KB) Méthamphétamine pure Source : DEA (http://www. ...

Synthesis

Methamphetamine is most structurally similar to methcathinone and amphetamine. When illicitly produced, it is commonly made by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. Most of the necessary chemicals are readily available in household products or over-the-counter cold or allergy medicines. Synthesis is relatively simple, but entails risk with flammable and corrosive chemicals, particularly the solvents used in extraction and purification. Clandestine production is therefore often discovered by fires and explosions caused by the improper handling of volatile or flammable solvents. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ...


Most methods of illicit production involve hydrogenation of the hydroxyl group on the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine molecule. The most common method for small-scale methamphetamine labs in the United States is primarily called the "Red, White, and Blue Process", which involves red phosphorus, pseudoephedrine or ephedrine(white), and blue iodine, from which hydroiodic acid is formed. In Australia, criminal groups have been known to substitute 'red' phosphorus with either hypophosphorus acid or phosphorus acid[3]. Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... For the record label, see Iodine Recordings. ... Hydroiodic acid (sometimes also spelled hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (Concentrated solution is usually 48 - 57% HI). ...


This is a fairly dangerous process for amateur chemists, because phosphine gas, a side-product from in situ hydroiodic acid production, is extremely toxic to inhale. An increasingly common method uses the process of Birch reduction, in which metallic lithium (commonly extracted from rechargeable batteries) is substituted for metallic sodium, to circumvent the difficulty of procuring metallic sodium. Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3), also known by the IUPAC name phosphane and, occasionally, phosphamine. ... The Birch reduction is the organic reduction of aromatic rings by sodium in liquid ammonia invented by Arthur Birch. ... This article is about the chemical element named Lithium. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ...


The Birch reduction, however, is dangerous because the alkali metal and liquid anhydrous ammonia are both extremely reactive, and the temperature of liquid ammonia makes it susceptible to explosive boiling when reactants are added. Anhydrous ammonia and lithium or sodium (Birch reduction) may be surpassing hydroiodic acid (catalytic hydrogenation) as the most common method of manufacturing methamphetamine in the US and possibly in Mexico. Hydroiodic acid "super lab busts" receive more media attention because the equipment employed is much more complex and visible than the glass jars or coffee carafes commonly used to produce methamphetamine with Birch reduction. Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH3. ...

Industrial scale methamphetamine/MDMA factory in Cikande, Indonesia
Industrial scale methamphetamine/MDMA factory in Cikande, Indonesia

A completely different procedure of synthesis uses the reductive amination of phenylacetone with methylamine, both of which are currently DEA list I chemicals (as are pseudoephedrine and ephedrine). The reaction requires a catalyst that acts as a reducing agent, such as mercury-aluminum amalgam or platinum dioxide, also known as Adams' catalyst. This was once the preferred method of production by motorcycle gangs in California,[citation needed] until DEA restrictions on the chemicals have made this difficult. Other less common methods use other means of hydrogenation, such as hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalyst. Image File history File links Methjakarta. ... Image File history File links Methjakarta. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... Reductive amination is a type of amination reaction which involves the conversion of a carbonyl group to an amine. ... Phenylacetone (known as 1-phenylpropan-2-one in IUPAC nomenclature, often abbreviated as P2P other synonyms include benzyl methyl ketone; methyl benzyl ketone; phenyl-2-propanone; phenyl acetone) is an organic compound. ... Methylamine is a simple primary amine with a formula of CH3NH2. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... The United States Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) maintains lists regarding not only the classification of illicit drugs (see DEA Schedules. ... A mercury-aluminum amalgam is a chemical reagent that uses aluminum coated with mercury to reduce compounds, such as the reduction of imines to amines. ... Adams catalyst is usually represented as platinum(IV) oxide hydrate, PtO2-H2O. It is a catalyst for hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis in organic synthesis. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Outlaw motorcycle club. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ...


