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Encyclopedia > Meteorology

Contents

Atmospheric sciences [cat.]
Meteorology [cat.]
weather [cat.]
tropical cyclones [cat.]
Climatology [cat.]
climate [cat.]
climate change [cat.]

Portal Atmospheric Sciences
Portal Weather

Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, "high in the sky"; and λόγος, logos, "knowledge") is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. Meteorological phenomena are observable weather events which illuminate and are explained by the science of meteorology. Those events are bound by the variables that exist in Earth's atmosphere. They are temperature, pressure, water vapor, and the gradients and interactions of each variable, and how they change in time. The majority of Earth's observed weather is located in the troposphere. Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... “Air” redirects here. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... A meteorological phenomenon is a weather event which can be explained by the principles of meteorology. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... It has been suggested that multiple sections of steam be merged into this article or section. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ...


Meteorology, climatology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry are sub-disciplines of the atmospheric sciences. Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology. Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ... Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere. ... Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earths atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. ... Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Hydrometeorology is a branch of meteorology and hydrology that studies the transfer of water and energy between the land surface and the lower atmosphere. ...


Interactions between Earth's atmosphere and the oceans are part of coupled ocean-atmosphere studies. Meteorology has application in many diverse fields such as the military, energy production, farming, shipping and construction. “Air” redirects here. ...


Meteorology subclassifications

In the study of the atmosphere, meteorology can be academically subdivided depending on the temporal scope and spatial scope of interest. In one extreme, meteorology seems to be left behind and becomes climatology. In the timescales of hours to days, meteorology separates into micro-, meso-, and synoptic scale meteorology. Respectively, the geospatial size of each of these three scales relates directly with the appropriate timescale. Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ... Geomatics is the discipline of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering of geographic information. ...


Other subclassifications are available due to the need by humans, or by the unique, local or broad effects that are studied within that sub-class.


Boundary layer meteorology

Boundary layer meteorology is the study of processes in the air layer directly above Earth's surface, known as the atmospheric boundary layer. The effects of the surface – heating, cooling, and friction – cause turbulent mixing within the air layer. Significant fluxes of heat, matter, or momentum on time scales of less than a day are advected by turbulent motions.[1] Boundary layer meteorology includes the study of all types of surface-atmosphere boundary, including ocean, lake, urban land and non-urban land. In physics and fluid mechanics, a boundary layer is that layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a bounding surface. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... See Planetary boundary layer. ... For other uses, see Friction (disambiguation). ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ... flux in science and mathematics. ... Sensible heat is heat energy that is transported by a body that has a temperature higher than its surroundings via conduction, convection, or both. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... In classical mechanics, momentum (pl. ...


Mesoscale meteorology

Mesoscale meteorology is the study of atmospheric phenomena that has horizontal scales ranging from microscale limits to synoptic scale limits and a vertical scale that starts at the Earth's surface and includes the atmospheric boundary layer, troposphere, tropopause, and the lower section of the stratosphere. Mesoscale timescales last from less than a day to the lifetime of the event, which in some cases can be weeks. The events typically of interest are thunderstorms, squall lines, fronts, precipitation bands in tropical and extratropical cyclones, and topographically generated weather systems such as mountain waves and sea and land breezes.[2] Mesoscale Meteorology refers to weather systems smaller than synoptic scale systems but larger than storm-scale cumulus systems. ... See Planetary boundary layer. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... The tropopause is a boundary region in the atmosphere between the troposphere and the stratosphere. ... Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. ... A thunderstorm, also called an electrical storm or lightning storm, is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its attendant thunder produced from a cumulonimbus cloud. ... A squall or squall line is a line of thunderstorms with a common leading convection line, or mesocyclone, which tends to create a powerful gust front. ... A guide to the symbols for weather fronts that may be found on a weather map: 1. ...

NOAA: Synoptic scale weather analysis.
NOAA: Synoptic scale weather analysis.

Image File history File links Surface_analysis. ... Image File history File links Surface_analysis. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ...

Synoptic scale meteorology

Synoptic scale is generally large area dynamics referred to in horizontal coordinates and with respect to time. The phenomena typically described by synoptic meteorology include events like extratropical cyclones, baroclinic troughs and ridges, frontal zones, and to some extent jets. All of these are typically given on weather maps for a specific time. The minimum horizontal scale of synoptic phenomena are limited to the spacing between surface observation stations. [3] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Synoptic scale meteorology. ... The synoptic scale in meteorology (also known as large scale or cyclonic scale) is a horizontal length scale of the order of 1000 kilometres (about 620 miles) or more [1]. This corresponds to a horizontal scale typical of mid-latitude depressions. ... A guide to the symbols for weather fronts that may be found on a weather map: 1. ... These symbols, showing various weather fronts, might be found on a weather map. ... A technician examines a weather stations anemometer. ...

Annual mean sea surface temperatures.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1550x1075, 265 KB) Annual mean sea surface temperature from the World Ocean Atlas 2001. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1550x1075, 265 KB) Annual mean sea surface temperature from the World Ocean Atlas 2001. ...

Global scale meteorology

The study of weather patterns in this area includes the transport of heat from the tropics to the poles. Also, very large scale oscillations are of extreme importance. Those oscillations have time periods typically longer than a full annual seasonal cycle, such as ENSO, PDO, MJO, etc. Global scale pushes the thresholds of the perception of meteorology into climatology. The traditional definition of climate is pushed in to larger timescales with the further understanding of how the global oscillations cause both climate and weather disturbances in the synoptic and mesoscale timescales. Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) is a global coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. ... PDO can refer to The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a long-lived El Niño-like pattern of Pacific climate variability, which has a great impact on the global ecosystem. ... The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is an equatorial traveling pattern of anomalous rainfall. ...


Numerical Weather Prediction is a main focus in understanding air-sea interaction, tropical meteorology, atmospheric predictability, and tropospheric/stratospheric processes.[4]. Currently, NRL produces the atmospheric model called NOGAPS, a global scale atmospheric model.


Dynamic meteorology

Dynamic meteorology generally focuses on the physics of the atmosphere. The idea of air parcel is used to define the smallest element of the atmosphere, while ignoring the discrete molecular and chemical nature of the atmosphere. An air parcel is defined as a point in the fluid continuum of the atmosphere. The fundamental laws of fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, and motion are used to study the atmosphere. The physical quantities that characterize the state of the atmosphere are temperature, density, pressure, etc. These variables have unique values in the continuum.[5] This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... An air parcel is an imaginary chunk of air in the atmosphere. ...


Aviation meteorology

Aviation meteorology deals with the impact of weather on air traffic management. It is important for air crews to understand the implications of weather on their flight plan as well as their aircraft, as noted by the Aeronautical Information Manual[6]: The Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) is the Federal Aviation Administrations official guide to basic flight information and ATC procedures. ...

The effects of ice on aircraft are cumulative-thrust is reduced, drag increases, lift lessens, and weight increases. The results are an increase in stall speed and a deterioration of aircraft performance. In extreme cases, 2 to 3 inches of ice can form on the leading edge of the airfoil in less than 5 minutes. It takes but 1/2 inch of ice to reduce the lifting power of some aircraft by 50 percent and increases the frictional drag by an equal percentage.[7]

Agricultural meteorology

Meteorologists, soil scientists, agricultural hydrologists, and agronomists are persons concerned with studying the effects of weather and climate on plant distribution, crop yield, water-use efficiency, phenology of plant and animal development, and the energy balance of managed and natural ecosystems. Conversely, they are interested in the role of vegetation on climate and weather.[8]


Hydrometeorology

Hydrometeorology is the branch of meteorology that deals with the hydrologic cycle, the water budget, and the rainfall statistics of storms.[9] A hydrometeorologist prepares and issues forecasts of accumulating (quantitative) precipitation, heavy rain, heavy snow, and highlights areas with the potential for flash flooding. Typically the range of knowledge that is required overlaps with climatology, mesoscale and synoptic meteorology, and other geosciences.[10] Hydrometeorology is a branch of meteorology and hydrology that studies the transfer of water and energy between the land surface and the lower atmosphere. ... The water cycle—technically known as the hydrologic cycle—is the circulation of water within the earths hydrosphere, involving changes in the physical state of water between liquid, solid, and gas phases. ... For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ...


History of meteorology

// Early events 350 BC - Aristotle wrote Meteorology. ...

Observation networks and weather forecasting

The arrival of the electrical telegraph in 1837 afforded, for the first time, a practical method for quickly gathering information on surface weather conditions from over a wide area. This data could be used to produce maps of the state of the atmosphere for a region near the Earth's surface and to study how these states evolved through time. To make frequent weather forecasts based on these data required a reliable network of observations, but it was not until 1849 that the Smithsonian Institute began to establish an observation network across the United States under the leadership of Joseph Henry [11]. Similar observation networks were established in Europe at this time. In 1854, the United Kingdom government appointed Robert FitzRoy to the new office of Meteorological Statist to the Board of Trade with the role of gathering weather observations at sea. FitzRoy's office became the United Kingdom Meteorological Office in 1854, the first national meteorological service in the world. The first daily weather forecasts made by FitzRoy's Office were published in The Times newspaper in 1860. The following year a system was introduced of hoisting storm warning cones at principal ports when a gale was expected. The electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electric signals. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ... Joseph Henry Joseph Henry (December 17, 1797 – May 13, 1878) was a Scottish-American scientist. ... Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy (5 July 1805 – 30 April 1865) achieved lasting fame as the captain of HMS Beagle and as a pioneering meteorologist who made accurate weather forecasting a reality, also proving an able surveyor and hydrographer as well as Governor-General of New Zealand. ... The new building on the edge of Exeter The Met Office (originally an abbreviation for Meteorological Office, but now the official name in itself), which has its headquarters at Exeter in Devon, is the UKs national weather service. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ...


Over the next 50 years many countries established national meteorological services: Finnish Meteorological Central Office (1881) was formed from part of Magnetic Observatory of Helsinki University; India Meteorological Department (1889) established following tropical cyclone and monsoon related famines in the previous decades; United States Weather Bureau (1890) was established under the Department of Agriculture; Australian Bureau of Meteorology (1905) established by a Meteorology Act to unify existing state meteorological services. IMD logo The India Meteorological Department is a government of India organisation that is responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasts, detecting earthquakes etc. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The Bureau of Meteorology is an Australian government organisation responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas. ...


The Coriolis effect

Understanding the kinematics of how exactly the rotation of the Earth affects airflow was partial at first. Late in the 19th century the full extent of the large scale interaction of pressure gradient force and deflecting force that in the end causes air masses to move along isobars was understood. Early in the 20th century this deflecting force was named the Coriolis effect after Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis, who had published in 1835 on the energy yield of machines with rotating parts, such as waterwheels. In 1856, William Ferrel proposed the existence of a circulation cell in the mid-latitudes with air being deflected by the Coriolis force to create the prevailing westerly winds. The pressure gradient force is the force that is usually responsible for accelerating a parcel of air from a high atmospheric pressure region to a low pressure region, resulting in wind. ... In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ... The word isobar derives from the two ancient Greek words, ισος (isos), meaning equal, and βαρος (baros), meaning weight. In meteorology, thermodynamics, and similar science (and engineering), an isobar is a contour line of equal or constant pressure on a graph, plot, or map. ... In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ... Gaspard-Gustave de Coriolis or Gustave Coriolis (May 21, 1792–September 19, 1843), mathematician, mechanical engineer and scientist born in Paris, France. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... William Ferrel This page is about the meteorologist; for the comedian, see Will Ferrell. ... The Ferrel cell is usually shown between the Hadley and Polar cells, e. ...