Methamphetamine labs can give off noxious fumes, such as phosphine gas, methylamine gas, solvent vapors; such as acetone or chloroform, iodine vapors, white phosphorus, anhydrous ammonia, hydrogen chloride/muriatic acid, hydrogen iodide, lithium/sodium metal, ether, or methamphetamine vapors. If performed by amateurs, manufacturing methamphetamine can be extremely dangerous. If the red phosphorus overheats, because of a lack of ventilation, phosphine gas can be produced. This gas, if present in large quantities, is likely to explode upon autoignition from diphosphine, which is formed by overheating phosphorus. Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3), also known by the IUPAC name phosphane and, occasionally, phosphamine. ... Methylamine is a simple primary amine with a formula of CH3NH2. ... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For the record label, see Iodine Recordings. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The chemical hydrochloric acid is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl). ... HAHAHAHAHAHAAHAHAHAHAHAHAH YOU SUCK Hydrogen iodide (HI) is a diatomic molecule. ... This article is about the chemical element named Lithium. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R – O–R.[1] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as ether... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... Phosphine is the common name for phosphorus hydride (PH3), also known by the IUPAC name phosphane and, occasionally, phosphamine. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ...


Production and distribution

Until the early 1990s, methamphetamine for the US market was made mostly in labs run by drug traffickers in Mexico and California. Since then, authorities have discovered increasing numbers of small-scale methamphetamine labs all over the United States, mostly in rural, suburban, or low-income areas. Indiana state police found 1,260 labs in 2003, compared to just 6 in 1995, although this may be a result of increased police activity.[11] Recently, mobile and motel-based methamphetamine labs have caught the attention of both the US news media and the police. Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... State police are a type of sub-national territorial police force, particularly in Australia and the United States. ...


These labs can cause explosions and fires, and expose the public to hazardous chemicals. Those who manufacture methamphetamine are often harmed by toxic gases. Many police departments have specialized task forces with training to respond to cases of methamphetamine production. The National Drug Threat Assessment 2006, produced by the Department of Justice, found "decreased domestic methamphetamine production in both small and large-scale laboratories", but also that "decreases in domestic methamphetamine production have been offset by increased production in Mexico." They concluded that "methamphetamine availability is not likely to decline in the near term."[12] The Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building in Washington, D.C. “Justice Department” redirects here. ...


In July 2007, a ship was caught by Mexican officials at the port of Lázaro Cárdenas, originating in Hong Kong, after traveling through the port of Long Beach with 19 tons of pseudoephedrine, a raw material needed for meth.[13] The Chinese owner was found to have $206 million at his Mexico City mansion. It went undetected at Long Beach. Lázaro Cárdenas is a town located in the southern part of the state of Michoacán, it was formerly known as Los Llanitos, but it change its name for the one of Lázaro Cárdenas who was president of Mexico from 1934 to 1940. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles County Government  - Mayor Bob Foster Area  - City  65. ... Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ...

A rocket used by smugglers to quickly discard meth.
A rocket used by smugglers to quickly discard meth.

Methamphetamine is distributed by prison gangs, Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, street gangs, traditional organized crime operations, and impromptu small networks. In the U.S. illicit methamphetamine comes in a variety of forms, at an average price of $150 per gram for pure substance.[14] Most commonly it is found as a colorless crystalline solid. Impurities may result in a brownish or tan color. Colourful flavored pills containing methamphetamine and caffeine are known as yaa baa (Thai for "crazy medicine"). Image File history File links Methrocket. ... Image File history File links Methrocket. ... A Motorcycle Club (MC) is an organized club of motorcycle riders who follow a series of traditional rules for participation in the club, including, but not limited to, a group of elected officers; a probationary period for new members; the wearing of a specific club patch (or patches) adorned with... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Yaba (also Ya Ba or Ya Baa; crazy medicine in Thai) are tablets containing a mixture of methamphetamine and caffeine, often candy-flavored and brightly colored. ...


At its most impure, it is sold as a crumbly brown or off-white rock commonly referred to as "peanut butter crank."[15] Methamphetamine found on the street is rarely pure, but adulterated with chemicals that were used to synthesize it. It may be diluted or "cut" with non-psychoactive substances like inositol or dimethylsulfone. Another popular method is to combine methamphetamine with other stimulant substances such as caffeine or Cathine into a pill known as a "Kamikaze", which is particularly dangerous due to the synergetic effects of multiple stimulants on the heart. It may also be flavored with high-sugar candies, drinks, or drink mixes to mask the bitter taste of the drug. Coloring may be added to the meth, as is the case with "Strawberry Quick."[16][17]. A cutting agent is a chemical used to cut (adulterate) illicit drugs with something less expensive than the drug itself. ... Inositol, (of which the most prominent naturally-occurring form is myo-inositol, cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol), is a carbocyclic polyol that plays an important role as the structural basis for a number of secondary messengers in eukaryotic cells, including inositol phosphates, phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylinositol... Dimethylsulfone (H3C-S(=O)2-CH3) is a nutritious chemical compound. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... Cathine (β-hydroxyamphetamine) is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (khat). ...