Numerical weather prediction

A meteorologist at the console of the IBM 7090 in the Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit. c. 1965
A meteorologist at the console of the IBM 7090 in the Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit. c. 1965

In 1904 the Norwegian scientist Vilhelm Bjerknes first postulated that prognostication of the weather is possible from calculations based upon natural laws. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1504x1180, 1132 KB)A meteorologist at the console of the IBM 7090 electronic computer in the Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1504x1180, 1132 KB)A meteorologist at the console of the IBM 7090 electronic computer in the Joint Numerical Weather Prediction Unit. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Vilhelm Bjerknes Vilhelm Friman Koren Bjerknes (March 14, 1862 - April 9, 1951) was a Norwegian physicist and meteorologist who did much to found the modern practice of weather forecasting. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Early in the 20th century, advances in the understanding of atmospheric physics led to the foundation of modern numerical weather prediction. In 1922, Lewis Fry Richardson published `Weather prediction by numerical process` which described how small terms in the fluid dynamics equations governing atmospheric flow could be neglected to allow numerical solutions to be found. However, the sheer number of calculations required was too large to be completed before the advent of computers. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... An example of 500 mb geopotential height prediction from a numerical weather prediction model Numerical weather prediction is the science of predicting the weather using mathematical models of the atmosphere. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Hollyoaks character, see Lewis Richardson (Hollyoaks) Lewis Fry Richardson (October 11, 1881 - September 30, 1953) was an innovative mathematician, physicist and psychologist. ...


At this time in Norway a group of meteorologists led by Vilhelm Bjerknes developed the model that explains the generation, intensification and ultimate decay (the life cycle) of mid-latitude cyclones, introducing the idea of fronts, that is, sharply defined boundaries between air masses. The group included Carl-Gustaf Rossby (who was the first to explain the large scale atmospheric flow in terms of fluid dynamics), Tor Bergeron (who first determined the mechanism by which rain forms) and Jacob Bjerknes. Vilhelm Bjerknes Vilhelm Friman Koren Bjerknes (March 14, 1862 - April 9, 1951) was a Norwegian physicist and meteorologist who did much to found the modern practice of weather forecasting. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... In meteorology, a weather front is a boundary between two air masses with differing characteristics (e. ... In meteorology, an air mass is a large volume of air having fairly uniform characteristics of temperature, atmospheric pressure, and water vapor content. ... Carl-Gustav Arvid Rossby (December 28, 1898 – August 19, 1957) was a Swedish-US meteorologist who first explained the large_scale motions of the atmosphere in terms of fluid mechanics. ... Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of fluid mechanics dealing with fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. ... Tor Bergeron (1891 August 15 - 1977 June 13) is the Swedish meteorologist who proposed a mechanism for the formation of precipitation in clouds. ... This article lacks information on the subject matters importance. ...


Starting in the 1950s, numerical experiments with computers became feasible. The first weather forecasts derived this way used barotropic (that means, single-vertical-level) models, and could successfully predict the large-scale movement of midlatitude Rossby waves, that is, the pattern of atmospheric lows and highs. This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Number (disambiguation). ... BBCs Alex Deakin presenting a weather report. ... A barotropic atmosphere is one in which the density depends only on the pressure, so that isobaric surfaces are also surfaces of constant density. ... Rossby (or planetary) waves are large-scale motions in the ocean or atmosphere whose restoring force is the variation in Coriolis effect with latitude. ... A large low-pressure system swirls off the southwestern coast of Iceland, illustrating the maxim that nature abhors a vacuum. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Anticyclone. ...


In the 1960s, the chaotic nature of the atmosphere was first observed and understood by Edward Lorenz, founding the field of chaos theory. These advances have led to the current use of ensemble forecasting in most major forecasting centers, to take into account uncertainty arising due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere. The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... For other senses of this word, see chaos (disambiguation). ... Edward Norton Lorenz (born May 23, 1917), a research meteorologist at MIT, observed that minute variations in the initial values of variables in his primitive computer weather model (c. ... For other uses, see Chaos Theory (disambiguation). ... Ensemble forecasting is a method used by modern operational forecast centers to account for sensitive dependency on initial conditions. ...


Meteorological equipment

Generally speaking, each science has its own unique sets of laboratory equipment. However, Meteorology is a science short on "lab" equipment and long or wide on field-mode observation equipment, see List of weather instruments. In some aspects this may appear to be nice, but in reality can make simple observations slide on the erroneous side. This is a list of devices used for recording various aspects of the weather. ...


In science, an observation, or observable, is an abstract idea that can be measured and data can be taken. In the atmosphere, there are many things or qualities of the atmosphere that can be measured. Rain, which can be observed, or seen anywhere and anytime was one of the first ones to be measured historically. Also, two other accurately measured qualities were wind and humidity. Neither of these can be seen, but can be felt. The devices to measure these three sprang up in the mid-1400s[12] and were respectively the rain gauge, the anemometer, and the hygrometer.[13] Standard Rain Gauge Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder Close up of a Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder chart A rain gauge (also known as an udometer or a pluviometer) is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation (as opposed... A hemispherical cup anemometer of the type invented in 1846 by John Thomas Romney Robinson An anemometer is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind, and is one instrument used in a weather station. ... The interior of a Stevenson screen showing a motorized psychrometer Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. ...


Surface measurements

Surface measurements are important data sets to meteorologists. They give a snapshot of a variety of weather conditions at one single location, and are usually at a weather station. The measurements taken at a weather station can include any number of atmospheric observables. Usually, temperature, pressure, wind measurements, and humidity are the variables that are typically measured by a thermometer, barometer, anemometer, and hygrometer, respectively. Meteorology is the scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... A technician examines a weather stations anemometer. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... Bold text For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... It has been suggested that List of temperature sensors be merged into this article or section. ... A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... A hemispherical cup anemometer of the type invented in 1846 by John Thomas Romney Robinson An anemometer is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind, and is one instrument used in a weather station. ... The interior of a Stevenson screen showing a motorized psychrometer Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. ...

Satellite image of Hurricane Hugo with a polar low visible at the top of the image.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (576x1315, 430 KB)Hurricane Hugo colorized visible image from NOAA. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (576x1315, 430 KB)Hurricane Hugo colorized visible image from NOAA. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lowest pressure 918 mbar (hPa; 27. ... Polar low over the Barents Sea on February 27, 1987 A polar low is a small-scale, short-lived atmospheric low pressure system (depression) that is found over the ocean areas poleward of the main polar front in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. ...

Remote sensing

Main article: Remote sensing and Radar and satellite imaging

Remote sensing, as used in Meteorology, is simply the concept of collecting data from remote weather events and subsequently producing weather information. The common types of remote sensing are Radar, Lidar, and satellites (or photogrammetry). Each passively collects data about the atmosphere from a remote location and, usually, stores the data where the instrument is located. However, some argue that both RADAR and LIDAR are not passive because both use EM radiation to illuminate a specific portion of the atmosphere.[14] On the other hand, anyone has yet to provide verifiable information that exclude these two methods from the passive category. For the purported psychic ability to sense remotely, see Remote viewing right Synthetic aperture radar image of Death Valley colored using polarimetry In the broadest sense, remote sensing is the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real... It has been suggested that multiple sections of steam be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... Photogrammetry is a remote sensing technology in which geometric properties about objects are determined from photographic images. ... Electromagnetic radiation or EM radiation is a combination (cross product) of oscillating electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to each other, moving through space as a wave, effectively transporting energy and momentum. ...


Satellite observation

The 1960 launch of the first successful weather satellite, TIROS-1, marked the beginning of the age where weather information is available globally. Weather satellites along with more general-purpose Earth-observing satellites circling the earth at various altitudes have become an indispensable tool for studying a wide range of phenomena from forest fires to El Niño. GOES-8, a United States weather satellite. ... First TV image of Earth from space TIROS-1 (or TIROS-I) was the first successful weather satellite, and the first of a series of TIROS satellites. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ...


In recent years, climate models have been developed that feature a resolution comparable to older weather prediction models. These climate models are used to investigate long-term climate shifts, such as what effects might be caused by human emission of greenhouse gases. Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


Weather forecasting

Main article: Weather forecasting
A meteorologist at work at the Storm Prediction Center in Norman, OK.
Part of the Nature series on
Weather
 
Seasons
Temperate

SpringSummer
AutumnWinter
Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Weather map of Europe, 10 December 1887 Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. ... Image File history File links Dennis McCarthy, Norman WSFO meteorologist in charge, issues warnings by ham radio at about 11 PM on May 3, 1999. ... Image File history File links Dennis McCarthy, Norman WSFO meteorologist in charge, issues warnings by ham radio at about 11 PM on May 3, 1999. ... The Storm Prediction Center, located in Norman, Oklahoma, is part of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), operating under the control of the National Weather Service, which in turn is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. government. ... “Natural” redirects here. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ...

Tropical

Dry season
Wet season The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A wet season or rainy season is a season in which the average rainfall in a region is significantly increased. ...

Storms

ThunderstormTornado
Tropical Cyclone (Hurricane)
Winter stormBlizzard For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ... A thunderstorm, also called an electrical storm or lightning storm, is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its attendant thunder produced from a cumulonimbus cloud. ... A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... A typical view of a winter storm. ... Look up Blizzard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Precipitation

FogDrizzleRain
Freezing rainSleet
HailSnow Golden Gate Bridge in Fog Evening fog obscures Londons Tower Bridge from passers by. ... Drizzle is fairly steady, light precipitation. ... Rain is a type of precipitation, a product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that is deposited on the earths surface. ... Freezing Rain is a type of precipitation. ... Sleet is a term used in a variety of ways to describe precipitation intermediate between rain and snow but distinct from hail. ... This article is about the precipitation. ... Snow is a type of precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. ...

Topics

Meteorology
Weather forecasting
ClimateAir pollution This page has a list of meteorology topics. ... Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Weather map of Europe, 10 December 1887 Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ...

Portal · Project  v  d  e 

Although meteorologists now rely heavily on computer models (numerical weather prediction), it is still relatively common to use techniques and conceptual models that were developed before computers were powerful enough to make predictions accurately or efficiently (generally speaking, prior to around 1980). Many of these methods are used to determine how much skill a forecaster has added to the forecast (for example, how much better than persistence or climatology did the forecast do?). Similarly, they could also be used to determine how much skill the industry as a whole has gained with emerging technologies and techniques.

  • Persistence method[15]

The persistence method assumes that conditions will not change. Often summarised as "Tomorrow equals today". This method works best over short periods of time in stagnant weather regimes. This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...

  • Extrapolation method

The extrapolation method assumes that atmospheric systems will propagate at similar speeds in the near future to those seen in the past. This method achieves the best results when diurnal changes in the pressure and precipitation patterns are taken into account. Diurnal may mean: in biology, a diurnal animal is an animal that is active in the daytime. ...

  • Numerical forecasting method

The numerical weather prediction or NWP[16] method uses computers to take into account a large number of variables and creates a computer model of the atmosphere. This is most successful when used with the methods below, and when model biases and relative skill are taken into account. In general, the ECMWF model outperforms the NCEP ensemble mean, which outperforms the UKMET/GFS model after 72 hours, which outperform in the NAM model at most time frames. This performance changes when tropical cyclones are taken into account, as the ECMWF/model ensemble methods/model consensus/GFS/UKMET/NOGAPS/ all perform exceedingly well, with the NAM and Canadian GEM exhibiting lower accuracy. An example of 500 mb geopotential height prediction from a numerical weather prediction model Numerical weather prediction is the science of predicting the weather using mathematical models of the atmosphere. ...

  • Consensus/ensemble methods of forecasting

Statistically, it is difficult to beat the mean solution, and the consensus and ensemble methods of forecasting take advantage of the situation by only favoring models that have the greatest support with their ensemble means or other pieces of global model guidance. A local Hydrometeorological Prediction Center study showed that using this method alone verifies 50-55% of the time. The Hydrometeorological Prediction Center is one of several Service Centers under the umbrella of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), operating under the control of the National Weather Service, which in turn is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. government. ...