Medical use

d-Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine is used medically under the brand name Desoxyn for the following conditions: Bulk pharmaceutical bottle of Desoxyn Desoxyn® CII is a brand pharmaceutical form of dextromethamphetamine hydrochloride (also known as desoxyephedrine, hence the name Desoxyn), indicated for treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD), narcolepsy, and exogenous obesity. ...

10 mg Desoxyn
10 mg Desoxyn

Because of its social stigma, Desoxyn is not generally prescribed for ADHD unless other stimulants, such as methylphenidate (Ritalin®), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine®) or mixed amphetamines (Adderall®) have failed. DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... For other uses, see Narcolepsy (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (606x678, 36 KB) Deux pilules de Desoxyn Gradumet 10mg Source : DEA (http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (606x678, 36 KB) Deux pilules de Desoxyn Gradumet 10mg Source : DEA (http://www. ... “Vitamin R” redirects here. ... Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... Amphetamine is a synthetic drug originally developed (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... [[Image: |thumb|250px|Adderall 25 mg XR Capsules]] Addesrallw is a pharmaceutical psychostimulant comprising mixed amphetamine salts. ...


Tolerance

As with other amphetamines, tolerance to methamphetamine is not completely understood, but known to be sufficiently complex that it cannot be explained by any single mechanism. The extent of tolerance and the rate at which it develops varies widely between individuals, and even within one person it is highly dependent on dosage, duration of use and frequency of administration. Many cases of narcolepsy are treated with methamphetamine for years without escalating doses or any apparent loss of effect. For other uses, see Narcolepsy (disambiguation). ...


Short term tolerance can be caused by depleted levels of neurotransmitters within the vesicles available for release into the synaptic cleft following subsequent reuse (tachyphylaxis). Short term tolerance typically lasts 2-3 days, until neurotransmitter levels are fully replenished. Prolonged overstimulation of dopamine receptors caused by methamphetamine may eventually cause the receptors to downregulate in order to compensate for increased levels of dopamine within the synaptic cleft.[18] To compensate, larger quantities of the drug are needed in order to achieve the same level of effects. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ... Synapses allow nerve cells to communicate with one another through axons and dendrites, converting electrical signals into chemical ones. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The dopamine receptors are a class of G-protein coupled receptors with dopamine as their endogenous ligand. ... Down regulation is the process by which a cell decreases the number of receptors to a given hormone or neurotransmitter to reduce its sensitivity to this molecule. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ...


Effects

Range of effects

Common immediate effects.:[19]

  • Euphoria
  • Increased energy and attentiveness
  • Diarrhea, nausea
  • Excessive sweating
  • Loss of appetite, insomnia, tremor, jaw-clenching (Bruxism)
  • Agitation, compulsive fascination with repetitive tasks (Punding)
  • Talkativeness, irritability, panic attacks
  • Increased libido

Side effects associated with chronic use: Euphoria (Greek ) is a medically recognized emotional state related to happiness. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Bruxism (from the Greek βρυγμός (brugmós), gnashing of teeth] is the grinding of the teeth, typically accompanied by the clenching of the jaw. ... Punding is human activity characterized by compulsive fascination with and performance of repetitive, mechanical tasks, such as assembling and disassembling, collecting, or sorting household objects. ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ...

Side effects associated with overdose: In psychology, anhedonia is a patients inability to experience pleasure from normally pleasurable life events such as eating, exercise, and social/sexual interactions. ... Suspected case of meth mouth Meth mouth is an informal name for advanced tooth decay attributed to heavy methamphetamine use. ... Amphetamine psychosis is a form of psychosis which can result from amphetamine or methamphetamine use. ...

Death from overdose is usually due to stroke, heart failure, but can also be caused by cardiac arrest (sudden death) or hyperthermia. Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Formication is a tactile hallucination that insects or snakes are crawling over or under the skin. ... Tension headaches, which were renamed tension-type headaches by the International Headache Society in 1988, are the most common type of primary headaches. ... }} Rhabdomyolysis is the rapid breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue due to traumatic injury, either mechanical, physical or chemical. ... Renal failure is when the kidneys fail to function properly. ...