The trends method involves determining the change in fronts and high and low pressure centers in the model runs over various lengths of time. If the trend is seen over a long enough time frame (24 hours or so), it is more meaningful. The forecast models have been known to overtrend however, so use of this method verifies 55-60% the time, more so in the surface pattern than aloft. A guide to the symbols for weather fronts that may be found on a weather map: 1. ...

  • Climatology/Analog method[18]

The 'climatology or analog method involves using historical weather data collected over long periods of time (years) to predict conditions on a given date. A variation on this theme is the use of teleconnections, which rely upon the date and the expected position of other positive or negative 500 hPa height anomalies to give someone an impression of what the overall pattern would look like with this anomaly in place, and is of more significant help than a model trend since it verifies roughly 75 percent of the time, when used properly and with a stable anomaly center. Another variation is the use of standard deviations from climatology in various meteorological fields. Once the pattern deviates more than 4-5 sigmas from climatology, it becomes an improbable solution.


Atmospheric dynamics

Main article: Atmospheric dynamics

Atmospheric dynamics is the study of the forces that result in the changing motions of air within the Earths atmosphere. ... In the physical sciences, atmospheric thermodynamics is the study of heat and energy transformations in the earth’s atmospheric system. ...

Atmospheric layers

Main article: Atmospheric layers

Layers of Atmosphere—not to scale (NOAA) [1] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ...

Atmospheric circulation

Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and the means (together with the ocean circulation, which is smaller [1]) by which heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth. ...

Atmospheric patterns and oscillations

Madden-Julian oscillation ENSO Walker circulation 5-day running mean of MJO. Note how it moves eastward with time. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) is a global coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. ... The Walker circulation is an atmospheric circulation of air at the equatorial Pacific Ocean, responsible for creating ocean upwelling off the coasts of Peru and Ecuador. ...


Atmospheric modelling

Main article: Atmospheric models

Atmospheric models are mathematical representations of the atmosphere, generally for the Earth. ...

Observational meteorology

Meteorological topics and phenomena

Links to other keywords in meteorology

Atmospheric conditions: Absolute stable air | Temperature inversion | Dine's compensation | precipitation | Cyclone | anticyclone | Thermal | Tropical cyclone (hurricane or typhoon) | Vertical draft | Extratropical cyclone Absolute stable air is an atmospheric condition that exists when the environmental lapse rate is less than the moist adiabatic lapse rate. ... Smoke rising in Lochcarron is stopped by an overlying layer of warmer air. ... Dines Compensation states that net mass convergence into a given column of air must be balanced by a net mass divergence from the same column of air. ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ... In meteorology, an anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon in which there is a descending movement of the air and a high pressure area over the part of the planets surface affected by it. ... Example of a thermal column between the ground and a cumulus This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... It has been suggested that Thermal be merged into this article or section. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ...


Weather forecasting: atmospheric pressure | Low pressure area | High pressure area | dew point | weather front | jet stream | windchill | heat index | Theta-e | primitive equations | Pilot Reports Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Weather map of Europe, 10 December 1887 Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... A large low-pressure system swirls off the southwestern coast of Iceland, illustrating the maxim that nature abhors a vacuum. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Anticyclone. ... Dew on a spider web The dew point (or dewpoint) of a given parcel of air is the temperature to which the parcel must be cooled, at constant barometric pressure, for water vapor to condense into water, called dew. ... A guide to the symbols for weather fronts that may be found on a weather map: 1. ... Jet streams are fast flowing, relatively narrow air currents found in the atmosphere at around 12 km above the surface of the Earth, just under the tropopause. ... Wind chill is the apparent temperature felt on the exposed human (or animal) body due to the combination of air temperature and wind speed. ... The heat index (HI) or humidex is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to determine an apparent temperature — how hot it actually feels. ... Equivalent potential temperature, commonly referred to as Theta-e , is a measure of the instability of air at a given pressure, humidity, and temperature. ... The primitive equations are a version of the Navier-Stokes equations that describe hydrodynamical flow on the sphere under the assumptions that vertical motion is much smaller than horizontal motion (hydrostasis) and that the fluid layer depth is small compared to the radius of the sphere. ... A Pilot Report (PIREP) is a report of weather conditions encountered by an aircraft during a flight. ...


Storm: thunderstorm | lightning | thunder | hail | tornado | convection | blizzard | supercell For other uses, see Storm (disambiguation). ... A thunderstorm, also called an electrical storm or lightning storm, is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its attendant thunder produced from a cumulonimbus cloud. ... For information on lightning precautions, see Lightning safety. ... Thunder is the sound made by lightning. ... This article is about the precipitation. ... A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the internal movement of currents within fluids (i. ... Look up Blizzard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Satellite view of a supercell A supercell is a severe thunderstorm with a deep rotating updraft (a mesocyclone) [1]. Supercell thunderstorms are the largest, most severe class of single-cell thunderstorms. ...


Climate: El Niño | monsoon | flood | drought | Global warming | Effect of sun angle on climate. Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... Bold text[[ // [[Image:Media:Example. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... Figure 1 This is a diagram of the seasons. ...


Air Pollution: Air pollution dispersion modeling | Compilation of atmospheric dispersion models | Smog Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... Atmospheric dispersion models are computer programs that use mathematical algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse and, in some cases, how they react in the atmosphere. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ...