Meth mouth

Main article: Meth mouth

Methamphetamine addicts may lose their teeth abnormally quickly, a condition known as "meth mouth". This effect is not caused by any corrosive effects of the drug itself, which is a common myth. According to the American Dental Association, meth mouth "is probably caused by a combination of drug-induced psychological and physiological changes resulting in xerostomia (dry mouth), extended periods of poor oral hygiene, frequent consumption of high calorie, carbonated beverages and tooth grinding and clenching."[20] Similar, though far less severe symptoms have been reported in clinical use of other amphetamines, where effects are not exacerbated by a lack of oral hygiene for extended periods.[21] Suspected case of meth mouth Meth mouth is an informal name for advanced tooth decay attributed to heavy methamphetamine use. ... Suspected case of meth mouth Meth mouth is an informal name for advanced tooth decay attributed to heavy methamphetamine use. ... The American Dental Association (ADA) is an American advocacy group that promotes Oral Health Care and the field of dentistry. ... Xerostomia is the medical term for a dry mouth due to a lack of saliva. ...


Like other substances which stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, methamphetamine causes decreased production of acid-fighting saliva and increased thirst, resulting in increased risk for tooth decay, especially when thirst is quenched by high-sugar drinks.[22] The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ...


Sexual behaviour

Users may exhibit sexually compulsive behaviour while under the influence. This disregard for the potential dangers of unprotected sex or other reckless sexual behavior may contribute to the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Methamphetamine (commonly known as crystal meth, crystal, or just meth) is a strong stimulant often used recreationally as a party drug. ... Sexual Compulsion (also sex/sexual addiction) is an overwhelming need for sex or preoccupation with sex or the procurement of sex. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ...


Among the effects reported by methamphetamine users is an increase in the need and urgency for sex, the ability to have sex for extended periods of time, and an inability to ejaculate or reach orgasm or physical release. In addition to increasing the need for sex and enabling the user to engage in prolonged sexual activity, methamphetamine lowers inhibitions and may cause users to behave recklessly or to become forgetful. Users may even report negative experiences after prolonged use, which contradict reported feelings, thoughts, and attitudes achieved at similar dosages under similar circumstances but at earlier periods of an extended or prolonged cycle. [23] Semen or ejaculate is the fluid discharged from the penis during ejaculation, usually at the time of orgasm. ... // An orgasm (sexual climax) is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle, and is experienced by both males and females. ...


Additionally, many chronic users find themselves engaging in excessive and repeated masturbation. According to a recent San Diego study [citation needed], methamphetamine users often engage in unsafe sexual activities, and forget or choose not to use condoms. The study found that methamphetamine users were six times less likely to use condoms. The urgency for sex combined with the inability to achieve release (ejaculation) can result in tearing, chafing, and trauma (such as rawness and friction sores) to the sex organs, the rectum and mouth, dramatically increasing the risk of transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Methamphetamine also causes erectile dysfunction due to vasoconstriction. Safe sex (also called safer sex or protected sex) is a set of practices that are designed to reduce the risk of infection during sexual intercourse to avoid developing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ... Genitalia masculina externa A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of those anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; namely: Male: testicles, penis, prepuce, scrotum, prostate, seminal vesicles, epididymis, Cowpers glands... The rectum (from the Latin rectum intestinum, meaning straight intestine) is the final straight portion of the large intestine in some mammals, and the gut in others, terminating in the anus. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ...


Addiction

In an article about his son's addiction to methamphetamine, California writer and former methamphetamine user David Schiff said "This drug has a unique, horrific quality." In an interview, Stephan Jenkins, the singer in the band Third Eye Blind, said that methamphetamine makes you feel "bright and shiny." Stephan Douglas Jenkins (born on September 27, 1964 in Oakland, California, USA), attended Henry M. Gunn Senior High School, is best known as the lead singer, songwriter , guitarist for [[Third Eye Blind]. Under Jenkins leadership, Third Eye Blind has sold over eight million copies of their three albums Third Eye... Third Eye Blind (frequently abbreviated 3eb) is a rock band formed in the early 1990s in San Francisco. ...

It also makes you paranoid, incoherent and both destructive and pathetically and relentlessly self-destructive. Then you will do unconscionable things in order to feel bright and shiny again.[24]

Methamphetamine is addictive[25], especially when injected or smoked.[26] While not life-threatening, withdrawal is often intense and, as with all addictions, relapse is common. To combat relapse, many recovering addicts attend 12 Step meetings, such as Crystal Meth Anonymous. Addiction is an uncontrollable compulsion to repeat a behavior regardless of its negative consequences. ... Injection has multiple meanings: In mathematics, the term injection refers to an injective function. ... A relapse (etymologically, who falls again) occurs when a person is affected again by a condition that affected them in the past. ... // A Twelve-step program is a set of guiding principles for recovery from addictive, compulsive, or other behavioral problems, originally developed by the fellowship of Alcoholics Anonymous (A.A.) to guide recovery from alcoholism. ... Crystal Meth Anonymous (CMA) is a fellowship of people for whom crystal meth has become a serious problem. ...


Methamphetamine-induced hyperstimulation of pleasure pathways leads to anhedonia. Former users have noted that they feel stupid or dull when they quit using methamphetamine. It is possible that daily administration of the amino acids L-Tyrosine and L-5HTP/Tryptophan can aid in the recovery process by making it easier for the body to reverse the depletion of Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Serotonin. Although studies involving the use of these amino acids have shown some success, this method of recovery has not been shown to be consistently effective. In psychology, anhedonia is a patients inability to experience pleasure from normally pleasurable life events such as eating, exercise, and social/sexual interactions. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... 5-HTP (5-Hydroxy-tryptophan) is decarboxylated to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase. ... Tryptophan is an essential amino acid involved in human nutrition. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ... Serotonin (pronounced ) (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ...


It is shown that taking ascorbic acid prior to using methamphetamine may help reduce acute toxicity to the brain, as rats given the human equivalent of 5-10 grams of ascorbic acid 30 minutes prior to methamphetamine dosage had toxicity mediated, yet this will likely be of little avail in solving the serious behavioral problems associated with methamphetamine use that create many of the problems the users experience. This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid. ...


Hygiene

Serious health and appearance problems are caused by unsterilized needles, lack of hygiene, the chemistry of methamphetamine (particularly when smoked), and especially pollutants in street-grade methamphetamine . The use of methamphetamine may lead to hypertension, damage to heart valves, vastly deteriorated dental health, and increased risk of strokes.[27]


Combating addiction

To combat addiction, doctors are beginning to use other forms of amphetamine such as dextroamphetamine to break the addiction cycle in a method similar to methadone for heroin addicts. There are no known drugs comparable to naloxone, which blocks opiate receptors and is therefore used in treating opiate dependence, for use with methamphetamine problems.[28] Since the phenethylamine phentermine is a constitutional isomer of methamphetamine, it has been speculated that it may be effective in treating methamphetamine addiction. Although phenteremine is a central nervous stimulant that acts on dopamine and norepinephrine, it has not been reported to cause the same degree of euphoria that is associated with other amphetemines. Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. ... Methadone is a synthetic opioid, used medically as an analgesic and in the treatment of narcotic addiction. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ... Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of opioid overdose, for example heroin and morphine overdose. ... Scoring the poppy pod. ... Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Phentermine is an appetite suppressant of the amphetamine and phenethylamine class. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... Norepinephrine (INN)(abbr. ...


Routes of administration

The usual route for medical use is oral administration. In recreational use, it can be swallowed, snorted, smoked, dissolved in water and injected (or even without water, in what is called a dry shot), inserted anally (with or without dissolution in water; also known as a booty bump or shafting), or into the urethra.[29] The potential for addiction is greater when it is delivered by methods that cause the concentration in the blood to rise quickly, principally because the effects desired by the user are felt more quickly and with a higher intensity than through a moderated delivery mechanism.


Studies have shown that the subjective pleasure of drug use (the reinforcing component of addiction) is proportional to the rate that the blood level of the drug increases.[citation needed] In general, smoking is the fastest mechanism (i.e., it causes the blood concentration to rise the most quickly in the shortest period of time as it allows the substance to travel to the brain through a more direct route than intravenous injection), followed by injecting, anal insertion, insufflation, and swallowing. Insufflation (Latin insufflatio blowing on or into) is the practice of inhaling substances into a body cavity. ...