Other phenomena: deposition | dust devil | fog | tide | wind | cloud | air mass | evaporation | sublimation | ice | crepuscular rays | anticrepuscular rays Deposition is the process by which, in sub-freezing air, water vapor changes directly to ice without first becoming a liquid. ... Dust devil in Johnsonville, South Carolina. ... Golden Gate Bridge in Fog Evening fog obscures Londons Tower Bridge from passers by. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... Bold text For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... hello--~~~~fake <gallery> poos[[kill]] </gallery> For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ... In meteorology, an air mass is a large volume of air having fairly uniform characteristics of temperature, atmospheric pressure, and water vapor content. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. ... All Sky Crepuscular Rays Crepuscular rays at sunset Crepuscular rays at Telstra Tower, Canberra Mid afternoon rays 1 Rays in San Francisco Crepuscular Rays at Ocean Beach, San Francisco Crepuscular rays, in atmospheric optics, also known as sun rays or Gods rays, are rays of sunlight that appear to... Anticrepuscular rays are similar to crepuscular rays, but seen opposite the sun in the sky. ...


Weather-related disasters: weather disasters | extreme weather Weather disasters are disasters caused by rain, snow or wind that cause notable damage, loss of property, and loss of life. ... Trends in natural disasters, Pascal Peduzzi (2004) Is climate change increasing the frequency of hazardous events? Environment Times UNEP/GRID-Arendal Extreme weather includes weather phenomena that are at the extremes of the historical distribution, especially severe or unseasonal weather. ...


Climatic or Atmospheric Patterns: Alberta clipper | El Niño | Derecho | Gulf Stream | La Niña | Jet stream | North Atlantic Oscillation | Madden-Julian oscillation | Pacific decadal oscillation | Pineapple Express | Sirocco | Siberian Express | Walker circulation This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... A derecho is a widespread and long-lived, violent convectively induced windstorm that is associated with a fast-moving band of severe thunderstorms usually taking the form of a bow echo. ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... El Niño is also the nickname of Sergio García. ... Jet streams are fast flowing, relatively narrow air currents found in the atmosphere at around 12 km above the surface of the Earth, just under the tropopause. ... The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is a complex climatic phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean (especially associated with fluctuations of climate between Iceland and the Azores). ... 5-day running mean of MJO. Note how it moves eastward with time. ... The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a pattern of Pacific climate variability that shifts phases on at least inter-decadal time scale, usually about 20 to 30 years. ... The Pineapple Express is a Pacific Ocean subtropical jet stream that brings warm moist air from Hawaii (where pineapples are grown) to the U.S. West Coast states of California, Oregon, and Washington, as well as the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... Sirocco, scirocco, jugo or, rarely, siroc is a strong southerly to southeasterly wind in the Mediterranean that originates from the Sahara and similar North African regions. ... The Siberian Express is an area of very cold air that originates in Siberia. ... The Walker circulation is an atmospheric circulation of air at the equatorial Pacific Ocean, responsible for creating ocean upwelling off the coasts of Peru and Ecuador. ...

Institutions of meteorology/atmospheric science

The following is a list of meteorology institutions around the world: // Australian Bureau of Meteorology Chatham-Kent Meteorology Commission Meteorological Service of Canada China Meteorological Agency Danish Meteorological Institute DMI Deutscher Wetterdienst (Germany) DWD Direcção dos Serviços Meteorológicos e Geofísicos (Macau) Environment Canada Weather Office Finnish...