Smoking

"Smoking" amphetamine's actually refers to vaporizing it to produce fumes, rather than burning and inhaling the resulting smoke, as with tobacco. It is commonly smoked in glass pipes, or in aluminum foil heated by a flame underneath. This method is also known as "chasing the white dragon" (as derived from the method of smoking heroin known as "chasing the dragon") or it's more commonly called "Clucking". There is little evidence that Methamphetamine inhalation results in greater toxicity than any other route of administration. Lung damage has been reported with long-term use, but manifests in forms independent of route (pulmonary hypertension and associated complications), or limited to injection users (pulmonary emboli). Chasing the dragon (a slang phrase of Cantonese origin from Hong Kong) refers to inhaling the smoke from heated opium or heroin. ...


Injection

Injection is a popular method for use, also known as slamming, but carries quite serious risks. The hydrochloride salt of methamphetamine is soluble in water; injection users may use any dose from 125 mg to over a gram, using a small needle. This dosage range may be fatal to non-addicts; addicts rapidly develop tolerance to the drug. Injection users often experience skin rashes (sometimes called "speed bumps") and infections at the site of injection. As with any injected drug, if a group of users shares a common needle or any type of injecting equipment without sterilization procedures, blood-borne diseases such as HIV or hepatitis can be transmitted as well. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Needle sharing is the colloquialism for the reuse of syringes by multiple illegal drug users to administer intravenous drugs, and is a primary vector for diseases which can be transmitted through blood, including hepatitis and AIDS. See also Needle-exchange programme ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ...


Other methods

A Line of Methamphetamine
A Line of Methamphetamine

Very little research has focused on anal insertion as a method, and anecdotal evidence of its effects is infrequently discussed, possibly due to social taboos in many cultures regarding the anus. This is often known within communities that use methamphetamine for sexual stimulation as a "butt rocket," "booty bump," "keistering,", "plugging," "shelving," or "bumming"and is anecdotally reported to increase sexual pleasure while the effects of the drug last.[30] The rectum is where the majority of the drug would likely be taken up, through the membranes lining its walls. (See Methamphetamine and sex for further information on other risk factors.) Another way of ingesting methamphetamine is to crush the crystals up and insufflate (snort) them. This also bypasses first pass metabolism and goes straight into the bloodstream. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Methamphetamine (commonly known as crystal meth, crystal, or just meth) is a strong stimulant often used recreationally as a party drug. ...


Legality

Australia

Strictly speaking, as a Schedule 8 drug, the medical use of methamphetamine is recognised in Australia, however in practise this is not the case. It is also known as Ice and has become the focus of a nation-wide crackdown. As of 2007, this has become part of the election agenda for both major political parties. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Canada

Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in Canada. The maximum penalty for the production and distribution is imprisonment for life.


Hong Kong

Methamphetamine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. It can only be used legally by health professionals and for university research purposes. The substance can be given by pharmacists under a prescription. Anyone who supplies the substance without prescription can be fined $10000(HKD). The penalty for trafficking or manufacturing the substance is a $5,000,000 (HKD) fine and life imprisonment. Possession of the substance for consumption without license from the Department of Health is illegal with a $1,000,000 (HKD) fine and/or 7 years of jail time. ISO 4217 Code HKD User(s) Hong Kong Inflation 2. ...


The Netherlands

Methamphetamine is not approved for medical use in The Netherlands. It falls under Schedule I of the Opium Act. Although production and distribution of this drug are prohibited, few people who were caught with a small amount for personal use have been prosecuted.


New Zealand

Methamphetamine is a Class "A" controlled drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1975. The maximum penalty for production and distribution is imprisonment for life. While in theory a doctor could prescribe it for an appropriate indication, this would require case-by-case approval by the director-general of public health. In New Zealand, Methamphetamine is most commonly referred to by the street name P[31]. New Zealands Misuse of Drugs Act is a national drug control law that classifies drugs into three classes, or Schedules, based on their risk of harm: Class A, or First Schedule: Very high risk of harm; Class B, or Second Schedule: High risk of harm; and Class C, or...


South Africa

In South Africa, methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule 5 drug, and is listed as Undesirable Dependence-Producing Substances in Part III of Schedule 2 of the Drugs and Drug Trafficking Act, 1992 (Act No 140 of 1992).[32] Commonly called Tik, it is mostly abused by youths under the age of 20 in the Cape Flats areas. Landsat image of Cape Town and environs, looking roughly east. ...


United Kingdom

As of 18 January 2007,[33] methamphetamine is classified as a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 following a recommendation made by the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs in June 2006.[34] It had previously been classified as a Class B drug, except when prepared for injection. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs and drug-like substances, as listed under the Act, and to enable international co-operation against illegal drug trafficking. ... The Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) is a statutory and non-executive non-departmental public body, which was established under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. ...


United States

Methamphetamine Lab Seizures in the US
Year Seizures
1999 7,438
2000 9,902
2001 13,357
2002 16,212
2003 17,356
2004 17,710
2005 12,484
2006 6,435

Methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule II substance by the Drug Enforcement Administration under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[35] It is available by prescription under the trade name Desoxyn, manufactured by Ovation Pharma. While there is technically no difference between the laws regarding methamphetamine and other controlled stimulants, most medical professionals are averse to prescribing it due to its notoriety. The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... Convention on Psychotropic Substances Opened for signature February 21, 1971 in Vienna Entered into force August 16, 1976 Conditions for entry into force 40 ratifications Parties 175 The Convention on Psychotropic Substances is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, and psychedelics. ... Bulk pharmaceutical bottle of Desoxyn Desoxyn® CII is a brand pharmaceutical form of dextromethamphetamine hydrochloride (also known as desoxyephedrine, hence the name Desoxyn), indicated for treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD), narcolepsy, and exogenous obesity. ... Ovation Pharma is a manufacturer of pharmaceuticals products including Desoxyn. ...


Illicit methamphetamine has become a major focus of the 'war on drugs' in the United States in recent years. In addition to federal laws, some states have placed additional restrictions on the sale of precursor chemicals commonly used to synthesize methamphetamine, particularly pseudoephedrine, a common over-the-counter decongestant. In 2005, the DEA seized 2,148.6kg of methamphetamine.[36] In 2005, the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 was passed as part of the USA PATRIOT Act, putting restrictions on the sale of methamphetamine precursors. Massive mark-ups for drugs, areas/drugs/index. ... Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... A decongestant is a broad class of drugs designed to symptomatically treat ailments affecting the respiratory system. ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ... KG, kg or Kg can refer to several things: Kilogram, the SI base unit of mass. ... The Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of 2005 (CMEA) was signed into United States law on March 9, 2006 to regulate, among other things, retail over-the-counter sales of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine products. ... The Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which U.S. President George W. Bush signed into law on October...


On November 7, 2006, the US Department of Justice declared that November 30, 2006 be Methamphetamine Awareness Day.[37]


DEA El Paso Intelligence Center EPICdata is showing a distinct downward trend in the seizure of clandestine drug labs for the illicit manufacture of methampetamine from a high of 17,356 in 2003. Lab seizure data for the United States is available from EPIC beginning in 1999 when 7,438 labs were reported to have been seized during that calendar year. The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ...


Legality of similar chemicals

See pseudoephedrine and ephedrine for legal restrictions in place as a result of their use as precursors in the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine. Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Clandestine chemistry generally refers to chemistry carried out in illegal drug laboratories, but can include any kind of laboratory operation carried on in secret. ...


See also

The Montana Meth Project is a Montana-based anti-drug organization founded by billionaire Thomas Siebel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Methamphetamine and sex. ... Phenethylamine, or β-Phenylethylamine, is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Clandestine chemistry generally refers to chemistry carried out in illegal drug laboratories, but can include any kind of laboratory operation carried on in secret. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine (Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Propylhexedrine, also known as hexahydrodesoxyephedrine or dimethylcyclohexaneethanamine, is a sympathomimetic with varied medicinal uses, is an adrenergic compound used mainly to provide temporary symptomatic relief of nasal congestion due to colds, allergies and allergic rhinitis. ... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons) off the Coast of Panama The illegal drug trade is a global black market consisting of the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of illegal drugs. ...