See also

Weather Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1754x2646, 2231 KB) Rooster Weather Vane photographer: Arne Koehler File links The following pages link to this file: Weather vane ... This page has a list of meteorology topics. ... This is a list of devices used for recording various aspects of the weather. ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... Density lines and isobars cross in a baroclinic fluid (top). ... hello--~~~~fake <gallery> poos[[kill]] </gallery> For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the internal movement of currents within fluids (i. ... In meteorology, convective available potential energy (CAPE) is the amount of energy a parcel of air would have if lifted a certain distance vertically through the atmosphere. ... Convective inhibition (CIN or CINH) is a meteorlogic parameter that measures the amount of energy that will prevent an air parcel from rising from the surface to the level of free convection. ... Dew on a spider web The dew point (or dewpoint) of a given parcel of air is the temperature to which the parcel must be cooled, at constant barometric pressure, for water vapor to condense into water, called dew. ... The heat index (HI) or humidex is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to determine an apparent temperature — how hot it actually feels. ... Heat Index (HI) is an index that combines air temperature and relative humidity to determine an apparent temperature &#8212; how hot it actually feels. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The lifted index (LI) is the temperature difference between an air parcel lifted adiabatically and the temperature of the environment at a pressure height in the atmosphere, usually 500 hPa (mb). ... For information on lightning precautions, see Lightning safety. ... The potential temperature of a parcel of air at pressure is the temperature that the parcel would acquire if adiabatically brought to a standard reference pressure , usually 1 bar. ... Annual mean sea surface temperature for the World Ocean. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... A surface weather analysis for the United States on October 21, 2006. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Equivalent potential temperature, commonly referred to as Theta-e , is a measure of the instability of air at a given pressure, humidity, and temperature. ... In Meteorology, ability is a measure of the nothingness at which an object or light can be seen. ... Vorticity is a mathematical concept used in fluid dynamics. ... Wind chill is the apparent temperature felt on the exposed human (or animal) body due to the combination of air temperature and wind speed. ... It has been suggested that multiple sections of steam be merged into this article or section. ... Bold text For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... A hemispherical cup anemometer of the type invented in 1846 by John Thomas Romney Robinson An anemometer is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind, and is one instrument used in a weather station. ... A barograph is a recording aneroid barometer. ... A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... A ceiling balloon cabinet A fully inflated ceiling balloon Diagram of a filler stand Regulator valve and pressure guages attached to helium cylinder A ceiling balloon is used by meteorologists to determine the height of the base of clouds above ground level during daylight hours. ... Ceiling projector exterior Interior of a ceiling projector Alidade for use with a ceiling projector The ceiling projector or cloud searchlight is used to measure the height of the base of clouds (called the ceiling) above the ground. ... Laser Ceilometer A ceilometer is a device using a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud base. ... Dark adaptor goggles The Dark adaptor goggles are one of the lesser known tools in the field of meteorology. ... A disdrometer is an instrument used to measure the drop size distribution and velocity of falling precipitation. ... Field mill is a specialized instrument used for measuring the strength of electrical fields in the atmosphere near thunderstrom clouds. ... The interior of a Stevenson screen showing a motorized psychrometer Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. ... Standard Ice Accretion Indicator (upside down) The Ice Accretion Indicator is an L-shaped piece of aluminium 38 cm (14. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lightning detector at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. ... A nephelometer is an instrument for measuring suspended particulates in a liquid. ... Nephoscope is instrument for measuring the altitude, direction, and velocity of movement of clouds. ... A pyranometer is a type of actinometer used to measure broadband solar irradiance on a planar surface. ... radiosonde with measuring instruments A radiosonde (Sonde is German for probe) is a unit for use in weather balloons that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them to a fixed receiver. ... Standard Rain Gauge Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder Close up of a Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder chart A rain gauge (also known as an udometer or a pluviometer) is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation (as opposed... Snow Gauge A snow gauge is a meteorological instrument used to record the depth of snowfall at a specific location. ... SODAR (sonic detection and ranging) - meteorological instrument which priciple of operation is based on sound waves scattering by atmosheric turbulence. ... A solarimeter is a pyranometer used to measure combined direct and diffuse solar radiation. ... A sounding rocket, sometimes called an elevator research rocket, is an instrument-carrying suborbital rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its flight. ... Exterior of a Stevenson screen Interior of a Stevenson screen A Stevenson screen or Instrument shelter is a meteorological screen to shield instruments against precipitation and direct heat radiation from outside sources, while still allowing air to circulate freely around them. ... Sunshine Recorders are used to indicate the amount of sunshine at a given location. ... A thermograph is a recording thermometer. ... It has been suggested that List of temperature sensors be merged into this article or section. ... Rawinsonde weather balloon just after launch. ... Weather radar in Norman, Oklahoma with rainshaft (Source: NOAA) Environment Canada King City (CWKR) weather radar station. ... Weather vane Weather cock Aerovane A weather vane, also called a wind vane, is a movable device attached to an elevated object such as a roof for showing the direction of the wind. ... A windsock is a large, conical, open-ended tube designed to indicate wind direction and relative wind speed. ... A wind profiler is a piece of weather observing equipment that uses sound waves to detect the wind speed and direction at various elevations above the ground. ... Argo is a network of oceanic robotic probes coverig the Earths oceans, with a total of 3000 probes planned. ... Global Atmosphere Watchs logo The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization – a United Nations agency – to monitor trends in the Earths atmosphere. ... Aircraft Shyamala Communication Addressing and Reporting System (or ACARS) is a digital datalink system for transmission of small messages between aircraft and ground stations via radio or satellite. ... Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) is a program initiated by the World Meteorological Organization. ... An aircraft report (AIREP), colloquially air report, is a message from an in-flight aircraft to a ground station. ... An AWS in Antarctica An automatic weather station (AWS) is an automated version of the traditional weather station, either to save human labour or to enable measurements from remote areas. ... The Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) and the older Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) are sensors used to measure and record hourly and significant weather conditions at airports across the United States. ... The Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) is a meteorological observation network along the coastal United States. ... Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) is a Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commissions program whose purpose is to measure the sea level globally for long term climate change studies. ... METAR (for METeorological Aerodrome Report) is a format for reporting weather information. ... NEXRAD Radar at NSSL NEXRAD or Nexrad (Next-Generation Radar) is a network of 158 high-resolution Doppler radars operated by the National Weather Service, an agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in the United States. ... A pilot report or PIREP is a report of actual weather conditions encountered by an aircraft in flight. ... The Remote Automated Weather Stations (RAWS) system is a network of weather stations run by the U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management and monitored by the National Interagency Fire Center, mainly to observe potential wildfire conditions. ... Annual mean sea surface temperature for the World Ocean. ... TAMDAR (Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting) is a weather monitoring system that utilizes sensors mounted on ordinary commercial aircraft for data gathering. ... A tide gauge is a device for measuring sea level and detecting tsunamis. ... Weather buoys are instruments which collect weather and ocean data within the worlds oceans. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... A dropsonde is a weather reconnaissance device designed to be dropped from an airplane or similar craft at altitude to measure telemetry as the device falls to the ground. ... Rawinsonde weather balloon just after launch. ... Aqua (EOS PM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth, studying the precipitation, evaporation, and cycling of water. ... Aura spacecraft Aura is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth, studying the Earths ozone, air quality and climate. ... Clouds and the Earths Radiant Energy System (CERES) is an on-going NASA metereological experiment in Earth orbit. ... COSMIC is also a code name used to label NATO classified information. ... An artist’s impression showing one of the Block 5D-2 spacecraft in orbit. ... The Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) consists of five remote-sensing satellites constructed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) and operated for the Algerian, Nigerian, Turkish, British and Chinese governments by DMC International Imaging. ... Model of Envisat The Envisat (Environmental Satellite) satellite is an Earth-observing satellite built by the European Space Agency. ... EROS satellites are high performance, low cost, light, highly maneuverable high-resolution observation satellites. ... The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) program is a key element in United States National Weather Service (NWS) operations. ... Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS), is an instrument on board the European satellite Envisat launched 1st March 2002. ... The goal of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) space mission is to obtain accurate global and high-resolution determination of both the static and the time-variable components of the Earths gravity field. ... Hydros was to provide the first global view of the Earths changing soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw conditions, enabling new scientific studies of global change and atmospheric predictability, and making new hydrologic applications possible. ... ICESat (Courtesy NASA) ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite), part of NASAs Earth Observing System, is a satellite mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. ... IKONOS is a commercial earth observation satellite that collects high-resolution imagery at 1- and 4-meter resolution. ... The Jason 1 satellite altimeter is a science project to measure the ocean surface topography, and the successor to the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. ... The Landsat program is the longest running enterprise for acqusition of imagery of Earth from space. ... MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) is one of the main instruments on-board the European Space Agency (ESA)s Envisat platform. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Meteor craft are weather observation satellites launched by the USSR. The Meteor satellites were designed to monitor atmospheric and sea-surface temperatures, humidity, radiation, sea ice conditions, snow-cover, and clouds. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A Microwave Limb Sounder measures (naturally-occurring) microwave thermal emission from the limb (edge) of Earths upper atmosphere. ... The Envisat (Environmental Satellite) satellite is an Earth-observing satellite built by the European Space Agency. ... Ash plumes on Kamchatka Peninsula, eastern Russia MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a payload scientific instrument launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. ... Categories: Stub ... MTSAT are a series of weather and aviation control satellites. ... NASAs New Millennium program is focused on engineering validation of new technologies for space applications. ... NOAA-N is a weather satellite belonging to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States. ... The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) is the United States next-generation satellite system that will monitor the Earths weather, atmosphere, oceans, land and near-space environment. ... Categories: Japan geography stubs | Old provinces of Japan ... The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder Project (ESSP) mission designed to make precise, time-dependent global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from an Earth orbiting satellite. ... PARASOL is a French built Earth observing research satellite. ... QuickBird is a high-resolution commercial earth observation satellite, owned by DigitalGlobe, that was launched in 2001. ... The QuikSCAT (Quick Scatterometer) is an earth-observing satellite that provides wind speed and direction information over oceans to NOAA.It is a quick recovery mission to fill the gap created by the loss of data from the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) that was lost in June 1997. ... RADARSAT-1 is Canadas first commercial Earth observation satellite. ... SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY; greek: σκιάμάχη: analogously: Fighting shadows) is one of ten instruments aboard of ESAs ENVIronmental SATellite, ENVISAT. SCIAMACHY is a satellite spectrometer designed to measure sunlight, transmitted, reflected and scattered by the earth atmosphere or surface in the ultraviolet, visible and near infrared... SeaWiFS stands for Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor. ... The Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) is a NASA-sponsored satellite mission that provides state-of-the-art measurements of incoming x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and total solar radiation. ... SPOT (Satellite Pour lObservation de la Terre) refers to a series of commercial earth observation satellites launched by the French Space Agency CNES (Centre National dEtudes Spatiales). ... Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer or TES is a satellite instrument designed to measure the state of the earths troposphere. ... TerraSAR-X is an Earth observation satellite, built and operated by the German Aerospace Center and EADS Astrium. ... Terra (EOS AM-1) is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in orbit around the Earth. ... Artist conception of the TRMM satellite. ... GOES-8, a United States weather satellite. ... European Remote-Sensing satellite (ERS) was the European Space Agencys first Earth-observing satellite. ... The Nimbus satellites were second-generation U.S. unmanned spacecraft for meteorological research and development. ... Vanguard Rocket Project Vanguard was the name given to the first United States program that was commissioned to design and launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit. ... Seasat (Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech) Seasat was the first Earth-orbiting satellite designed for remote sensing of the Earths oceans and had onboard the first spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). ... The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimeter is a science project to measure the ocean surface topography. ... TIROS, or Television Infrared Observation Satellite, was a series of early weather satellites launched by NASA, beginning with TIROS-1 in 1960. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ Garratt, J.R., The atmospheric boundary layer, Cambridge University Press, 1992; ISBN 0-521-38052-9.
  2. ^ Online Glossary of Meteorology, American Meteorological Society [1] ,2nd Ed., 2000, Allen Press.
  3. ^ Bluestein, H., Synoptic-Dynamic Meteorology in Midlatitudes: Principles of Kinematics and Dynamics, Vol. 1, Oxford Unversity Press, 1992; ISBN 0-19-506267-1
  4. ^ Global Modelling, US Naval Research Laboratory, Monterrey, Ca.
  5. ^ Holton, J.R. [2004]. An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 4th Ed., Burlington, Md: Elsevier Inc.. ISBN 0-12-354015-1.
  6. ^ An international version called the Aeronautical Information Publication contains parallel information, as well as specific information on the international airports for use by the international community.
  7. ^ "7-1-22. PIREPs Relating to Airframe Icing", [February 16, 2006], Aeronautical Information Manual, FAA AIM Online
  8. ^ Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Elsevier,ISSN: 0168-1923.
  9. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, 2007.
  10. ^ About the HPC, NOAA/ National Weather Service, National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, Camp Springs, Maryland, 2007.
  11. ^ http://www.si.edu/archives/ihd/jhp/joseph03.htm
  12. ^ See Timeline of meteorology.
  13. ^ It should be noted that many attempts had been made prior to the 1400s to construct adequate equipment to measure the many atmospheric variables. Many were faulty in some way or were simply not reliable. Even Aristotle notes this in some of his work; as the difficulty to measure the air.
  14. ^ Peebles, Peyton, [1998], Radar Principles, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-471-25205-0.
  15. ^ The Online Meteorology Guide, Module:Weather Forecasting; Department of Atmospheric Sciences (DAS) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  16. ^ The Online Meteorology Guide
  17. ^ The Online Meteorology Guide
  18. ^ The Online Meteorology Guide


hihihihihihihihihihihihihihihihihihihihi The International Standard Book Number, or ISBN (sometimes pronounced is-ben), is a unique[1] identifier for books, intended to be used commercially. ... The American Meteorological Society promotes the development and dissemination of information and education on the atmospheric and related oceanic and hydrologic sciences and the advancement of their professional applications. ... The International Standard Book Number, or ISBN (sometimes pronounced is-ben), is a unique[1] identifier for books, intended to be used commercially. ... Aeronautical Information Publication (or AIP) is defined by ICAO as a publication issued by or with the authority of a state and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation. ... The Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) is the Federal Aviation Administrations official guide to basic flight information and ATC procedures. ... // Early events 350 BC - Aristotle wrote Meteorology. ...


External links

Please see weather forecasting for weather forecast sites. Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage Weather map of Europe, 10 December 1887 Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. ...

Satellite imagery:

Base Reflectivity (Radar):

Meteorology during Solar Eclipse

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