References

  • Poison Information Monograph (PIM 334: Methamphetamine)
  • Chronic Amphetamine Use and Abuse A very thorough review on the effects of chronic use (American College of Neuropsychopharmacology)
  • Methamphetamine Use: Clinical and Forensic Aspects, by Errol Yudko, Harold V. Hall, and Sandra B. McPherson. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl, 2003.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Methamphetamine and amphetamine pharmacokinetics in oral fluid and plasma after controlled oral methamphetamine administration to human volunteers.
  2. ^ McGregor C, Srisurapanont M, Jittiwutikarn J, Laobhripatr S, Wongtan T, White J (2005). "The nature, time course and severity of methamphetamine withdrawal.". Addiction 100 (9): 1320-9. PMID 16128721. 
  3. ^ Nagai N. (1893). "Kanyaku maou seibun kenkyuu seiseki (zoku)". Yakugaku Zashi 13: 901. 
  4. ^ SID 271075 PubChem Substance Page on Methamphetamine
  5. ^ Methamphetamine. Drugscope. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  6. ^ Doyle, D (2005). "Hitler's Medical Care" (PDF). Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 35: 75-82. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. 
  7. ^ Digital Creators Studio Yama-Arashi (2006-04-16). 抗うつ薬いろいろ (Various Antidepressants) (Japanese). 医療情報提供サービス. Retrieved on 2006-07-14.
  8. ^ M. Tamura (1989-01-01). Japan: stimulant epidemics past and present. Bulletin on Narcotics 83-93. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved on 14 July, 2006.
  9. ^ Cunningham JK, Liu LM. (2003) Impacts of Federal ephedrine and pseudoephedrine regulations on methamphetamine-related hospital admissions. Addiction, 98, 1229-1237.
  10. ^ Rothman, et al. "Amphetamine-Type Central Nervous System Potently than they Release Dopamine and Serotonin." (2001): Synapse 39, 32-41 (Table V. on page 37)
  11. ^ Law Enforcement Facts
  12. ^ Methamphetamine. National Drug Intelligence Center. National Drug Threat Assessment 2006. January 2006.
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs: 1981 Through the Second Quarter of 2003
  15. ^ Methamphetamine Meth Labs
  16. ^ New York Times
  17. ^ Drug Horrors: Quick Start. Snopes.com
  18. ^ Bennett B, Hollingsworth C, Martin R, Harp J (1998). "Methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopamine transporter function.". Brain Res 782 (1-2): 219-27. PMID 9519266. 
  19. ^ Methamphetamine - Summary of clinical effects
  20. ^ Methamphetamine Use (Meth Mouth). American Dental Associaion. Retrieved on 2006-12-16.
  21. ^ Relationship between amphetamine ingestion and gingival enlargement
  22. ^ Shaner JW, Caries associated with methamphetamine abuse
  23. ^ http://www.methamphetamineaddiction.com/treatment_admissions.html
  24. ^ David Sheff, "My Addicted Son," New York Times Magazine, February 6, 2005, p. 44
  25. ^ Do You Know... Methamphetamine. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.
  26. ^ Methamphetamine/Amphetamine Treatment Admissions, by Route of Administration
  27. ^ *Richards, J.R., Brofeldt, B.T. Patterns of tooth wear associated with methamphetamine use. J Periodontol. 2000 Aug; 71(8):1371–4.
  28. ^ The Ice Age (See Below)
  29. ^ Ellison, J.M.; Dobies, D.F. Ann. Emerg. Med., Vol 13, No 3, pp. 198-200
  30. ^ Meth Myths, Meth Realities
  31. ^ Alcohol & Drug Info: Methamphetamine (P)
  32. ^ Drug Effects - Amphetamine-type Stimulants (ATS).
  33. ^ [Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment Order) SI 2006/3331]
  34. ^ Crystal meth to be class A drug, BBC News, 14 June 2006
  35. ^ List of psychotropic substances under international control. International Narcotics Control Board.
  36. ^ Stats & Facts: 2006 Successes in the Fight Against Drugs
  37. ^ DEA (01-01-07). Meth Awareness News Releases.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Urban Legends Reference Pages (also known as snopes. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Documentaries

  • The Ice Age - ABC Australia - 4 Corners - Australian methamphetamine use.
  • Frontline - The Meth Epidemic - PBS United States - Frontline - The Meth Epidemic

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Methamphetamine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5447 words)
Methamphetamine is structurally similar to methcathinone, amphetamine, and other stimulants, and it may be produced from ephedrine or pseudoephedrine by chemical reduction.
Methamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant, that affects neurochemical mechanisms responsible for regulating heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, appetite, attention, mood and responses associated with alertness or alarm conditions.
Methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule II substance by the Drug Enforcement Agency under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances [8].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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